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+T. E. PAGE, c.H., Lrrr.D. 
FE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. ΤΥ. H. Ὁ. ROUSE, tirv.p. 









First PRINTED . 1940 
REPRINTED . 1948, 1956, 1964 


Printed in Great Britain at The University Press, Aberdeen 


INTRODUCTION . - Ξ Β Ξ - . val 
The Life of Manetho: Traditions and Con- 
jectures . Ξ : 5 - 5 ΕΙΣ 
Manetho’s Works . Ξ ᾿ Ξ : EXE; 
The History of Egypt . : - . SVs 
Possible Sources of the Alyumriaxa ὅ see 
Other Works attributed to Manetho . . XXvi 
The Book of Séthis : ᾿ 5 . . XXVii 
BIBLIOGRAPHY . : é : - = ΣΧ 
List oF ABBREVIATED TITLES . e - χχχὶ 
Epiror’s Note. 3 - - - - Xxxii 
Tue History oF E@ypPT . 5 - - 1-187 
THe SacrED Boor . ; : ᾿ ὃ . 188 
An EpiroME or PuHysicat DoctrrINEs 3 3196 
On FESTIVALS . 3 ᾿ 4 : Ἀ 108 
On THE MAKING oF KyYPHI : - : «202 
(Criticisms oF HERODOTUS] - ξ . . 204 
a II., ERATOSTHENES (?) . . ab 
» ". ΠῚ, THe Oxtp CHRONICLE . = . 226 
»  1V., THe Boox or S6ruis . - . 234 
Map or Eeyert . ' 5 ᾿ - : ~ 1250 
IntustTRATIONS: Puates I-IV . - . facing 250 

INDEX 5 . ; . Fs 2 A 201 

Hermes Trismegistus speaks : 

O Aegypte, Aegypte, religionum tuarum solae 
supererunt fabulae, eaeque incredibiles posteris tuis ; 
solaque supererunt verba lapidibus incisa, tua pia 
facta narrantibus. [Ὁ Egypt, Egypt, of thy re- 
ligious rites nought will survive but idle tales which 
thy children’s children will not believe ; nought will 
survive but words graven upon stones that tell of 
thy piety.”’] 

The Latin Asclepius III. 25, in W. Scott, Her- 
metica, i. 1924, p. 342. 

* * * * * * * 

“Never has there arisen a more complicated 
problem than that of Manetho.”’ 

—Boecku, Manetho und die Hundssternperiode, 
1845, p. 10. 


Amonc the Egyptians who wrote in Greek, Manetho 
the priest holds a unique place because of his com- 
paratively early date (the third century B.c.) and 
the interest of his subject-matter—the history and 
religion of Ancient Egypt. His works in their 
original form would possess the highest importance 
and value for us now, if only we could recover them ; 
but until the fortunate discovery of a papyrus, 
which will transmit the authentic Manetho, we 
can know his writings only from fragmentary and 
often distorted quotations preserved chiefly by 
Josephus and by the Christian chronographers, 
Africanus and Eusebius, with isolated passages in 
Plutarch, Theophilus, Aelian, Porphyrius, Diogenes 
Laertius, Theodoretus, Lydus, Malalas, the Scholia to 
Plato, and the Etymologicum Magnum. 

Like Béréssos, who is of slightly earlier date, 
Manetho testifies to the growth of an international 

1F, Bilabel (in P. Baden 4. 1924, No. 59: see also 
Die Kleine Historiker, Fragm. 11) published a papyrus 
of the fifth century after Christ containing a list of Persian 
kings with the years of their reigns (see further Fr. 70, 
note 1), and holds it to be, not part of the original Epitome, 
but a version made from it before the time of Africanus. 
It certainly proves that Egyptians were interested in 
Greek versions of the Kings’ Lists, and much more so, 
presumably, in the unabridged Manetho. See Fr. 2 for 
Panodérus and Annianus, who were monks in Egypt 
about the date of this papyrus. Cf. also P. Hibeh, i. 27, 
the Calendar of Sais, translated into Greek in the reign 
of Ptolemy Sdter, 1.6. early in the lifetime of Manetho. 



spirit in the Alexandrine age: each of these 
‘“‘ barbarians ” wrote in Greek an account of his 
native country; and it stirs the imagination to 
think of their endeavour to bridge the gulf and 
instruct all Greek-speaking people (that is to say 
the whole civilized world of their time) in the history 
of Egypt and Chaldaea. But these two writers 
stand alone :! the Greeks indeed wrote from time to 
time of the wonders of Egypt (works no longer 
extant), but it was long before an Egyptian successor 
of Manetho appeared—Ptolemy of Mendés,* prob- 
ably under Augustus. 

The writings of Manetho, however, continued to 

1cf. ΝΥΝ. ΝΥ. Tarn on Ptolemy II. in the Journal of 
Egyptian Archaeology, 1928, xiv. p. 254: (Activity at 
Alexandria had no effect at all on Egyptians) ‘‘ Ptolemy 
Séter had thought for a moment that Egyptians might 
participate in the intellectual activities of Alexandria: 
. . . but, though Manetho dedicated his work to Ptolemy 
II., in this reign all interest in native Egypt was dropped, 
and a little later Alexandria appears as merely an object 
of hatred to many Egyptians. (Its destruction is pro- 
phesied in the Potter’s Oracle.)’’ (See p. 123 n. 1.) 

The complete isolation of Manetho and Béréssos is the 
chief argument of Ernest Havet against the authenticity 
of these writers (Mémoire sur les écrits qui portent les 
noms de Bérose et de Manéthon, Paris, 1873). He regards 
the double tradition as curious and extraordinary— 
there is no other name to set beside these two Oriental 
priests; and he suspects the symmetry of the tradition 
—each wrote three books for a king. Cf. Croiset, His- 
toire de la Lattérature Grecque, v. p. 99; Abridged History 
of Greek Literature, English translation, p. 429 (Manetho’s 
works were probably written by a Hellenized Oriental 
at the end of the second century B.c.); and F. A. Wright, 
Later Greek Literature, p. 60. 

5. See p. x. 



be read with interest ; and his Egyptian History was 
used for special purposes, e.g. by the Jews when they 
engaged in polemic against Egyptians in order to 
prove their extreme antiquity. (See further pp. 
xvi ff.) Manetho’s religious writings are known to 
us mainly through references in Plutarch’s treatise 
On Isis and Osiris. 

The Life of Manetho: Traditions and Conjectures. 

Our knowledge of Manetho is for the most part 
meagre and uncertain; but three statements of 
great probability may be made. They concern his 
native place, his priesthood at Héliopolis, and his 
activity in the introduction of the cult of Serapis. 

The name Manetho (MaveOos, often written 
Mavé$wv) has been explained as meaning “ Truth 
of Théth ”, and a certain priest under Dynasty XIX. 
is described as “ First Priest of the Truth of Thoth ”.1 
According to Dr. Cerny? ‘‘ Manetho” is from the 
Coptic UANGeTO “ groom” (UANE “ herdsman”, 
and ero “ horse’); but the word does not seem to 
occur elsewhere as a proper name. In regard to the 
date of Manetho, Syncellus in one passage * gives us 
the information that he lived later than Béréssos : 
elsewhere * he puts Manetho as “ almost contempor- 
ary with Béréssos, or a little later”. Bérdssos, who 

1W. Spiegelberg, Orient. Literaturz. xxxi. 1928, col. 
145 ff., xxxil. 1929, col. 321 f. Older explanations of the 
name Manetho were ‘Gift of Théth,’’ ‘‘ Beloved of 
Théth,” and “ Beloved of Neith”’. 

*Tn the centenary volume of the Vatican Museum: I owe 

this reference to the kindness of Dr. Alan H. Gardiner. 
8 Manetho, Fr. 3. 4 Syncellus, p. 26. 


was priest of Marduk at Babylon, lived under, and 
wrote for, Antiochus I. whose reign lasted from 285 
to 261 B.c.; and Béréssos dedicated his Xaddaixa 
to this king after he became sole monarch in 281 B.c. 
The works of Manetho and Béréssos may be in- 
terpreted as an expression of the rivalry of the two 
kings, Ptolemy and Antiochus, each seeking to pro- 
claim the great antiquity of his land. 

Under the name of Manetho, Suidas seems to 
distinguish two writers: (1) Manetho of Mendés in 
Egypt, a chief priest who wrote on the making of 
kyphi (i.e. Fr. 87): (2) Manetho of Diospolis or 
Sebennytus. (Works): A Treatise on Physical 
Doctrines (i.e. Fr. 82, 83). Apotelesmatica (or 
Astrological Influences), in hexameter verses, and 
other astrological works. (See p. xiv, note 3.) No- 
where else is Manetho connected with Mendés; but 
as Mendés was distant only about 17 miles from 
Sebennytus across the Damietta arm of the Nile, 
the attribution is not impossible. Miiller suspects 
confusion with Ptolemy of Mendés, an Egyptian 
priest (probably in the time of Augustus), who, like 
Manetho, wrote a work on Egyptian Chronology in 
three books. In the second note of Suidas Diospolis 
may be identified, not with Diospolis Magna (the 
famous Thebes) nor with Diospolis Parva, but with 
Diospolis Inferior, in the Delta (now Tell el-Balamin), 
the capital of the Diospolite or 17th nome! to the 
north of the Sebennyte nome and contiguous with 

1The Greek word νομός means a division of Egypt, called 
in Ancient Egyptian sp.t,—a district corresponding roughly 
to a county in England. Pliny (Hist. Nat. 5, 9) refers to 
nomes as praefecturae oppidorum. 



it. Diospolis Inferior lay near Damietta, some 30 
miles from Sebennytus. (See Strabo, 17. 1, 19, 
and Baedeker, Egypt and the Siidan, 8th ed. (1929), 
p. 185.) We may therefore accept the usual descrip- 
tion of Manetho (Fr. 3, 77, 80: Syncellus, 72, 16), 
and hold that he was a native of Sebennytus (now 
Samannid)! in the Delta, on the west bank of the 
Damietta branch of the Nile. Manetho was a priest, 
and doubtless held office at one time in the temple 
at Sebennytus; but in the letter (App. I.) which he 
is said to have written to Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, 
he describes himself as “ high-priest and scribe of 
the sacred shrines of Egypt, born at Sebennytus and 
dwelling at Héliopolis”. Although the letter, as 
we have it, is not genuine in all its details, this 
description may have been borrowed from a good 
source; and while his precise rank asa priest remains 
in doubt, it is reasonable to believe that Manetho 
rose to be high-priest in the temple at Héliopolis.? 
This eminent position agrees with the important 
part he played in the introduction of the cult of 
Serapis. As a Heliopolitan priest, Manetho (to 
quote from Laqueur, Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, R.-E. 
xiv. 1, 1061) “ was, without doubt, acquainted with 

1See Baedeker ὃ, p. 185. Sebennytus was the seat 
of Dynasty XXX., and therefore a place of great impor- 
tance shortly before the time of Manetho. In Ancient 
Egyptian, Sebennytus is Tjeb-niter, “‘ city of the sacred 
ealf’’?: it is tempting to connect with Sebennytus the 
worship of the Golden Calf in 0.7’. Exodus xxxii., 1 Kings 
xii. 28 ff. (P. E. Newberry). 

2 See Strabo, 17. 1, 29 for the “large houses in which 
the priests had lived’’. According to Herodotus (ii. 3, 1), 
“the Heliopolitans are said to be the most learned of the 



the sacred tree in the great Hall of Héliopolis,—the 
tree on which the goddess Seshat, the Lady of Letters, 
the Mistress of the Library, wrote down with her 
own hand the names and deeds of the rulers.1 He 
did nothing more than communicate to the Greek 
world what the goddess had noted down.” But he 
did so with a full sense of the superiority which 
relied on the sacred records of the Egyptians in 
opposition to Herodotus whom he was contradict- 
ing” (Fr. 43, § 73: Fr. 88). His native town, 
Sebennytus, was visited as a place of learning by 
Solon when Ethémén was a priest in residence 
there (see Proclus in Plat. Tim. i. 101, 22, Diehl) ; 
and the Greek culture of the place must have been 
a formative influence upon Manetho at an early age. 

In the introduction of the statue of Serapis to 
Alexandria as described by Plutarch (Manetho, 
Fr. 80), Manetho the Egyptian was associated with 
the Greek Timotheus as a priestly adviser of King 
Ptolemy Séter. It is natural to suppose that the 
cult of Serapis itself, which was a conflation of 

1See Erman-Ranke, Agypten, 1923, pp. 396 f.; or 
Erman, Die Religion der Agypter, 1934, pp. 56 f.; or 
the original drawing in Lepsius, Denkmdler, iii. 169. This 
illustration shows the goddess, along with Thdéth and 
Atam, making inscriptions upon the leaves (or fruit) of 
the venerable tree. 

2 Τὸ may be added that the Egyptians are surpassed by 
no nation in their strong and ever-present desire to leave 
upon stone or papyrus permanent records of their history, 
their motive being to glorify the ruling king. Cf. 
Herodotus, ii. 77, 1 (of the Egyptians who live in the culti- 
vated country), ‘‘ the most diligent of all men in preserving 
the memory of the past, and far better skilled in chronicles 
than any others whom I have questioned’”’. 



Egyptian and Greek ideas intended to be acceptable 
to both nationalities, had already been organized ! 
with the help of the two priests, and the magnificent 
temple in Rhakétis, the Egyptian quarter in the 
west of Alexandria, had doubtless been built. The 
date is not certain: according to Jerome (Fothering- 
ham, p. 211, Helm, p. 129) “ Sarapis entered Alex- 
andria ’’ in 286 B.c., while the Armenian Version of 
the Chronicle of Eusebius says that in 278 B.c. 
“ἢ Sarapis came to Alexandria, and became resident 
there *” (Karst, 200). Perhaps the two statements 
refer to different stages in the development of the 
cult: if the former describes the entry of the statue 
by Bryaxis, the latter may possibly refer to the 
final establishment of the whole theology. As a 
proof that the work of Manetho in building up 
the cult of Serapis must not be belittled, it may 
suffice to refer to the inscription of the name Mavé@wy 
on the base of a marble bust found in the ruins of 
the Temple of Serapis at Carthage (Corpus Inscr. 
Lat. viii. 1007). The name is so uncommon that the 
probability is that the bust which originally stood 
on this base represented the Egyptian Manetho, and 
was erected in his honour because of his effective 
contribution to the organization of the cult of 

1 The earliest date for Serapis is given by Macrobius, Sat. 
i. 20, 16, a questioning of Serapis by Nicocreon of Cyprus, 
c. 311-310 B.c. For Dittenberger, O.G.I.S. 16 (an inscrip- 
tion from Halicarnassus on the founding of a temple to 
Serapis-Isis under (the satrap) Ptolemy Sdéter), the date 
is uncertain, probably c. 308-306 sB.c. Already in 
Menander’s drama, ᾿Εγχειρίδιον (before 291 B.c. when 
τ" died), Serapis is a “‘ holy god” (Ρ. Oxy. XV. 



Serapis.!. Hence it is not impossible also that the 
following reference in a papyrus of 24] B.c. may be 
to Manetho of Sebennytus. It occurs in a document 
containing correspondence about a Temple Seal 
(P. Hibeh, i. 72, vv. 6, 7, γράφειν Μανεθῶ). The 
person named was evidently a well-known man in 
priestly circles: he was probably our Manetho, the 
writer on Egyptian history and religion, if he lived 
to a considerable age.” 

Manetho’s Works. 

Eight works * have been attributed to Manetho: 
(1) Αὐἰγυπτιακά, or The History of Egypt, (2) The Book 
of Sothis, (3) The Sacred Book, (4) An Epitome of 
Physical Doctrines, (5) On Festivals, (6) On Ancient 
Ritual and Religion, (7) On the Making of Kyphi 
[a kind of incense], (8) Criticisms of Herodotus. 

Of these, (2) The Book of Séthis (App. IV. and 

1Cf. Lafaye, Histoire du Culte des Divinités d’ Alexandrie 
(1884), p. 16 n. 1: ‘“‘ At all events, there is no doubt 
that the adepts of the Alexandrine cult had great venera- 
tion for Manetho, and considered him in some measure 
as their patriarch ”’. 

2 Bouché-Leclereq (Histoire des Lagides, iv. p. 269 n. 4) 
holds a different opinion: “‘ the reference is not necessarily 
to the celebrated Manetho, whose very existence is prob- 
lematical ”’. 

8 A work wrongly attributed in antiquity (e.g. by Suidas, 
see p. x) to Manetho of Sebennytus is “AzoreAcopatixd, in 
6 books, an astrological poem in hexameters on the 
influence of the stars. See W. Kroll (1}.- Εἰ. s.v. Manethon 
(2)), who with Kochly recognizes in the 6 books 4 sections 
of different dates from about A.D. 120 to the fourth century 
after Christ. Books I. and V. open with dedications to 
King Ptolemy: cf. Pseudo-Manetho, Appendix I. 



pp. xxvii. ff.) is certainly not by Manetho; and there 
is no reason to believe that (8) Criticisms of Herodotus 
formed a separate work, although we know from 
Josephus, C. Apion. i. 73 (Fr. 42), that Manetho did 
convict Herodotus of error. Six titles remain, but 
it has long been thought that some of these are 
“ ghost ’’ titles. Fruin (Manetho, p. lxxvii) supposed 
that Manetho wrote only two works—one on Egyp- 
tian history, the other on Egyptian mythology and 
antiquities. Susemihl (Alex. Lit.-Gesch. i. 609, 
n. 431) and W. Otto (Priester und Tempel in 
Hellenistischen Agypten, ii. 215, n. 4) modified this 
extreme view : they recognized three distinct works 
of Manetho (The History of Egypt, The Sacred Book, 
and An Epitome of Physical Doctrines), and assumed 
that the titles On Festivals, On Ancient Ritual and 
Religion, and On the Making of Kyphi referred to 
passages in The Sacred Book. In the paucity of our 
data, no definite judgement seems possible as to 
whether Manetho wrote six works or only three ; 
but in support of the former theory we may refer to 

Eusebius (Man. Fr. 76). 

The History of Egypt. 

The Egyptian History ' of Manetho is preserved in 
extracts of two kinds. (1) Excerpts from the 
original work are preserved by Josephus, along 
with other passages which can only be pseudo- 

ΤῸ: Notes about Egypt. There are two variants of the 
Greek title : Alyumriaxa (Josephus in Fr. 42), and Αἰγυπτιακὰ 
ὑπομνήματα (Aegyptiaca monumenta, Eus. in Fr. 1), with 
a possible third form Αἰγυπτίων ὑπομνήματα (Aegyptiorum 
monumenta, Eus., p. 359). 



Manethonian. The Jews of the three centuries 
following the time of Manetho were naturally 
keenly interested in his History because of the 
connexion of their ancestors with Egypt—Abraham, 
Joseph, and Moses the leader of the Exodus; and 
they sought to base their theories of the origin and 
antiquity of the Jews securely upon the authentic 
traditions of Egypt. In Manetho indeed they found 
an unwelcome statement of the descent of the Jews 
from lepers; but they were able to identify their 
ancestors with the Hyksés, and the Exodus with 
the expulsion of these invaders. The efforts of 
Jewish apologists account for much re-handling, 
enlargement, and corruption of Manetho’s text, and 
the result may be seen in the treatise of Josephus, 
Contra Apionem, i. 

(2) An Epitome of Manetho’s history had been 
made at an early date,—not by Manetho himself, 
there is reason to believe,—in the form of Lists of 
Dynasties with short notes on outstanding kings or 
important events. The remains of this Epitome are 
preserved by Christian chronographers, especially by 
Africanus and Eusebius. Their aim was to compare 
the chronologies of the Oriental nations with the 
Bible, and for this purpose the Epitome gave an 
ideal conspectus of the whole History, omitting, as 
it does, narratives such as the account of the Hyksés 
preserved by Josephus. Of the two chronographers, 
the founder of Christian chronography, Sextus 
Julius Africanus, whose Chronicle! came down to 

1 For a later miscellaneous work, the Κεστοί, see P. Oxy. 
iii. 412 (between A.D. 225 and 265); and Jules Africain, 
Fragments des Cestes, ed. J.-R. Vieillefond, Paris, 1932. 



A.D. 217 or A.D. 221, transmits the Epitome in a 
more accurate form; while Eusebius, whose work 
extends to A.D. 326, is responsible for unwarranted 
alterations of the original text of Manetho. About 
A.D. 800 George the Monk, who is known as Syncellus 
from his religious office (as “* attendant ” of Tarasius, 
Patriarch of Constantinople), made use of Manetho’s 
work in various forms in his ’HxAoy7) Xpovoypadias, 
a history of the world from Adam to Diocletian. 
Syncellus sought to prove that the incarnation took 
place in Anno Mundi 5500; and in his survey of the 
thirty-one Egyptian dynasties which reigned from 
the Flood to Darius, he relied on the authoritative 
work of Manetho as transmitted by Africanus and 
Eusebius, and as handed down in a corrupt form in 
the Old Chronicle (App. III.) and the Book of Sothis 
(App. IV.) which had been used by the chronographer 
Panodérus (c. A.D. 400). 

Even from the above brief statement of the trans- 
mission of Manetho’s text, it will be seen that many 
problems are involved, and that it is extremely 
difficult to reach certainty in regard to what is 
authentic Manetho and what is spurious or corrupt. 
The problems are discussed in detail by Richard 
Laqueur in his valuable and exhaustive article in 
Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, R.-E. s.v. Manethon ; and it 
may be sufficient here to quote his summary of the 
results of his researches in regard to Manetho (1) in 
Josephus, and (2) in the Christian Chronographers. 

(1) Manetho in Josephus, Contra Apionem, i. (see 
Fr. 42, 50, 54.) 

““ (a) Extracts from the genuine Manetho appear 
in §§ 75-82, 84-90, 94-102a, 232-249, 251. Of these 


passages, §§ 75-82, 94-102a, 237-249 are quoted 

verbatim, the others are given in Indirect Speech. 

“ (δὴ) A rationalistic critique of the genuine 
Manetho was written by a Hellenist, and was used 
by Josephus for his work. The remains of this 
critique appear in §§ 254-261, 267-269, 271-274, 276- 
277. Perhaps §§ 1025-103 is connected with these. 

“ (ὁ) The authoritative work of Manetho was 
further exploited by Jews and Egyptians in their 
mutual polemic, in the course of which additions to 
Manetho’s works were made: these additions were 
partly favourable to the Jews (§§ 83, 91), partly 
hostile to the Jews (§ 250). These passages, like 
those mentioned in (0), were collected before the 
time of Josephus into a single treatise, so that one 
could no longer clearly recognize what had belonged 
to Manetho and what was based upon additions. 

“ (4) Josephus originally knew only the genuine 
Manetho (cf. (a)), and used him throughout as a 
witness against the aggressors of Judaism. In this 
it was of importance for Josephus to show that the 
Hyks6és had come to Egypt from abroad, that their 
expulsion took place long before the beginning of 
Greek history, and that they, in their expedition to 
aid the Lepers, remained untainted by them. 

“ (6) After Josephus had completed this elabora- 
tion, he came later to know the material mentioned 
in (0) and (c): so far as it was favourable to the 
Jews or helpful in interpretation, it led only to short 
expansions of the older presentation; so far, how- 
ever, as it was hostile to the Jews, Josephus found 
himself induced to make a radical change in his 
attitude towards Manetho. He attacked Manetho 



sharply for his alleged statement (§ 250), and at the 

same time used the polemic mentioned in (b) in 

order to overthrow Manetho’s authority in general. 
“(f) From the facts adduced it follows that 

Manetho’s work was already before the time of 

Josephus the object of numerous literary analyses.” ἢ 
Cf. the following summary. 

(2) Manetho in the Christian Chronographers. 

“ (α) Not long after the appearance of Manetho’s 
work, an Epitome was made, giving excerpts from 
the Dynasty-Lists and increasing these from 30 to 
31. The possibility that other additions were made 
is not excluded. 

“ (0) The Epitome was remodelled by a Hellenistic 
Jew in such a way that the Jewish chronology 
became compatible with that of Manetho. 

“ (ὁ) A descendant of version (a) is extant in 
Julius Africanus: a descendant of version (b), in 

The Chronicle of Africanus in five books is lost 
except for what is preserved in the extracts made 
by Eusebius, and the many fragments contained in 
the works of Syncellus and Cedrenus, and in the 
Paschale Chronicon. For Eusebius we have several 
lines of transmission. The Greek text of Eusebius 
has come down to us in part, as quoted by Syn- 
cellus ; but the whole work is known through (1) the 
Armenian Version, which was composed in y./A.D.” 

1A further study of the transmission of Manetho in 
Josephus is made by A. Momigliano, ‘“‘ Intorno al Contro 
Apione,”’ in Rivista di Filologia, 59 (1931), pp. 485-503. 

2The Armenian MS. G (Codex Hierosolymitanus) 
printed by Aucher (1818) is dated by him between a.p. 



from a revision of the first Greek text,! and is, of 
course, quite independent of Syncellus ; and (2) the 
Latin Version made by Jerome towards the end of 
the fourth century. 

Possible Sources of the Αἰγυπτιακά. 

An Egyptian high priest, learned in Greek litera- 
ture, had an unrivalled opportunity, in early 
Ptolemaic times, of writing an excellent and accurate 
history of Egypt. He had open access to records of 
all kinds—papyri? in the temple archives (annals, 
sacred books containing liturgies and poems), hiero- 
glyphic tablets, wall sculptures, and innumerable 
inscriptions. These records no one but an Egyptian 
priest could consult and read; and only a scholar 
who had assimilated the works of Greek historians 
could make a judicious and scientific use of the 
abundant material. It is hardly to be expected, 

1065 and 1306. Karst quotes readings from this and two 
other Armenian MSS., but the variations are compara- 
tively unimportant. 

1See A. Puech, Hist. de la Litt. grecque chrétienne, iii. 

᾿ 2 Herodotus (ii. 100: ef. 142) mentions a papyrus roll 
(βύβλος) containing a list of 331 kings. Diodorus (i. 44, 4) 
tells of ‘‘ records (avaypadai) handed down in the sacred 
books ”’ (ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις), giving each king’s stature, 
character, and deeds, as well as the length of his reign. 

3 Cf. the Annals of the Reign of Tuthmésis ITI. (Breasted, 
Ancient Records, ii. §§ 391-540): this important historical 
document of 223 lines is inscribed on the walls of a cor- 
ridor in the Temple of Amon at Karnak, and “ demon- 
strates the injustice of the criticism that the Egyptians 
were incapable of giving a clear and succinct account of 
a military campaign ”’. 



however, that Manetho’s History should possess more 
worth than that of his sources ; and the material at 
his disposal included a certain proportion of un- 
historical traditions and popular legends. 

There is no possibility of identifying the particular 
records from which Manetho compiled his History : 
the following are the kinds of monuments which he 
may have consulted and from which we derive a 
means of controlling his statements. 

(1) The Royal List of Abydos, on the wall of a 
corridor of the Temple of Sethés I. at Abydos, gives 
in chronological order a series of seventy-six kings 
from Ménés to Sethés I. Dynasties XIII. to XVII. 
are lacking. A mutilated duplicate of this list was 
found in the Temple of Ramessés II. at Abydos 
(now in the British Museum: see Guide, p. 245): 
it arranges the kings in three rows, while the more 
complete list has them in two rows. 

(2) The Royal List of Karnak (now in the Louvre) 
has a list of kings, originally sixty-one, from Ménés 
down to Tuthmdsis III., Dynasty XVIII., with 
many names belonging to the Second Intermediate 
Period (Dynasties XIII.-XVII.). 

The Royal Lists of Abydos and Karnak give the 
tradition of Upper Egypt. 

(3) The Royal List of Sakkara (found in a tomb at » 
Sakkara, and now in the Cairo Museum) preserves the 
cartouches of forty-seven (originally fifty-eight) kings 
previous to, and including, Ramessés II. It begins 
with Miebis, the sixth king of Dynasty I.; and like 

1The popular tales introduced kings as their heroes, 
without regard to chronological order: see G. Maspero, 
Bibliotheque Egyptologique, vol. vii. (1898), pp. 419 ff. 



the Royal List of Abydos, it omits Dynasties XIII.- 
XVII. Like (4) the Turin Papyrus, the Royal List of 
Sakkdra gives the tradition of Lower Egypt. 

(4) More important than any of the preceding is 
the Turin Papyrus, written in hieratic on the verso 
of the papyrus, with accounts of the time of 
Ramessés II. on the recto (which gives the approximate 
date, c. 1200 B.c.). In its original state the papyrus 
must have been an artistically beautiful exemplar, 
as the script is an exceptionally fine one. It contains 
the names of kings in order, over 300 when complete, 
with the length of each reign in years, months, and 
days; and as the definitive edition of the papyrus 
has not yet been issued, further study is expected to 
yield additional results.' The papyrus begins, like 
Manetho, with the dynasties of gods, followed by 
mortal kings also in dynasties. The change of 
dynasty is noted, and the sum of the reigns is given : 
also, as in Manetho, several dynasties are added 
together, e.g. “Sum of the Kings from Ménés to 
[Unas]”” at the end of Dynasty V. The arrange- 
ment in the papyrus is very similar to that in the 
Epitome of Manetho. 

(5) The Palermo Stone? takes us back to a much 
greater antiquity: it dates from the Fifth Dynasty, 
c. 2600 B.c., and therefore contains Old Egyptian 
annals of the kings. The Stone or Stele was origin- 

1See Sir J. G. Wilkinson, Fragments of the Hieratic 
Papyrus at Turin, London, 1851: E. Meyer, Aeg. Chron. 
pp. 105 ff., and Die Altere Chronologie Babyloniens, As- 
syriens, und Agyptens, revised by Stier (1931), pp. 55 ff. 

2 Plate II. See H. Schafer, Abhandl. Akad. Berl. 1902: 
Breasted, Ancient Records, i. §§ 76-167: Sethe, Urkunden 
des Alten Reichs, pp. 235-249; and cf. Petrie, The Making 
of Egypt, 1939, pp. 98 f. 



ally a large slab! of black diorite, about 7 feet long 
and over 2 feet high; but only a fragment of the 
middle of the slab is preserved in the Museum of 
Palermo, while smaller pieces of this, or of a similar 
monument, have been identified in the Cairo Museum 
and in University College, London. Although the 
text is unfortunately fragmentary, this early docu- 
ment is clearly seen to be more closely related to 
the genuine Manetho than are the Kings’ Lists of 
later date (1, 2, 3, 4 above). In a space marked off 
on each side by a year-sign and therefore denoting 
one year, notable events are given in an upper 
section of the space and records of the Nile-levels in 
a lower. A change of reign is denoted by a vertical 
line prolonging the year-sign above, on each side of 
which a certain number of months and days is 
recorded—on one side those belonging to the de- 
ceased king, and on the other to his successor. In 
the earliest Dynasties the years were not numbered, 
but were named after some important event or 
events, e.g. ““the year of the smiting of the "Inw,” 
“the year of the sixth time of numbering”. 
Religious and military events were particularly 
common, just as they are in Manetho. A year-name 
of King Snefru (Dynasty IV.) states that he 
conquered the Nehesi, and captured 7000 prisoners 
and 200,000 head of cattle: cf. Manetho, Fr. 7, on 
the foreign expedition of Ménés. So, too, under 

More plausibly, according to Petrie (The Making of 
Egypt, 1939, p. 98), the text of the annals was divided 
among six slabs each 16 inches wide, both sides being 
equally visible. 

* Borchardt, in Die Annalen (1917), quoted in Ancient 
Egypt, 1920, p. 124, says, “‘Manetho had really good 
sources, and his copyists have not altogether spoiled him ’’. 



Shepseskaf, the last king of Dynasty IV., the 
building of a pyramid is recorded, and under 
Dynasties I., 1V., and VI. Manetho makes mention 
of pyramid-building. It is especially noteworthy 
that the first line of the Palermo Stone gives a list 
of kings before Ménés: cf. the Turin Papyrus, as 
quoted on Fr. 1. (For the Cairo fragments see 
Sethe, op. cit.) 

* * * * * * * 

In regard to Manetho’s relation to his Greek 
predecessors in the field of Egyptian history, we 
know that he criticized Herodotus, not, as far as 
we can tell, in a separate work, but merely in 
passages of his History. In none of the extant 
fragments does Manetho mention by name Hecataeus 
of Abdera, but it is interesting to speculate upon 
Manetho’s relation to this Greek historian. The 
floruit of Hecataeus fell in the time of Alexander and 
Ptolemy son of Lagus (Gutschmid gives 320 B.c. as 
an approximate estimate) ; and it is very doubtful 
whether he lived to see the reign of Philadelphus, 
who came to the throne in 285 B.c. (Jacoby in 
R.-E. vii. 2, 2750). His Aegyptiaca was “a philo- 
sophical romance,” describing “ an ethnographical 
Utopia”: it was no history of Egypt, but a work 
with a philosophical tendency. Manetho and 
Hecataeus are quoted together, e.g. by Plutarch, 
Isis and Osiris, chap. 9, perhaps from an inter- 
mediary writer who used the works of both Manetho 
and Hecataeus. If we assume that Hecataeus wrote 
his “‘ romance” before Manetho composed his 
History, perhaps one of the purposes of Manetho 
was to correct the errors of his predecessor. No 



criticism of Hecataeus, however, has been attributed 
to Manetho; and it is natural that similarities are 
found in their accounts (cf. p. 131, n. 2). Be that 
as it may, Hecataeus enjoyed greater popularity 
among the Greeks than Manetho: they preferred 
his “‘ romance ” to Manetho’s more reliable annals. 
Yet Manetho’s Aegyptiaca has no claim to be 
regarded as a critical history: its value lies in the 
dynastic skeletons which serve as a framework for 
the evidence of the monuments, and it has provided 
in its essentials the accepted scheme of Egyptian 
chronology. But there were many errors in 
Manetho’s work from the very beginning: all are 
not due to the perversions of scribes and revisers. 
Many of the lengths of reigns have been found 
impossible: in some cases the names and the 
sequence of kings as given by Manetho have proved 
untenable in the light of monumental evidence. 
If one may depend upon the extracts preserved in 
Josephus, Manetho’s work was not an authentic 
history of Egypt, exact in its details, as the Chaldaica 
of Béréssos was, at least for later times. Manetho 
introduced into an already corrupted series of 
dynastic lists a number of popular traditions written 

1Cf. H. R. Hall, Cambridge Ancient History, i. p. 260: 
“So far as we are able to check Manetho from the con- 
temporary monuments, his division into dynasties is 
entirely justified. His authorities evidently were good. 
But unhappily his work has come down to us only in copies 
of copies; and, although the framework of the dynasties 
remains, most of his royal names, originally Graecized, 
have been so mutilated by non-Egyptian scribes, who 
did not understand their form, as often to be unrecog- 
nizable, and the regnal years given by him have been so 
corrupted as to be of little value unless confirmed by the 
Turin Papyrus or the monuments.” 



in the characteristic Egyptian style. No genuine 
historical sense had been developed among the 
Egyptians, although Manetho’s work does illustrate 
the influence of Greek culture upon an Egyptian 
priest. He wrote to correct the errors of Greek 
historians, especially of Herodotus (see Fr. 88); but 
from the paucity of information about certain 
periods, it seems clear that in ancient times, as for 
us at the present day, there were obscure eras 
in Egyptian history.'. Before the Saite Dynasty 
(XXVI.) there were three outstanding periods—in 
Dynasties IV.-VI., XI.-XII., and XVIII.-XX., or 
roughly the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and 
the New Kingdom (sometimes called the Empire) ; 
and these are the periods upon which the light falls 
in all histories. 

The significance of Manetho’s writings is that for 
the first time an Egyptian was seeking to instruct 
foreigners in the history and religion of his native 

Other Works attributed to Manetho. 

To judge by the frequency of quotation, the re- 
ligious treatises of Manetho were much more popular 
in Greek circles than the History of Egypt was; yet 
the fragments surviving from these works (Fr. 76-88) 
are so meagre that no distinct impression of their 

nature can be gained. The Sacred Book (Fr. 76-81) 

1Cf. H. R. Hall, Ancient History of the Near East ὃ, 
Ρ. 14: “In fact, Manetho did what he could: where 
the oative annals were good and complete, his abstract 
is good: where they were broken and incomplete, his 
record is incomplete also and confused... .”’ 



was doubtless a valuable exposition of the details 
of Egyptian religion, as well as of the mythological 
elements of Egyptian theology. It testifies to the 
importance of the part played by Manetho in support 
of Ptolemy Séter’s vigorous policy of religious 
syncretism. It seems probable that the Sacred Book 
was Manetho’s main contribution in aid of this 
policy: it may have been the result of a definite 
commission by the king, in order to spread a know- 
ledge of Egyptian religion among the Greeks. That 
an Egyptian priest should seek to instruct the 
Greek-speaking world of his time in the history of 
Egypt and in the religious beliefs of the Egyptians, 
including festivals, ancient rites and piety in general, 
and the preparation of kyphi, is not at all surprising ; 
but it seems strange that Manetho should feel called 
upon, in the third century B.C., to compose an 
Epitome of Physical Doctrines (Fr. 82, 83) with the 
apparent object of familiarizing the Greeks with 
Egyptian science. One may conjecture that his 
special purpose was to give instruction to students 
of his own. 

The Book of Séthis (Appendix IV.). 

The Book of Séthis! or The Sothic Cycle is trans- 
mitted through Syncellus alone. In the opinion of 
Syncellus, this Séthis-Book was dedicated by Manetho 

1Sé6this is the Greek form of Sopdet, the Egyptian 
name for the Dog-star, Sirius, the heliacal rising of which 
was noted at an early date: on the great importance of 
the Séthie period in Egyptian chronology, see Breasted, 
Ancient Records, i. §§ 40 ff., and H. R. Hall, Encyclopaedia 
Britannica“, s.v. Chronology. Cf. infra, Appendix IIT., 
p. 226, and Appendix IV., p. 234. 



to Ptolemy Philadelphus (see App. I.). The king 
wished to learn the future of the universe, and 
Manetho accordingly sent to him “ sacred books ” 
based upon inscriptions which had been written 
down by Thoth, the first Hermés, in hieratic script, 
had been interpreted after the Flood by Agatho- 
daemon, son of the second Hermés and father of 
Tat, and had been deposited in the sanctuaries of the 
temples of Egypt. The letter which purports to have 
accompanied the “ sacred books ”’ is undoubtedly a 
forgery ; but the Sdthis-Book is significant for the 
textual transmission of Manetho. According to the 
LXX the Flood took place in Anno Mundi 2242 
(see Frags. 2,6: App. III., p. 232). This date must 
close the prehistoric period in Egypt and in Chaldea : 
the 11,985 years of the Egyptian gods are therefore 
regarded as months and reduced to 969 years. 
Similarly, the 858 years of the demigods are treated 
as quarter-years or periods of three months, thus 
becoming 214} years: total, 969 + 2144 = 11834 
years (Fr. 2). In Chaldean prehistory, by fixing 
the saros at 3600 days, 120 saroi become 1183 years 
63 months. Accordingly, the beginning of Egyptian 
and Babylonian history is placed at 2242 — 1184, or 
1058 Anno Mundi: in that year (or in 1000, Fr. 2) 
falls the coming of the Egregori, who finally by their 
sins brought on the Flood. The Book of Sothis 
begins with the reign of Mestraim, Anno Mundi 2776 
(App. IV., p. 234: App. III., p. 232), i.e. 534 years 
after the Flood, and continues to the year 4986, 
which gives 2210 years of Egyptian rule—almost the 
same number as Manetho has in either Book I. or 
Book II. of his History of Egypt. 



Greek text of Manetho in 

1. C. Miller, Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, ii. 
(1848), pp. 512-616. 

2. Manethonis Sebennytae Reliquiae, R. Fruin, 1847. 
Greek text of the Hpitome in 

3. G. F. Unger, Chronologie des Manetho, Berlin, 1867. 

Greek text of Kings’ Lists summarized in parallel columns: 
4. R. Lepsius, Konigsbuch der alten Agypter, Berlin, 1858. 

Greek text of religious writings in 
5. Fontes Historiae Religionis Aegyptiacae, Th. Hopfner, 

Accounts of Manetho and his work. 

1. Richard Laqueur in Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, R.-E. 
xiv. 1 (1928), s.v. Manethon (1). 

2. F. Susemihl, Alex. Lit.-Geschichte, i., 1891, pp. 608-616. 

3. W. Otto, Priester und Tempel im hellenist. Aegypten 
(1908), ii. pp. 215 f., 228 f. 

Subsidiary Works. 
ed. Niese, Vol. v., 1889. 
ed. Thackeray (L.C.L., Vol. i., 1926). 
ed. Reinach and Blum (Budé, 1930). 
Arnaldo Momigliano, Rivista di Filologia, 59 (1931), pp. 
Syncellus or George the Monk, in Corpus Scriptorum 
Historicorum Byzantinorum, W. Dindorf, 1829. 
Heinrich Gelzer, Sextus Julius Africanus, 1880-89. 
Eusebius, Praeparatio Hvangelica, E. H. Gifford, 1903. 
Eusebii chronicorum lib. I., A. Schéne, 1875. 
Eusebius, Chronica (in Armenian Version) : 
(a) Latin translation by Zohrab-Mai, 1818 (in Miiller’s 
ΤΉ Ὁ. 11.) 



(6) Latin translation by Aucher, 1818 (partly quoted 
in R. Lepsius, Kdnigsbuch—see above). 

(c) Latin translation by H. Petermann, in Sch6éne (above). 

(4) German translation by Josef Karst in Eusebius, 
Werke V. Die Chronik, 1911. 

Ed. Meyer, Aegyptische Chronologie, 1904 (Nachtrage, 
1907: Neue Nachtrage, 1907). French translation by 
Alexandre Moret, 1912. 

Ed. Meyer, Geschichte des Altertums ὅ, I. ii., 11. i., ii. 

James H. Breasted, Ancient Records, 1906. 

T. E. Peet, H. R. Hall, J. H. Breasted, in the Cambridge 
Ancient History, Vols. i.-vi. 

A. von Gutschmid, Kleine Schriften, iv., 1893. 

For further works and articles relating to Manetho, see 

the article by Laqueur, Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, R.-# 



A = 1711 of Paris (dated A.p. 1021), used by Scaliger 
and Goar, the first two editors. Editions: Paris, 
1652; Venice, 1729. 

B = 1764 of Paris—a much better MS. than A. 

G signifies readings of Goar. 
m signifies conjectures and notes in the margin of 
Goar’s edition. 

EvseEsius, Chronica (Armenian Version) 
G = Codex Hierosolymitanus (see Intro., p. xix n. 2). 
JOSEPHUS, Contra Apionem, i. 
L = Codex Laurentianus plut. Ixix. 22 of eleventh 
Hafniensis, No. 1570, at Copenhagen, fifteenth century. 
Bigotianus, known from readings transmitted by 
Emericus Bigotius. 
Quotations by Eusebius (A.D. 264-340), sometimes best 
preserved in the Armenian version. 
Lat. = Latin version made by order of Cassiodorus, 
the minister of Theodoriec, c. A.p. 540. 
Editio princeps of Greek text (Basel, 1544). 


Ann. Serv. Antiq. = Annales du Service des Antiquités de 
V Egypte, Le Caire, 1900- 

Baedeker ὃ = Egypt and the Siiddn, by Karl Baedeker 
(English translation, 8th edition, 1929). 

Karst = Joseph Karst’s German translation Die Chronik, 
in Husebius, Werke, v., 1911. 

P. Baden = F. Bilabel, Griechische Papyri (Veréffentlich- 
ungen aus den badischen Papyrus-Sammlungen), 
Heidelberg, 1923-24. 

P. Hibeh = Grenfell and Hunt, The Hibeh Papyri, 1., 

P. Mich. Zen. = C. C. Edgar, Zenon Papyri in the Uni- 
versity of Michigan Collection, 1931. 

P. Oxy. = Grenfell, Hunt, and Bell, The Oxyrhynchus 
Papyri, 1898-1927. 

Petermann = H. Petermann’s Latin translation in Schéne 

Schéne = Husebii Chronicorum lib. I., A. Schone, 1875. 

Syncellus = Syncellus or George the Monk, in Corpus Scrip- 
torum Historicorum Byzantinorum, W. Dindorf, 1829. 



THE editor wishes to acknowledge with gratitude 
the valuable help ungrudgingly given to him in all 
Egyptological matters by Professor Perey E. 
Newberry (Liverpool and Cairo) and by Professor 
Battiscombe Gunn (Oxford); but neither of these 
Egyptologists must be held responsible for the final 
form in which their contributions appear, except 
where their names or initials are appended. Thanks 
are also due to Professor D. 5. Margoliouth (Oxford), 
who very kindly revised the Latin translation of the 
Armenian Version of Eusebius, Chronica, by com- 
paring it with the original Armenian as given in 
Aucher’s edition: the footnotes show how much the 
text here printed has benefited from his revision. 

In a work which brings before the mind’s eye a 
long series of Kings of Egypt, the editor would have 
liked to refer interested readers to some book con- 
taining a collection of portraits of these kings; but 
it seems that, in spite of the convenience and 
interest which such a book would possess, no com- 
plete series of royal portraits bas yet been published.! 
For a certain number of portrait-sketches (25 in all), 
skilfully created from existing mummies and ancient 
representations, see Winifred Brunton, Kings and 
Queens of Ancient Egypt (1924), and Great Ones of 
Ancient Egypt (1929). 

1 For portraits of some kings, see Petrie, The Making of 
Egypt, 1939, passim. 




Fr. 1. Ευβεβιῦβ, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p- 93 (Mai). 

Ex Aegyptiacis Manethonis monumentis, qui in 
tres libros historiam suam tribuit,—de diis et de 

heroibus, de manibus et de mortalibus regibus qui 
Aegypto praefuerunt usque ad regem Persarum 

1. Primus homo (deus) Aegyptiis Vulcanus! est, 
qui etiam ignis repertor apud eos celebratur. Ex 
eo Sol; [postea Sésis?;] deinde Saturnus; tum 

1Cf. Joannes Lydus, De Mensibus, iv. 86 (Wiinsch). 
On Maius, after speaking of Hephaestus, Lydus adds: 
κατὰ δὲ ἱστορίαν Μανέθων Αἰγυπτιακῶν ὑπομνημάτων ἐν τόμῳ 
τρίτῳ φησίν, ὅτι πρῶτος ἀνθρώπων ἔ παρ᾽ Αἰγυπτίοις ἐβασίλευσεν 
ἽΗφαιστος ὁ καὶ εὑρέτης τοῦ πυρὸς αὐτοῖς γενόμενος" ἐξ οὗ Ἥλιος, 
οὗ Κρόνος, μεθ᾽ ὃν “Ooupis, ἔπειτα Τυφών, ἀδελφὸς ᾿Οσίρεως. 
From this passage we see that Lydus gives the sequence 
‘“Héphaestus, Hélios (the Sun), Cronos, Osiris, Typhén,” 
omitting Sésis as Eusebius does. After this passage in 
Lydus comes Fr. 84 ᾿Ιστέον δὲ... 

2 From Joannes Antiochenus(Malalas), Chron., 24(Migne, 
Patrologia, Vol. 97). 

* Bracketed by Hopfner, Fontes Historiae Religionis, 
Bonn, 1922-3, p. 65. 




Fr. 1 (from the Armenian Version of Eusebius, 
Chronica). Dynasties oF Gops, Demicops, 

From the Egyptian History of Manetho, who com- 
posed his account in three books. These deal with 
the Gods, the Demigods, the Spirits of the Dead, 
and the mortal kings who ruled Egypt down to 
Darius, king of the Persians. 

1. The first man (or god) in Egypt is Hephaestus,} 
who is also renowned among the Egyptians as the 
discoverer of fire. His son, Helios (the Sun), was 
succeeded by Sdsis: then follow, in turn, Cronos, 

1The Pre-dynastic Period begins with a group of gods, 
“consisting of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in the 
form in which it was worshipped at Memphis’”’ (T. E. 
Peet, Cambridge Ancient History, i. p. 250). After summar- 
izing §§ 1-3 Peet adds: ‘“ From the historical point of 
view there is little to be made of this’’. See Meyer, 
Geschichte des Altertums δ, I. ii. p. 102 ἢ. for the Egyptian 
traditions of the Pre-dynastic Period. In the Turin 
Papyrus the Gods are given in the same order: (Ptah), 
Ré, (Shu), Geb, Osiris, Séth (200 years), Horus (300 years), 
Thoth (3126 years), Ma‘at, Har, ... Total.... See 

Meyer, Aeg. Chron. p. 116, and ef. Fr. ὃ. 


Osiris; exin Osiridis frater Typhon; ad extremum 
Orus, QOsiridis et Isidis filius. Hi primi inter 
Aegyptios rerum potiti sunt. Deinceps continuata 
successione delapsa est regia auctoritas usque ad 
Bydin (Bitem) per annorum tredecim milia ac non- 
gentos. Lunarem tamen annum intelligo, videlicet 
xxx diebus constantem: quem enim nunc mensem 
dicimus, Aegyptii olim anni nomine indigitabant. 

2. Post deos regnarunt heroes annis MCCLY: rur- 
susque alii reges dominati sunt annis MDCCCXVII: 
tum alii triginta reges Memphitae annis MDCCXC: 
deinde alii Thinitae decem reges annis CCCL. 

3. Secuta est manium heroumque dominatio annis 

4, Summa temporis in mille et myriadem! con- 
surgit annorum, qui tamen lunares, nempe menstrul, 

1Miuller: mille myriadas Mai. 

1The name Bydis (or Bites) seems to be the Egyptian 
bity “‘king’’ (from bit ‘‘ bee”’), the title of the kings of 
Lower Egypt: see the Palermo Stone, and cf. Herodotus, 
iv. 155, ‘“‘ the Libyans call their king ‘ Battos’”’ (P. E. 
Newberry). Bitys appears in late times as a translator 
or interpreter of Hermetical writings: see Iamblich. 
De Mysteriis, viii. 5 (= Scott, Hermetica, iv. p. 34) where 
the prophet Bitys is said to have translated [for King 
Ammén] a book (The Way to Higher Things, 1.e. a treatise 
on the theurgic or supernatural means of attaining to 
union with the Demiurgus) which he found inscribed in 
hieroglyphs in a shrine at Sais in Egypt. Cf. the pseudo- 
Manetho, App. I 

2Therg is no evidence that the Egyptian year was 
ever equal to a month: there were short years (each of 
360 days) and long years (see Fr. 49). 

See Hacerpta Latina Barbari (Fr. 4) for the beginning 
of this dynasty: “ First, Anubis ...”’. 



Osiris, Typhon, brother of Osiris, and lastly Orus, 
son of Osiris and Isis. These were the first to 
hold sway in Egypt. Thereafter, the kingship 
passed from one to another in unbroken succession 
down to Bydis (Bites) } through 13,900 years. The 
year I take, however, to be a lunar one, consisting, 
that is, of 30 days: what we now call a month the 
Egyptians used formerly to style a year.” 

2. After the Gods, Demigods reigned for 1255 
years,® and again another line of kings held sway 
for 1817 years: then came thirty more kings of 
Memphis,’ reigning for 1790 years ; and then again 
ten kings of This, reigning for 350 years. 

3. There followed the rule of Spirits of the Dead 
and Demigods,° for 5813 years. 

4. The total [of the last five groups] amounts to 
11,000 years,® these however being lunar periods, or 


*Corroborated by the Turin Papyrus, Col. ii.: “οὗ 
Memphis ’’. 

5 “* Demigods *’ should be in apposition to “ Spirits of 
the Dead ”’ (véxves ἡμίθεοι), as in Excerpta Latina Barbari 
(Fr. 4) and Africanus (Fr. 6. 1). These are perhaps the 
Shemsu Hor, the Followers or Worshippers of Horus, of 
the Turin Papyrus: see H. R. Hall, Cambridge Ancient 
History, i. p. 265. Before King Ménés (Fr. 6), the king 
of Upper Egypt who imposed his sway upon the fertile 
Delta and founded the First Dynasty,—the Shemsu Hor, 
the men of the Falcon Clan whose original home was in 
the West Delta, had formed an earlier united kingdom 
by conquering Upper Egypt: see V. Gordon Childe, 
New Light on the Most Ancient East, 1934, p. 8, based 
upon Breasted, Bull. Instit. Frang. Arch. Or. xxx. (Cairo, 
1930), pp. 710 ff., and Schafer’s criticism, Orient. Liter- 
aturz. 1932, p. 704. 

5 The exact total of the items given is 11,025 years. 
So also 24,900 infra is a round number for 24,925. 



sunt. Sed revera dominatio, quam narrant Aegyptii, 
deorum, heroum, et manium tenuisse putatur lun- 
arium annorum omnino viginti quattuor milia et 
nongentos,! ex quibus fiunt solares anni MMCCVI. 

5. Atque haec si cum Hebraeorum chronologia 
conferre volueris, in eandem plane sententiam con- 
spirare videbis. Namque Aegyptus ab Hebraeis 
Mestraimus appellatur: Mestraimus autem <haud 2) 
multo post diluvium tempore exstitit. Quippe ex 
Chamo, Noachi filio, post diluvium ortusest Aegyptus 
sive Mestraimus, qui primus ad Aegypti incolatum 
profectus est, qua tempestate gentes hac illac spargi 
coeperunt. Erat autem summa_ temporis ab 
Adamo ad diluvium secundum Hebraeos annorum 

6. Ceterum* quum Aegyptii praerogativa antiqui- 
tatis quadam seriem ante diluvium tenere se iactent 
Deorum, Heroum, et Manium annorum plus viginti 
milia regnantium, plane aequum est ut hi anni in 

1 Aucher’s version runs: duae myriades quatuor millia 
et DCCCC. 

2haud: conj. approved by Karst. 

3 Petermann’s version of the first sentence of this sec- 
tion runs as follows: Itaque placet (licet) Egiptiis, priscis 
(primis) temporibus quae praecesserunt diluvium, se iactare 
ob antiquitatem. Deos quosdam fuisse dicunt suos, semi- 
deosque et manes. In menses redactis annis apud Hebraeos 
enarratis, lunarium annorum myriades duas et amplius 
etiam computant (computarunt), ita ut tot fere menses 
fiant, quot anni apud Hebraeos comprehenduntur ; scilicet 
(id est) a protoplasto homine usque ad Mezrajim tempora 
nostra computando (‘‘ And so, for the early times which 
preceded the Flood, the Egyptians may well boast of their 
antiquity. They say that certain Gods were theirs, as well 
as Demigods and Spirits of the Dead. Having reduced to 



months. But, in truth, the whole rule of which the 
Egyptians tell—the rule of Gods, Demigods, and 
Spirits of the Dead—is reckoned to have comprised 
in all 24,900 lunar years, which make 2206! solar 

5. Now, if you care to compare these figures with 
Hebrew chronology, you will find that they are in 
perfect harmony. Egypt is called Mestraim ? by 
the Hebrews; and Mestraim lived {ποῖ long after 
the Flood. For after the Flood, Cham (or Ham), 
son of Noah, begat Aegyptus or Mestraim, who 
was the first to set out to establish himself in 
Egypt, at the time when the tribes began to dis- 
perse this way and that. Now the whole time 
from Adam to the Flood was, according to the 
Hebrews, 2242 years. 

6. But, since the Egyptians claim by a sort of 
prerogative of antiquity that they have, before the 
Flood, a line of Gods, Demigods, and Spirits of the 
Dead, who reigned for more than 20,000 years, it 
clearly follows that these years should be reckoned 

1Boeckh, Manetho und die Hundssternperiode, p. 85, 
corrects this to 2046. 

2 Mestraim: the Mizraim of 0.7’. Genesis x. 6: Arabic 
Misrun, Cuneiform Musri, Misri (Egypt). Mizraim is 
a dual name-form, perhaps to be explained in reference to 
the two great native divisions of Egypt, Upper and Lower. 

months the years recorded by the Hebrews, they reckon 
20,000 lunar years and even more than that number, so 
that it comes to practically as many months as the years 
of Hebrew chronology, i.e. reckoning our times * from the 
creation of man to Mezraim.’’) 

* Karst emends this to ‘ Biblical times’’. 


menses tot convertantur quot ab Hebraeis memo- 
rantur anni: nempe ut qui menses continentur in 
memoratis apud Hebraeos annis, ii totidem intelli- 
gantur Aegyptiorum lunares anni, pro ea temporum 
summa, quae a primo condito homine ad Mestrai- 
mum usque colligitur. Sane Mestraimus generis 
Aegyptiaci auctor fuit, ab eoque prima Aegyptiorum 
dynastia manare credenda est. 

7. Quodsi temporum copia adhuc exuberet, re- 
putandum est plures fortasse Aegyptiorum reges 
una eademque aetate exstitisse; namque et Thini- 
tas regnavisse aiunt et Memphitas et Saitas et 
Aethiopes eodemque tempore alios.1 Videntur 
praeterea alii quoque alibi imperium tenuisse: 
atque hae dynastiae suo quaeque in nomo® semet 
continuisse: ita ut haud singuli reges successivam 
potestatem acceperint, sed alius alio loco eadem 
aetate regnaverit. Atque hinc contigit, ut tantus 
numerus annorum confieret. Nos vero, his omissis, 
persequamur singillatim Aegyptiorum chronologiam. 

(Continued in Fr. 7(5).) 

1Petermann renders: ac interim (iuxta eosdem) alios 
quoque, ‘‘and others too, besides these’’. 

2The Armenian version here confuses νόμος “ law’’ and 
νομός ‘“‘nome’’: the Latin translation corrects this blunder. 

1 For the contemporaneous existence of a number of 
petty kingdoms in Egypt, see the Piankhi stele, Breasted, 
Ancient Records, iv. §§ 830, 878, and the passage from 
Artapanus, Concerning the Jews, quoted on p. 73 n. 3. 
T. Nicklin (in his Studies in Egyptian Chronology, 1928-29, 



as the same number of months as the years 
recorded by the Hebrews: that is, that all the 
months contained in the Hebrew record of years, 
should be reckoned as so many lunar years of the 
Egyptian calculation, in accordance with the total 
length of time reckoned from the creation of man 
in the beginning down to Mestraim. Mestraim was 
indeed the founder of the Egyptian race; and from 
him the first Egyptian dynasty must be held to 

7. But if the number of years is still in excess, it 
must be supposed that perhaps several Egyptian 
kings ruled at one and the same time ; for they say 
that the rulers were kings of This, of Memphis, of 
Sais, of Ethiopia, and of other places at the same 
time. It seems, moreover, that different kings held 
sway in different regions, and that each dynasty was 
confined to its own nome: thus it was not a succession 
of kings occupying the throne one after the other, but 
several kings reigning at the same time in different 
regions.| Hence arose the great total number of 
years. But let us leave this question and take up 
in detail the chronology of Egyptian history. 

(Continued in Fr. 7(5).) 

p- 39) says: ‘‘ The Manethonian Dynasties are not lists 
of rulers over all Egypt, but lists partly of more or less 
independent princes, partly of princely lines from which 
later sprang rulers over all Egypt. (Cf. the Scottish 
Stuarts, or the Electors of Hanover.) Some were mere 
Mayors of the Palace or princelets maintaining a pre- 
carious independence, or even more subordinate Governors 
of nomes, from whom, however, descended subsequent 
monarchs. (Cf. the Heptarchy in England.) ”’ 



Fr. 2. Syncellus, p. 73. 

1. Mera δὲ ταῦτα καὶ περὶ ἐθνῶν Αἰγυπτιακῶν 
« a an 
πέντε ἐν τριάκοντα δυναστείαις ἱστορεῖ τῶν λεγο- 
> a ~ 
μένων παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς θεῶν Kat ἡμιθέων καὶ νεκύων Kal 
~ ‘ 
θνητῶν, dv καὶ Εὐσέβιος ὁ Παμφίλου μνησθεὶς ἐν 
τοῖς Χρονικοῖς αὐτοῦ φησὶν οὕτως" 
“e > 4, A ~ \ e / \ A 
2. “ Αἰγύπτιοι δὲ θεῶν καὶ ἡμιθέων καὶ παρὰ 
4, / \ ~ α΄. / \ 
τούτοις νεκύων καὶ θνητῶν ἑτέρων βασιλέων πολλὴν 
καὶ φλύαρον συνείρουσι μυθολογίαν: οἱ γὰρ παρ᾽ 
a ” 
αὐτοῖς παλαιότατοι σεληναίους ἔφασκον εἶναι τοὺς } 
~ / ~ « 
ἐνιαυτοὺς ἐξ ἡμερῶν τριάκοντα συνεστῶτας, ot δὲ 
σ > / 
μετὰ τούτους ἡμίθεοι ὥρους ἐκάλουν τοὺς ἐνιαυτοὺς 
τοὺς 5 τριμηνιαίους. 
~ e / a 
3. Kai ταῦτα μὲν 6 Εὐσέβιος μεμφόμενος αὐτοῖς 
- , > / Ψ « ε ’ 
τῆς φλυαρίας εὐλόγως συνέγραψεν, ὃν 6 Πανό- 
~ « 2 /, 
Swpos od καλῶς, ws οἶμαι, ἐν τούτῳ μέμφεται, 
,ὔ A ~ 
λέγων ὅτι ἠπόρησε διαλύσασθαι τὴν ἔννοιαν τῶν 
Δ A / ~ 
συγγραφέων, ἣν αὐτὸς καινότερόν τι δοκῶν κατορ- 
θοῦν λέγει" 
Nar A ~ a? σ “- 
4, ““᾿Επειδὴ ἀπὸ τῆς τοῦ ᾿Αδὰμ πλάσεως ἕως 3 τοῦ 
τῇ De ’ ” ~ θ λ “- ~ β΄ ΜΝ 
νώχ, ἤτοι τοῦ καθολικοῦ κοσμικοῦ ασπβ' ἔτους, 
οὔτε μηνὸς οὔτε ἐνιαυτοῦ ἀριθμὸς ἡμερῶν ἐγνωρί- 
> ~ ~ 
ζετο, of δὲ ἐγρήγοροι, κατελθόντες ἐπὶ τοῦ καθολικοῦ 

1MSS. εἶναι τοὺς τ΄ μηνιαίους τοὺς ἐνιαυτοὺς : τ΄ μηνιαίους 
τοὺς 560]. Scaliger. 

2MSS. τοὺς ψ' τριμηνιαίους : ψ΄ delet m. 

8 ἕως add. m. 



Fr. 2 (from Syncellus). 

Thereafter! Manetho tells also of five Egyptian 
tribes which formed thirty dynasties, comprising 
those whom they call Gods, Demigods, Spirits of the 
Dead, and mortal men. Of these Eusebius, “‘ son ” 
of Pamphilus, gives the following account in his 
Chronica : “ Concerning Gods, Demigods, Spirits of 
the Dead, and mortal kings, the Egyptians have a 
long series of foolish myths. The most ancient 
Egyptian kings, indeed, alleged that their years 
were lunar years consisting of thirty days, whereas 
the Demigods who succeeded them gave the name 
héroi to years which were three months long.” So 
Eusebius wrote with good reason, criticizing the 
Egyptians for their foolish talk ; and in my opinion 
Panodérus 3 is wrong in finding fault with Eusebius 
here, on the ground that Eusebius failed to explain 
the meaning of the historians, while Panodérus 
thinks he himself succeeds by a somewhat novel 
method, as follows: 

“From the creation of Adam, indeed, down to 
Enoch, i.e. to the general cosmic year 1282, the 
number of days was known in neither month nor 
year; but the Egregori (or ‘ Watchers ’),? who had 

1 This passage follows after Appendix I., p. 210. 

? Panodérus (fi. c. 395-408 a.p.) and his contemporary 
Annianus were Egyptian monks who wrote on Chronology 
with the purpose of harmonizing Chaldean and Egyptian 
systems with that of the Jews. Panodérus used (and per- 
haps composed) the Book of Séthis (App. IV.). 

3 ᾿Εγρήγοροι, “ἡ Watchers, Angels ’’—in Enoch, 179, of the 
angels who fell in love with the daughters of men. The 
Greek word ’Eyp7yopo: is a mispronunciation of the Aramaic 
word used in Enoch, 179. 



κοσμικοῦ χιλιοστοῦ ἔτους, συναναστραφέντες τοῖς ἀν- 
/ 50. " > \ \ / ~ 4 
θρώποις ἐδίδαξαν αὐτοὺς τοὺς κύκλους τῶν δύο φωσ- 
τήρων δωδεκαζῳδίους εἶναι ἐκ μοιρῶν τριακοσίων 
«7 ¢€ Nata 4 > \ / 
ἑξήκοντα, ot δὲ ἀποβλέψαντες εἰς τὸν περιγειότερον, 
μικρότερον καὶ εὐδηλότερον τριακονθήμερον σελη- 
νιακὸν κύκλον ἐθέσπισαν εἰς ἐνιαυτὸν ἀριθμεῖσθαι, 
διὰ τὸ καὶ τὸν τοῦ ἡλίου κύκλον ἐν τοῖς αὐτοῖς 
/ L ~ > > / / 
δώδεκα ζῳδίοις πληροῦσθαι ἐν ἰσαρίθμοις μοίραις 
, “ ͵ \ , A 3 > a 
τξ΄. ὅθεν συνέβη τὰς βασιλείας τῶν παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς 
βασιλευσάντων θεῶν γενεῶν ἕξ, ἐν δυναστείαις 
Ef > 1 λ a θ / 4 λ 
ἕξ͵ κατ᾽ ἔτη ἐν σεληνιακοῖς τριακονθημέροις κύκλοις 
παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἀριθμεῖσθαι: ἃ καὶ συνῆξαν σελήνια a’ 
αν ἢ ὅλ \ ξθ' 5 ~ δὲ θ ΄ 
,απνπε΄ ἔτη, ἡλιακὰ D ταῦτα δὲ συναριθμούμενα 
A A ~ 7 / [2 A ν 
τοῖς πρὸ τῆς τούτων βασιλείας ἡλιακοῖς ανη΄ ἔτεσι 
/ « / τινας 439 « , A \ 
συνάγουσιν ὁμάδα ἐτῶν βκζ΄. ὁμοίως δὲ κατὰ 
τὰς δύο δυναστείας τῶν ἐννέα ἡμιθέων τῶν 
μηδέποτε γεγονότων ὡς γεγονότων ἔτη σιδ' καὶ 
ἥμισυ σπουδάζει συνιστᾶν ἀπὸ τῶν wry’ ale Aa 
ἦτοι τρόπων, ὡς γίνεσθαί φησι, σὺν MEO’, αρπγ΄' 8 
καὶ ἥμισυ ἔτη, καὶ συναπτόμενα τοῖς ἀπὸ Adap 
μέχρι τῆς τῶν θεῶν βασιλείας ανη΄ ἔτεσι συνάγειν 
ἔτη βσομβ’ ἕως τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ. , 
\ ~ \ ¢ ~ 
5. Kat ταῦτα μὲν ὁ Ilavddwpos tas κατὰ θεοῦ 
καὶ τῶν θεοπνεύστων γραφῶν Αἰγυπτιακὰς συγ- 
γραφὰς συμφωνεῖν αὐταῖς ἀγωνίζεται δεικνύναι, 
/ \ Ed / A ἰὃ ἣ σ 9. .& ~ 
μεμφόμενος τὸν Εὐσέβιον, μὴ εἰδὼς ὅτι καθ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ 
καὶ τῆς ἀληθείας ἀποδέδεικται ταῦτα αὐτοῦ τὰ 
1MSS. ἔτη alone: κατ᾽ ἔτη τη. 
3ωνή ὥρων or ὅρων m.: ὠνιώων MSS.: ἐνιαυσίων ὡρῶν 

3 apy’ m.: ,apvy’ MSS. 


descended to earth in the general cosmic year 1000, 
held converse with men, and taught them that the 
orbits of the two luminaries, being marked by the 
twelve signs of the Zodiac, are composed of 360 
parts. Observing the moon’s orbit which is nearer 
the earth, smaller, and more conspicuous, as it has 
a period of thirty days, men decided that it should 
be reckoned as a year, since the orbit of the sun also 
was filled by the same twelve signs of the Zodiac with 
an equal number of parts, 360. So it came to pass 
that the reigns of the Gods who ruled among them 
for six generations in six dynasties were reckoned in 
years each consisting of a lunar cycle of thirty days. 
The total in lunar years is 11,985, or 969 solar years. 
By adding these to the 1058 ' solar years of the period 
before their reign, they reach the sum total of 2027 
years.” Similarly, in the two dynasties of nine 
Demigods,—these being regarded as real, although 
they never existed,—Panodo6rus strives to make up 
2144 years out of 858 horoi (periods of three months) 
or tropot, so that with the 969 years they make, he 
says, 1183}, and these, when added to the 1058 
years from the time of Adam to the reign of the Gods, 
complete a total of 2242 years down to the Flood. 
Thus Panodérus exerts himself to show that the 
Egyptian writings against God and against our 
divinely inspired Scriptures are really in agreement 
with them. In this he criticizes Eusebius, not under- 
standing that these arguments of his, which are in- 
capable of proof or of reasoning, have been proved 

1 See Intro. p. xxx. 


Fr. 2,3 MANETHO 

> ΄, ’ \ > /, ” » 

ἀναπόδεικτά τε καὶ ἀσυλλόγιστα, εἴ γε... οὔτε 
Βαβυλὼν ἢ Χαλδαϊκὴ πρὸ τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ οὔτε 
ς Μ A ~ Ut > 4 > 
ἡ Αἴγυπτος πρὸ τοῦ Μεστρὲμ ἐβασιλεύθη, οἶμαι ὃ 

ὅτι οὐδ᾽ φκίσθη. .. 

Fr. 8. Syncellus, p. 32. 
Περὶ τῆς τῶν Αἰγυπτίων ἀρχαιολογίας. 

Μανεθῶ ὁ Σεβεννύτης ἀρχιερεὺς τῶν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ 
μιαρῶν ἱερῶν μετὰ Βήρωσσον γενόμενος ἐπὶ {|τολε- 
μαίου τοῦ Φιλαδέλφου γράφει τῷ αὐτῷ Πτολεμαίῳ, 
ψευδηγορῶν καὶ αὐτὸς ὡς ὁ Βήρωσσος͵ περὶ δυν- 
αστειῶν ς΄", ἤτοι θεῶν τῶν μηδέποτε γεγονότων ς΄ ,1 
οἵ, φησὶ, διαγεγόνασιν ἐπὶ ἔτη a’ jamme’. ὧν 
πρῶτος, φησὶ, θεὸς “Hfasoros ἔτη ,6 ἐβασίλευσε. 
ταῦτα τὰ θ ἔτη πάλιν τινὲς τῶν καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς ἱστορικῶν 
ἀντὶ μηνῶν σεληνιακῶν λογισάμενοι καὶ μερίσαντες 
τὸ τῶν ἡμερῶν πλῆθος τῶν αὐτῶν 9θ σεληνίων παρὰ 
τὰς τριακοσίας ἑξήκοντα πέντε ἡμέρας τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ 
συνῆξαν ἔτη Wl’ οδ΄, ξένον τι δοκοῦντες κατωρ- 
θωκέναι, γελοίων δὲ μᾶλλον εἰπεῖν ἄξιον τὸ ψεῦδος 

τῇ ἀληθείᾳ συμβιβάζοντες. 

Πρώτη δυναστεία Αἰγυπτίων. 

a’ ἐβασίλευσεν ἤφαιστος ἔτη ψκζ' vd’ 8 
΄ Ἥλιος ᾿Ηφαίστου, ἔτη π' ς΄. 

γ΄ ᾿Αγαθοδαίμων, ἔτη vs’ ui’. 

1MS. A ζ΄. 

?MS. A has πρώτη δυναστεία after Ἥφαιστος. 
> Miller: MSS. ψκδ' 4d’ (7243). 



against himself and against truth, since indeed . . . 
neither Babylon nor Chaldea was ruled by kings 
before the Flood, nor was Egypt before Mestrem, 
and in my opinion it was not even inhabited before 
that time.... 

Fr. 3 (from Syncellus). 

On the Antiquity of Egypt. 

Manetho of Sebennytus, chief priest of the accursed 
temples of Egypt, who lived later than Béréssos in 
the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, writes to this 
Ptolemy, with the same utterance of lies as Béréssos, 
concerning six dynasties or six gods who never 
existed: these, he says, reigned for 11,985 years. 
The first of them, the god Héphaestus, was king for 
9000 years. Now some of our historians, reckoning 
these 9000 years as so many lunar months, and 
dividing the number of days in these 9000 lunar 
months by the 365 days in a year, find a total of 
727% years. They imagine that they have attained 
a striking result, but one must rather say that it is 
a ludicrous falsehood which they have tried to pit 
against Truth. 

The First Dynasty of Egypt. 

1. Héphaestus reigned for 727? years. 

2. Hélios (the Sun), son of Héphaestus, for 801 

3. Agathodaemén, for 56 τ; years. 


Fr. 3, 4 MANETHO 

δ΄ Kpovos, ἔτη μίυ. 
ε΄ “Ootpis καὶ "Tous, ἔτη re’ 
΄ Τ7Τύφων, ἔτη κθ΄. 

ζ΄ *Qpos ἡμίθεος, ἔτη κε΄. 

Ἄρης ἡμιθεος, ἔτη Ky’. 

θ΄ Ανουβις ἡμίθεος, ἔτη ul. 

ιἐὁ ἩΗρακλῆς ἡμίθεος, ἐ ἔτη ue’. 
Ἀπόλλων ἡμίθεος, ἔ ἔτη κε΄. 

ιβ' "Aupwv ἡμίθεος, ἔτη λ΄. 

ιγ΄ Τιθοῆς ἡμίθεος, ἔτη KC’. 

ιδ΄ δΣῶσος ἡμίθεος, ἔτη AP’. 

ιε΄ Ζεὺς ἡμίθεος, ἔτη κ΄. 

Fr. 4. Excerpta Latina Barbari (Schéne, p. 215). 

Egyptiorum regnum invenimus vetustissimum 
omnium regnorum; cuius initium sub Manethono! 
dicitur memoramus scribere. Primum? deorum qui 
ab ipsis scribuntur faciam regna sic: 

Ifestum [i.e. Hephaestum] dicunt quidam deum 
regnare in Aegypto annos sexcentos LX XX: post 
hune Solem Iphesti annos LXXVII: post istum 

1 ὑπὸ Μανέθωνος Scaliger. 

2¥Frick (Chronica Minora, i., (1893, p. 286) restores the 
original Greek as follows: πρῶτον θεῶν τῶν παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς 
γραφομένων ποιήσω βασιλείας οὕτως. α΄ Ἥφαιστόν φασί τινες 
θεὸν βασιλεῦσαι ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ ἔτη χπ'. 

1 Total, 969 years. 
2 Total, 214 years. Total for Gods and Demigods, 

1183 years. See Fr. 2. 


4, Cronos, for 401 years. 
5. Osiris and Isis, for 35 years, 
6. Typhén, for 29 years." 

Demigods : 

7. Orus, for 25 years. 

8. Arés, for 23 years. 

9. Anubis, for 17 years. 
10. Héraclés, for 15 years. 
11. Apollé, for 25 years. 
12. Ammén, for 30 years. 
13. Tithoés,* for 27 years. 
14. Sdésus, for 32 years. 
15. Zeus, for 20 years.” 

Fr. 43 ( from Excerpta Latina Barbari). 

In the kingdom of Egypt we have the oldest of 
all kingdoms, and we are minded to record its begin- 
ning, as it is given by Manetho. First, I shall put 
down as follows the reigns of the Gods, as recorded 
by the Egyptians. Some say that the god Ηδ- 
phaestus reigned in Egypt for 680 years: after him, 
Sol [Hélios, the Sun], son of Héphaestus, for 77 

%This extract made by an anonymous and ignorant 
scribe depends chiefly upon Africanus. See Weill, La 
fin du moyen empire égyptien, pp. 640, 642 f., 655 f. 
Gelzer and Bauer have inferred that the Greek account 
translated by Barbarus was either the work of the 
Egyptian monk Annianus (see Fr. 2, p. 11 n. 2) or at 
least a source derived from him (Laqueur, &.-H. xiv. 1, 

* For the divinity Tithoés in two inscriptions of Coptos, 
see O. Guéraud in Ann. Serv. Antig., 35 (1935), pp. 5 f. 

\ 17 


Sosinosirim! annos CCCXX: post hune Oron 
ptoliarchum annos XXVIII: post hunc Tyfona 
annos XLYV.? Colliguntur deorum regna anni mille 

Deinceps Mitheorum ὃ regna sic: 

Prota* Anube S[amusim, qui etiam Aegyptiorum 
scripturas conposuit] annos LX XXIII. 

[Post hunc Apiona grammaticus qui secundum 
Inachum interpraetatur annos LXVII quem sub 
Argios initio regnaverunt.| 

1Corrected by the first hand from Sisinosirim: Sosin, 
Osirim Sealiger. Barbarus probably intended: post istum 
Sosin, post hune Osirim. Cf. Cedren., i. p. 36, 2: καὶ per’ 
αὐτὸν Σῶσις, εἶτα "Οσιρις. 

2 After XLV the digit I or II seems to have been erased. 

3 Frick restores: ἱξξῆς ᾿Ημιθέων βασιλεῖαι οὕτως: a’ πρῶτα 
"Ανουβις ἔτη πγ΄. β΄ μετὰ τοῦτον "Αμουσίν (φασί τινες βασιλεῦ- 
σαι, ὃν ᾿Απίων ὁ γραμματικὸς ὁ καὶ τὰς Αἰγυπτίων γραφὰς συνθεὶς 
κατὰ Ἴναχον ἑρμηνεύει τὸν ἐπ᾽ ᾿Αργείων ἀρχῆς βασιλεύσαντα ἔτη 

“μετὰ ταῦτα τοὺς Νεκύων βασιλέας ἡ ἡρμήνευσεν ᾿Ημιθέους καλῶν 
καὶ αὐτούς δ ὰπ τὸ κρατίστους καλῶν ἔ ετη, ρ΄. 

4 πρῶτα. Along with the reign of the demigod Anubis, 
Barbarus has preserved a note by Africanus referring to 
Amésis: see Fr. 52. This note was, for some reason, trans- 
ferred from its original place between Potestas XVI. and 
XVII. See Unger, Manetho, pp. 163f. This mangled 
sentence, as interpreted by Unger, Gelzer, and Frick, 
attests the value of the tradition preserved by Barbarus. 

1 The actual total of the items given is 1150 years. 
* The translation follows the restored Greek original : 
see note 3 on the text. 



years: next, Sosinosiris [Sésis and Osiris], for 320 
years: then Orus the Ruler, for 28 years; and 
after him, Typhon, for 45 years. Total for the 
reigns of the Gods, 1550 years.! 

Next come the reigns of the Demigods, as follows: 
first, Anubes? for 83 years; then after him, Amusis, 
some say, was king. About him, Apion the gram- 
marian,® who composed a history of Egypt, explained 
that he lived in the time of Inachus * who was king 
at the founding of Argos . . . for 67 years.® 

8 Apién the grammarian, born in Upper Egypt, lived 
at Rome in the time of Tiberius, Gaius, and Claudius: 
Tiberius called him by the nickname of ‘“ cymbalum 
mundi’’. As leader of the anti-Jewish movement, Apién 
was later attacked by Josephus in his Contra Apionem. 

The quotation from Apién appears to derive in part 
from the History of Ptolemy of Mendés: see Tatian, 
Or. adversus Graecos, § 38, in Migne, Patrologia Graeca, 
vi. 880-882, and in Miiller, F.H.G. iv. p. 485 (quoted in 
F.H.G. ii. p. 533). (Ptolemy of Mendés dated the 
Exodus to the reign of Amésis, who was contemporary 
with Inachus. Apiénin the fourth volume of his Aegyptiaca 
(in five volumes) stated that Auaris was destroyed by 
Amésis.) Much matter must have been common to the 
works of Ptolemy of Mendés and Apién: cf. Africanus 
in Eusebius, Praepar. Evang. x. 10, ‘‘ Apién says that in 
the time of Inachus Moses led out the Jews’’. Cf. Fr. 
52, 1, 53,9: 

4 The founder of the First Dynasty of kings of Argos, 
Inachus is said to have died twenty generations before 
the Fall of Troy, 1.6. circa 1850 B.c. Aegyptus and Danaus 
were fifth in descent from Inachus: cf. Fr. 50, § 102. 

5 This appears to be the length of the reign of Amésis, 
not of Inachus. Cf. Fr. 52, 1, where Africanus as recorded 
by Syncellus omits the number of years. 



I. Post hec! Ecyniorum ? reges interpraetavit, 
Imitheus ? vocans et ipsos? . . . annos duo 
milia C, fortissimos vocans. 

II. Mineus et pronepotes ipsius VII regnaverunt 
annos CCLIII.! 
III. Bochus et aliorum octo annos CCCII. 
IV. Necherocheus et aliorum VII annos CCXIV. 
V. Similiter aliorum XVII annos CCLXXVIL 
VI. Similiter aliorum XXI annos CCLVIII. 
VII. Othoi et aliorum VII annos CCIII. 
VIII. Similiter et aliorum XIV annos CXL. 
IX. Similiter et aliorum XX annos CCCCIX. 
X. Similiter et aliorum VII annos CCIYV. 

Hec ὃ finis de primo tomo Manethoni habens tem- 
pora annorum duo milia C. 

XI. Potestas Diopolitanorum annos LX. 
XII. Potestas Bubastanorum annos CLIII. 

1¥or haec. 

2'These words are perversions of Νεκύων and ᾿Ημιθέους 
respectively : see p. 18 n. 3. 

3 Tn the lacuna here, there would be an account of the 
mortal kings to whom the number 2100 (2300) belongs. 

4 Cf. Fr. 6, Dynasty I. 5 For haec. 

1The totals given by Barbarus are generally those of 
Africanus. Barbarus omits Manetho’s Dynasty VII. ; 
and Potestas X. is explained by Gelzer (Sextus Julius 
Africanus, p. 199) as being Manetho’s X. + XI. + 
Ammenemes (16 years) = 244 years. Total, 2300. 

2 The actual total of the items given is 2260 years. 

3 Potestas XI. is Manetho’s Dynasty XII. Barbarus 
therefore gives Dynasties XII.-XVIII.: the totals (cor- 
rected by Meyer, Aeg. Chron. 99, n. 2) are—XII. 160, 
XIII. 453, XIV. 184, XV. 284, XVI. 518, XVII. 151, 



I. Thereafter he [Manetho] gave an account of the 
kings who were Spirits of the Dead, calling them also 
Demigods, . . . who reigned for 2100 years: he 
called them “ very brave ” (Heroes). 

II. Mineus and seven of his descendants reigned 
for 253 years.} 

III. Bochus and eight other kings reigned for 302 


IV. Necherocheus and seven other kings for 214 

V. Similarly seventeen other kings for 277 years. 

VI. Similarly twenty-one other kings for 258 years. 

VII. Othoi and seven other kings for 203 years. 
VIII. Similarly fourteen other kings for 140 years. 

IX. Similarly twenty other kings for 409 years. 

X. Similarly seven other kings for 204 years. 

Here ends the First Book of Manetho, which 
contains a period of 2100 years.” 

XI.3 A dynasty of kings of Diospolis, for 60 years. 
XII. A dynasty of kings of Bubastus, for 153 

XVIII. 262 (+ XIX. 209). Sum total for Book II. 
2221 years: οἵ. Fr. 55 Africanus, 56 Eus. (Arm.), 2121 

The names of Potestates XII.-XVII., or Dynasties 
XIII.-XVIII., come from some other source than 
Manetho: the Tanites of Potestas XIII. or Dynasty XIV. 
appear to correspond with the Hyksés, just as in the 
Book of Séthis (App. IV.); while others may be local 
dynasties of the Hyksés age. The kings of Hermupolis 
(Potestas XVII.) apparently denote the kings of the 
Eighteenth Dynasty, whose names indicate the cult of the 
Moon-deities "Ioh and Théth of Hermupolis (Meyer, 
Gesch.® I. ii. p. 326). 


Fr. 4, 5 MANETHO 

XIII. Potestas Tanitorum annos CLXXXIV. 
XIV. Potestas Sebennitorum annos CCX XIV. 
XV. Potestas Memfitorum annos CCCXVIII. 
XVI. Potestas [liopolitorum annos CCX XI. 

XVII. Potestas Ermupolitorum annos CCLX. 

Usque ad septimam decimam potestatem secun- 
dum scribitur tomum,! ut docet numerum habentem 
annos mille quingentos XX. MHaec sunt potestates 

Fr. 5. Matatas, Chronographia, p. 25 (ΜΙΟΝΕ, 
Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 97). 

Ταῦτα δὲ τὰ παλαιὰ καὶ ἀρχαῖα βασίλεια τῶν 
Αἰγυπτίων Μανέθων συνεγράψατο" ἐν οἷς συγ- 
γράμμασιν αὐτοῦ ἐμφέρεται ἄλλως λέγεσθαι τὰς 
ἐπωνυμίας τῶν πέντε πλανητῶν ἀστέρων. Τὸν 
γὰρ λεγόμενον Κρόνον ἀστέρα ἐκάλουν τὸν λάμ- 

\ \ A ‘ / ‘ \ mM 
ποντα, Tov δὲ 4ιὸς τὸν φαέθοντα, τὸν δὲ “Apeos 
τὸν πυρώδη, τὸν δὲ ‘Adpoditns τὸν κάλλιστον, 
τὸν δὲ “Ἑρμοῦ τὸν στίλβοντα: ἅτινα μετὰ ταῦτα 
Σωτάτης ὁ σοφώτατος ἡρμήνευσε. Cf. id., p. 59: 
Αἰγυπτίων δὲ ἐβασίλευσε πρῶτος βασιλεὺς τῆς 

“ “- Ul ca ~ A ε ΑἹ Ἁ 
φυλῆς τοῦ Χάμ, υἱοῦ Νῶε, Φαραὼ ὁ καὶ Ναραχὼ 

1MS. totum. Frick restores the original Greek as 
fo.lows: μέχρι τῆς ιζ΄ δυναστείας ὁ δεύτερος γράφεται τόμος, ὡς 
δηλοῖ ὁ ἀριθμός, ἔχων ἔτη καφκ΄. 

1 The actual total of the items given is 1420 years. 
* 4407 codd. 



XIII. A dynasty of kings of Tanis, for 184 years. 
XIV. A dynasty of kings of Sebennytus, for 224 
XV. A dynasty of kings of Memphis, for 318 
XVI. A dynasty of kings of Héliopolis, for 221 
XVII. A dynasty of kings of Hermupolis, for 260 


The Second Book continues the record down to the 
Seventeenth Dynasty, and comprises 1520 years.' 
These are the Egyptian dynasties. 

Fr. 5 (from the Chronicle of Malalas). 

[After recording the reigns of Héphaestus (1680 
days), Hélios (4477 * days), Sésis, Osiris, Horus, and 
Thulis, Malalas adds :] 

These ancient reigns of early Egyptian kings are 
recorded by Manetho, and in his writings it is stated 
that the names of the five planets are given in other 
forms : Cronos [Saturn] they used to call the shining 
star; Zeus [Jupiter], the radiant star [Phaethon]; 
Arés [Mars], the fiery star; Aphrodité [Venus], the 
fairest; Hermés [Mercury], the glittering star. 
These names were later explained by the wise 
Sétatés [? Sdtadés or Palaephatus *]. 

The first king of Egypt belonged to the tribe of 
Cham [Ham], Noah’s son; he was Pharadh, who 
was also called Naracho. 

3 Palaephatus of Egypt, or Athens, wrote on Egyptian 
theology and mythology, c. 200 B.c.,—more than seven 
centuries earlier than Malalas himself (c. 4.0. 491-578). 


Fr. 5, 6 MANETHO 

καλούμενος. Τὰ οὖν πρὸ τούτου παλαιὰ βασίλεια 
Αἰγυπτίων ἐξέθετο Μανέθων ὃ σοφώτατος, ὡς 

Fr. 6. Syncellus, p. 99. 

᾿Επειδὴ δὲ τῶν ἀπὸ Meorpain Αἰγυπτιακῶν 
δυναστειῶν ' of χρόνοι ἕως Νεκταναβῶ χρειώδεις 
τυγχάνουσιν ἐν πολλοῖς τοῖς περὶ τὰς χρονικὰς 
καταγινομένοις ζητήσεις, αὐταὶ δὲ παρὰ Μανεθῶ 
ληφθεῖσαι τοῖς ἐκκλησιαστικοῖς ἱστορικοῖς δια- 
πεφωνημένως κατά τε τὰς αὐτῶν προσηγορίας καὶ 
τὴν ποσότητα τῶν χρόνων τῆς βασιλείας ἐκδέδον- 
ται, ἐπὶ τίνος τε αὐτῶν ᾿Ιωσὴφ ἡγεμόνευσε τῆς 
Αἰγύπτου καὶ μετ᾽ αὐτὸν 6 θεόπτης Μωῦσῆς τῆς 
mS A >? ? /, / «ε / > 
τοῦ ᾿Ισραὴλ ἐξ Αἰγύπτου πορείας ἡγήσατο, avay- 
καῖον ἡγησάμην δύο τῶν ἐπισημοτάτων ἐκδόσεις 
> / ‘ 4 > / / 
ἐκλέξασθαι καὶ ταύτας ἀλλήλαις παραθέσθαι, 
"4 ~ , \ ~ > > A Ed / 
φρικανοῦ τέ φημι καὶ τοῦ μετ᾽ αὐτὸν Εὐσεβίου 
~ , ͵ ¢ Ἃ \ > / 
τοῦ [Παμφίλου καλουμένου, ws av τὴν ἐγγίζουσαν 
τῇ γραφικῇ ἀληθείᾳ δόξαν ὀρθῶς ἐπιβάλλων τις 3 
καταμάθοι, τοῦτο πρό γε πάντων εἰδὼς ἀκριβῶς, 
ὅτι Ἀφρικανὸς μὲν εἴκοσιν ἔτη προστίθησιν ἐν τοῖς 
ἀπὸ ‘Addap ἕως τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ χρόνοις, καὶ ἀντὶ 
Popp’ ‘Bote ἔτη βούλεται εἶναι, ὅπερ οὐ δοκεῖ 
καλῶς € ἔχειν. Εὐσέβιος. δὲ Popp’ ὑγιῶς ἔθετο καὶ 
ὁμοφώνως τῇ γραφῇ. ἐν δὲ τοῖς ἀπὸ τοῦ κατα- 
~ > / , ΄σ ~ 3 Ἁ 
κλυσμοῦ ἀμφότεροι διήμαρτον ἕως τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ 

1 δυναστειῶν Bunsen: ἐτῶν MSS. 2 τις add. m. 



Now, the ancient reigns in Egypt before King 
Naraché were set forth by the wise Manetho, as has 
already been mentioned. 

Fr. 6 (from Syncellus), 

Since a knowledge of the periods of the Egyptian 
dynasties from Mestraim! down to Nectanabé ? is 
on many occasions needful to those who occupy 
themselves with chronological investigations, and 
since the dynasties taken from Manetho’s History 
are set forth by ecclesiastical historians with dis- 
crepancies in respect both to the names of the kings 
and the length of their reigns, and also as to who 
was king when Joseph was governor of Egypt, and 
in whose reign thereafter Moses,—he who saw God,— 
led the Hebrews in their exodus from Egypt, I have 
judged it necessary to select two of the most famous 
recensions and to set them side by side—I mean the 
accounts of Africanus and of the later Eusebius, the 
so-called “ son ” of Pamphilus,—so that with proper 
application one may apprehend the opinion which 
approaches nearest to Scriptural truth. It must, 
above all, be strictly understood that Africanus 
increases by 20 years the period from Adam to the 
Flood, and instead of 2242 years he makes it out to 
be 2262 years, which appears to be incorrect. On 
the other hand, Eusebius keeps to the sound reckon- 
ing of 2242 years in agreement with Scripture. In 
regard to the period from the Flood down to 
Abraham and Moses, both have gone astray by 130 

1See p. 7 n. 2. 
* Nectanab6é or Nectanebus, the last king of Dynasty 



καὶ Mwiicéws ἔτεσι pd’ τοῦ δευτέρου [Καϊνᾶν υἱοῦ 
"A 10 ‘ ~ ~ ~ , A ~ θ 4, 
ppakad καὶ γενεᾷ μιᾷ, TH ιγ΄, mapa τῷ θείῳ 
εὐαγγελιστῇ Λουκᾷ, ἀπὸ ᾿Αδὰμ κειμένῃ. ἀλλ᾽ ὁ 
\ "4 ‘ > - > ‘ "Ada 5 - 
μὲν Ἀφρικανὸς ἐν τοῖς ἀπὸ ‘Adau προστεθεῖσιν 
αὐτῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν ἔτεσιν Kk’ προαφήρ- 
παξε ταῦτα, καὶ ἐν τοῖς τοῦ Καϊνᾶν καὶ τῶν μετέ- 
’ ’ / A \ σ > 3 
meta pe μόνα λείπεται. διὸ καὶ ἕως ᾿Αβραὰμ, 
πρώτου ἔτους γσβ'΄ ἔτη ἐστοιχείωσεν. ὁ δὲ 
Εὐσέβιος ὁλοκλήρως τὰ pr’ ὑφελών, γρπδ' ἕως 
’ὔ ” > ‘ 55 
πρώτου ἔτους ᾿Αβραὰμ ἐξέδωκε. 

Περὶ τῶν [pera τὸν κατακλυσμὸν 
Αἰγύπτου δυναστειῶν, ὡς ὁ Ἀφρικανός. 
a’ Μετὰ νέκυας τοὺς ἡμιθέους πρώτη βασιλεία 3 
καταριθμεῖται βασιλέων ὀκτώ, ὧν πρῶτος 

1 Bracketed by Miiller. 2 δυναστεία Boeckh. 
1 Arphaxad, son of Shem: O.7. Genesis x. 22. “ Ar- 

haxad”’ is probably a Mesopotamian name (W. F. 
Albright, The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible 3, 
1932-3, p. 139). 

2Ν.Τ. Luke iii. 36. 

3 Eusebius reckoned 2242 years from Adam to the 
Flood, and 942 years from the Flood to Abraham. 

4 Dynasties I. and II., the Thinites: c. 3200-c. 2780 B.c. 

Note.—The dates which have been adopted throughout 
this book are those of Eduard Meyer, except where another 
authority is specified. Meyer’s revised dates (as in 
Die Altere Chronologie . . ., 1931) may conveniently be 
found in G. Steindorff’s chapter on Ancient History in 
Baedeker®, pp. ci. ff. In the Cambridge Ancient History, 
vol. i., H. R. Hall gives for the dynasties a series of dates 



years belonging to the second Cainan, son of 
Arphaxad,' even one generation, the thirteenth, from 
Adam, as it is recorded by the divine evangelist 
Luke.? But Africanus, in the 20 years which he 
added between Adam and the Flood, anticipated 
this ; and in the period of Cainan and his successors, 
only 110 years remain. Hence, down to the first 
year of Abraham he reckoned 3202 years; but 
Eusebius, completely omitting those 130 years, gave 
3184 years * as far as Abraham’s first year. 

Dynasty I. 

Here is the account which Africanus gives of the 
dynasties of Egypt [after the Flood]. 

1. In succession to the spirits of the Dead, the 
Demigods,—the first royal house * numbers 
eight kings, the first of whom Ménés* of 

which differ from those of Breasted and the German 
School: he assigns earlier dates to the first twelve 
dynasties, e.g. Dynasty I. c. 3500 B.c. A. Scharff, on the 
other hand, dates the beginning of Dynasty I. c. 3000 B.c. 
(Journ. of Eg. Arch. xiv., 1928, pp. 275 f.). 

Dynasty I. For the identifications of Manetho’s 
kings with monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, 
Geschichte des Altertums δ, I. ii. p. 140: he identifies (1) 
Ménés, (2) Atoti I., II., III., (5) Usaphais, (6) Miebis. 

(3) Kenkenés and (5) Usaphais are two names of the 
same king : see Newberry and Wainwright, “King Udymu 
(Den) and the Palermo Stone” in Ancient Egypt, 1914, 

. 148 ff. 
i On Ménés (c. 3200 B.c.) see P. E. Newberry in Winifred 
Brunton’s Great Ones of Ancient Egypt, 1929: Min in Hero- 
dotus, ii. 4. 


Μήνης Owirns ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη Ep’: 
ὑπὸ ἱπποποτάμου διαρπαγεὶς διεφθάρη. 
β΄ Ἄθωθις υἱός, ἔτη νζ΄’, ὃ τὰ ἐν Μέμφει βασί- 
λεια οἰκοδομήσας" οὗ φέρονται βίβλοι ἀνα- 
τομικαί, ἰατρὸς γὰρ ἢ ἦν. 
y’ Κενκένης υἱός, ἔτη λα΄. 
δ΄ Οὐενέφης υἱός, ἔτη κγ΄ ἐφ᾽ οὗ λιμὸς κα- 
τέσχε τὴν Αἴγυπτον μέγας. οὗτος τὰς 
περὶ Κωχώμην ἤγειρε πυραμίδας. 
ε Οὐσαφαῖδος υἱός, ἔτη ere 
ς΄ Μιεβιδὸς vids, ἔτη xs’. 
ζ΄ Σεμέμψης υἱός, ἔτη wy’: ἐφ᾽ οὗ φθορὰ 
μεγίστη κατέσχε τὴν Αἴγυπτον. 
η΄ Βιηνεχὴς υἱός, ἔτη Ks’. 
Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη avy’. 
Τὰ τῆς πρώτης δυναστείας οὕτω πως καὶ Εὐσέ- 
βιος ὡς 6 Ἀφρικανὸς ἐξέθετο. 

1This (Anc. Egyptian Theny), near Girga, about 310 
miles S. of Cairo (Baedeker®, p. 231), the capital of the 
nome of This, and the seat of the First and Second Dyn- 
asties. The cemetery of the First Dynasty kings was 
near Abydos: see Petrie, Royal Tombs, i. and ii., and 
Baedeker 8, p. 260. 

2 For a representation of a king fighting with a hippo- 
potamus, see a seal-impression in Petrie, Royal Tombs, 
II. vii. 6; and for a hippopotamus-hunt, see a year-name 
of Udymu, Schafer, Palermo Stone, p. 20, No. 8. 

With the whole story, cf. the miraculous deliverance 
of Ménas by a crocodile in Diodorus Siculus, i. 89. 

3 Building of palace at Memphis—by Min or Ménés, 
Herodotus, ii. 99, Josephus, Ant. viil. 6, 2, 155; by his 
son Athéthis, says Manetho; by Uchoreus, Diod. i. 50. 



This! reigned for 62 years. He was carried 
off by a hippopotamus? and perished. 

2. Athdéthis, his son, for 57 years. He built the 
palace at Memphis;* and his anatomical 
works 4 are extant, for he was a physician. 

3. Kenkenés, his son, for 31 years. 

4. Uenephés, his son, for 23 years. In his reign a 
great famine seized Egypt. He erected the 
pyramids near Kéchémé.* 

5. Usaphaidos,® his son, for 20 years. 

6. Miebidos,® his son, for 26 years. 

7. Semempsés, his son, for 18 years. In his reign 
a very great calamity befell Egypt. 

8. Biénechés, his son, for 26 years. 

Total, 253 years.’ 

Eusebius also sets out the details of the First 
Dynasty in much the same way as Africanus. 

4For the later study of anatomy (including, perhaps, 
the practice of vivisection) by kings of Ptolemaic Egypt, 
see G. Lumbroso, Glossario, s.v. ᾿Ανατομική. 

5 Kéch6mé has been identified with Sakkara, and ex- 
cavations carried out there in the Archaic Cemetery from 
1935 by W. B. Emery (assisted by Zaki Saad) have gone 
far to confirm Manetho. Several tombs which date from 
the First Dynasty were discovered at Sakkara in 1937 and 
1938. One of these, the tomb of Nebetka under the 5th 
king of Dynasty I., was found to contain in its interior 
a stepped-pyramid construction of brickwork: during the 
building the form of the tomb was altered to a palace- 
facade mastaba. 

‘These forms are really the genitives of the names 
Usaphais and Miebis. 

7 The actual total of the items given is 263 years. 



Fr. 7 (a). Syncellus, p. 102. KATA EYZEBION. 

7 ‘ ~ ‘ A A ‘ 1 
ept τῶν [μετὰ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν] 

> , ~ e > , 
Αἰγυπτίων δυναστειῶν, ὡς Εὐσέβιος. 

Μετὰ νέκυας καὶ τοὺς ἡμιθέους πρώτην δυνα- 
στείαν καταριθμοῦσι βασιλέων ὀκτώ ὧν γέγονε 

’ὔ’ Δ / > ~ « / > 4? Φ 
Μήνης, ὃς διασήμως αὐτῶν ἡγήσατο. ἀφ᾽ οὗ 
τοὺς ἐξ ἑκάστου γένους βασιλεύσαντας ἀναγρά- 
ψομεν ὧν " ἡ διαδοχὴ τοῦτον ἔχει τὸν τρόπον᾽ 

‘ M ’ὔ Θ / \ ε , > / ‘ 
a’ Μήνης Θινίτης καὶ οὗ τούτου ἀπόγονοι [ιζ΄, 
ἐν ἄλλῳ δὲ] 8 ζ7, ὃν Ἡρόδοτος Μῆνα 
> / > / μ᾿ , Α͂Ό, 
ὠνόμασεν, ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτεσιν ξ΄. οὗτος 
ὑπερόριον στρατείαν ἐποιήσατο καὶ ἔνδοξος 
Θ ε A 4 ὃ ΝΡ / « / θ 
ἐκρίθη, ὑπὸ" δὲ ἱπποποτάμου ἡρπάσθη. 
’ Ἄθωθις ὃ τούτου υἱὸς ἦρξεν ἔτεσιν Kl’, καὶ 
τὰ ἐν Μέμφει βασίλεια ῴὠκοδόμησεν, ἰατρι- 
4 > / A / > Ἁ 
κήν τε ἐξήσκησε καὶ βίβλους ἀνατομικὰς 

γ΄ Κενκένης 6 τούτου vids, ἔτη AQ’. 

5’ Οὐενέφης, ἔτη μβ΄. ἐφ᾽ οὗ λιμὸς κατέσχε 
τὴν χώραν, ὃς καὶ τὰς πυραμίδας τὰς περὶ 
Κωχώμην ἤγειρε. 

ε΄ Οὐσαφάϊς," ἔτη x’. 

ς΄ Νιεβάϊς," ἔτη xs’. 

1 Bracketed by Miller. 2 Vulgo ἀναγραψαμένων. 
* Bracketed by Gelzer. 4 ἵσπου A, ἵππου B. 
5 Οὐσαφαής A. 5 Νιεβαής A. 



Fr. 7 (a) (from Syncellus). AccoRDING To EvusEsivs.! 

Here is the account which Eusebius gives of the 
Egyptian dynasties [after the Flood]. 

In succession to the Spirits of the Dead and the 
Demigods, the Egyptians reckon the First Dynasty 
to consist of eight kings. Among these was Ménés, 
whose rule in Egypt was illustrious. I shall record 
the rulers of each race from the time of Ménés ; their 
succession is as follows : 

1. Ménés of This, with his [17, or in another 
copy] 7 descendants,—the king called Mén by 
Herodotus,—reigned for 60 years. He made 
a foreign expedition and won renown, but 
was carried off by a hippopotamus. 

2. Athdthis, his son, ruled for 27 years. He built 
the palace at Memphis ; he practised medicine 
and wrote anatomical books. 

3. Kenkenés, his son, for 39 years. 

4. Uenephés, for 42 years. In his reign famine 
seized the land. He built the pyramids near 

5. Usaphais, for 20 years. 

6. Niebais, for 26 years. 

1 The version (transmitted to us by Syncellus) which 
Eusebius gives of the Epitome of Manetho shows con- 
siderable differences from Africanus, both in the names 
of kings and in the length of their reigns. Peet (Egypt 
and the Old Testament, pp. 25 f.) says: ‘‘ The astonishing 
variations between their figures are an eloquent testimony 
to what may happen to numbers in a few centuries through 
textual corruption.’”’ Petrie (History of Egypt, i. p. viii) 
compares the corruptions in such late Greek chronicles 
as those of the Ptolemies (c.v./A.D.). 



i Σεμ ἔμψη om ἔτη (η΄ " ἐφ᾽ οὗ πολλὰ παράσημα 
ἐγένετο καὶ μεγίστη φθορά. 

η΄ Οὐβιένθης, ἔτη κε΄. 

Οἱ πάντες ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη σνβ'. 

(0) Eusesius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
pp- 94 sqq. 

Post manes atque heroas primam dynastiam 
numerant VIII regum, quorum primus fuit Menes,} 
gloria regni administrandi praepollens: a quo exorsi 
singulas regnantium familias diligenter scribemus, 
quarum successiva series ita contexitur : 

Menes Thinites eiusque posteri septem (quem 
Herodotus Mina nuncupavit). Hic annis 
XXX regnavit. Idem et extra regionis 
suae fines cum exercitu progressus est, et 
gloria rerum gestarum inclaruit. Ab hippo- 
potamo genio? raptus est. 

Athothis, huius filius, regno potitus est annis 
XXVIII. Is regia sibi palatia Memphi con- 
struxit, et medicam item artem coluit, quin 
et libros de ratione secandorum oe 

Cencenes eius filius, annis XX XIX. 

Vavenephis, annis XLII, cuius aetate fames 
regionem corripuit. Is pyramidas prope Cho 
oppidum ὃ excitavit. 

1 Corr. edd.: MSS. Memes. 

2 Miiller conjectures the Greek original to have been: 

ὑπὸ δαίμονος δὲ ἱπποποτάμουι But the Armenian text, liter- 

ally translated, is: ‘‘ by a horse-shaped river-monster’”’ 
(Karst, Margoliouth). 



7. Semempsés, for 18 years. In his reign there 
were many portents and a very great calamity. 
8. Ubienthés, for 26 years. 

The total of all reigns, 252 years.} 


In succession to the Spirits of the Dead and the 
Demigods, the Egyptians reckon the First Dynasty 
to consist of eight kings. The first of these was 
Ménés, who won high renown in the government of 
his kingdom. Beginning with him, I shall carefully 
record the royal families one by one : their succession 
in detail is as follows : 

Ménés of This (whom Herodotus named Min) and 
his seven descendants. He reigned for 30 
years, and advanced with his army beyond 
the frontiers of his realm, winning renown by 
his exploits. He was carried off by a hippo- 
potamus god (3). 

Athothis, his son, held the throne for 27 years. He 
built for himself a royal palace at Memphis, 
and also practised the art of medicine, writing 
books on the method of anatomy. 

Cencenes, his son, for 39 years. 

Vavenephis, for 42 years. In his time famine 
seized the land. He reared pyramids near 
the town of Cho. 

1 The actual total of the items given is 258 years. 
2 See note 2 on the text. 

3 Apparently = X@ κώμην, tor Κωχώμην. 

Fr. 7, 8 MANETHO 

Usaphais, annis XX. 

Niebais, annis X X VI. 

Mempses, annis XVIII. Sub hoc multa prodigia 
itemque maxima lues acciderunt. 

Vibenthis,! annis X XVI. 

Summa dominationis annorum CCLII. 

Fr. 8. Syncellus, p. 101. KATA A®PIKANON. 

Δευτέρα δυναστεία Θινιτῶν βασιλέων 
> / - ~ / ” , 27? a / 
ἐννέα, ὧν πρῶτος Βοηθός, ἔτη An’: ἐφ᾽ οὗ χάσμα 

\ / > / \ > fA / 
κατὰ Βούβαστον ἐγένετο καὶ ἀπώλοντο πολλοί. 

B’ Καιέχως, ἔτη AO’: ἐφ᾽ οὗ οἱ βόες “Ams ἐν 

Μέμφει καὶ Μνεῦις ἐν ᾿“Ηλιουπόλει καὶ ὁ 
Μενδήσιος τράγος ἐνομίσθησαν εἶναι θεοί. 

1One MS. (6) has Vibethis. 

1 Karst gives 270 years as the total transmitted in the 
Armenian version. The total of the items as given above 
is 228 years. 

* Dynasty II.—to c. 2780 B.c. For identifications with 
the Monuments, etc., see Meyer, Geschichte δ, I. ii. p. 146: 
he identifies (1) Boéthos, (2) Kaiech6és or Kechéus, (3) 
Binéthris, (4) Tlas, (5) Sethenés, (7) Nephercherés, 
(8) Sesdédchris. For (1) to (δ), see G. A. Reisner, The 
Development of the Egyptian Tomb, 1936, p. 123. 

3 Bubastus or Bubastis (Baedeker 8, p. 181), near Zagazig 
in the Delta: Anc. Egyptian Per-Baste, the Pi-beseth of 



Usaphais, for 20 years. 

Niebais, for 26 years. 

Mempses, for 18 years. In his reign many portents 
and a great pestilence occurred. 

Vibenthis, for 26 years. 

Total for the dynasty, 252 years.! 

Dynasty II. 

Fr. 8 ( from Syncellus). AccorpiNc To AFRICANUS. 

The Second Dynasty” consists of nine kings of 
This. The first was Boéthos, for 38 years. In his 
reign a chasm opened at Bubastus,? and many 


2. Kaiechés, for 39 years. In his reign the bulls,* 
Apis at Memphis and Mnevis at Heliopolis, 
and the Mendesian goat were worshipped as 


Ezekiel xxx. 17. See also Herodotus, ii. 60, 1371. The 
kings of Dynasty XXII. resided at Bubastis. 

Earthquakes have always been rare in Egypt (Euseb., 
Chron. Graec. p. 42, 1. 25; Pliny, H.N. i. 82); but 
Bubastis is situated in an unstable region: see H. G. 
Lyons in Cairo Scientific Journal, i. (1907), p. 182. It 
stands on an earthquake line, which runs to Crete. A 
deep boring made at Bubastis failed to reach rock. 

* The worship of Apis is earlier even than Dynasty II. : 
see Palermo Stone, Schafer, p. 21, No. 12 (in reign of 
Udymu). For Apis, see Herodotus, ii. 153, and Diod. 
Sic. i. 84, 85 (where all three animals are mentioned). 
The goat was a cult animal in very early times: ¢f. 
Herodotus, ii. 46. 


Fr. 8, 9 MANETHO 

γ΄ BivwOpis, ἔτη μζ΄. ἐφ᾽ οὗ ἐκρίθη τὰς 
γυναῖκας βασιλείας γέρας ἔχειν. 
ὃ λᾶς, Ἐπ if’. 
ε΄ Σεθένης, ἔτη pa’. 
ς΄ Χαίρης, én i’. 
ζ΄ Νεφερχέρης, ἔτη κε" ἐφ᾽ οὗ μυθεύεται 
τὸν Νεῖλον μέλιτι κεκραμένον ἡμέρας ἕν- 
δεκα ῥυῆναι. 
‘ ‘ ” , a σ΄ > - ͵ 
η΄ Σέσωχρις, ἔτη μη΄, ὃς ὕψος εἶχε πηχῶν ε΄, 
παλαιστῶν ' γ΄. 
θ΄ Χενερής, ἔτη λ΄. 
Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη τβ΄. 
« ~ 4 \ 4 , 4 A 
od πρώ 
Ομοῦ πρώτης καὶ δευτέρας δυναστείας [μετὰ τὸν 
κατακλυσμὸν) ἔτη φνε΄ κατὰ τὴν δευτέραν ἔκδοσιν 

Fr. 9. Syncellus, p. 103. KATA ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

Δευτέρα δυναστεία βασιλέων ἐννέα. 

Πρῶτος Βῶχος, ἐφ᾽ οὗ χάσμα κατὰ Βούβαστον 
ἐγένετο, καὶ πολλοὶ ἀπώλοντο. 

Μεθ᾿ ὃν δεύτερος Καιχῶος,2 ὅτε καὶ 6 “Ams καὶ 
ὁ Μνεῦις, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὁ Μενδήσιος τράγος θεοὶ 

1 Boeckh, Bunsen: MSS. πλάτος. 
2 Miller: MSS. μεθ᾽ ὃν καὶ δεύτερος XGos. 



3. Binéthris, for 47 years. In his reign it was 
decided that women ! might hold the kingly 

4. Tlas, for 17 years. 

5. Sethenés, for 41 years. 

6. Chairés, for 17 years. 

7. Nephercherés, for 25 years. In his reign, the 
story goes, the Nile flowed blended with 
honey for 11 days. 

8. Seséchris, for 48 years: his stature was 5 cubits, 
3 palms.” 

9. Chenerés, for 30 years. 

Total, 302 years. 

Total for the First and Second Dynasties [after the 
Flood], 555 years, according to the second edition of 

Fr. 9 ( from Syncellus). Accorpinc To EvseBIvs. 

The Second Dynasty consisted of nine kings. 
First came Bochos, in whose reign a chasm opened 
at Bubastus, and many perished. 

He was succeeded by Kaichéos (or Chéos), in 
whose time Apis and Mnevis and also the Mendesian 
goat were worshipped as gods. 

1 No queens’ names are recorded in the Royal Lists 
of Abydos and Karnak. Herodotus (ii. 100) records 
one queen: Diod. Sic. i. 44 (from Hecataeus) reckons 
the number of Egyptian queens as five. 

* The stature of each king is said to be noted in the 
records mentioned by Diodorus Siculus, i. 44, 4. Cf. 
infra, Fr. 35, No. 3, App. II. No. 6 (p. 216). 


Fr. 9, 10 MANETHO 

γ΄ Βίοφις, ἐφ᾽ οὗ ἐκρίθη καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας 
βασιλείας γέρας ἔχειν. καὶ μετὰ τούτους 
ἄλλοι τρεῖς, ἐφ’ ὧν οὐδὲν παράσημον 

ζ΄ ᾿Επὶ δὲ τοῦ ἑβδόμου μυθεύεται τὸν Νεῖλον 
μέλιτι κεκραμένον ἡμέραις ἕνδεκα ῥυῆναι. 

η΄ Μεθ᾿ ὃν “Σέσωχρις -, ἔτη» μη΄, ὃς λέγεται 
γεγονέναι ὕψος ἔχων πηχῶν ε΄, παλαιστῶν 
γ' τὸ μέγεθος. 

θ' ᾿Επὶ δὲ τοῦ & οὐδὲν ἀξιομνημόνευτον ὑπῆρχεν. 
Οἱ καὶ ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτεσι σηζ' 

Ὅ ~ / \ ὃ ͵ ,ὔ Μ ΤΣ 
μοῦ πρώτης καὶ δευτέρας δυναστείας ἔτη Py 
κατὰ τὴν ἔκδοσιν Εὐσεβίου. 

Fr. 10. Ευβεβιῦβ, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p- 96. 

Secunda dynastia regum IX. 

Primus Bochus: sub eo specus ingens Bubasti 
subsedit multosque mortales hausit. 

Post eum Cechous, quo tempore! Apis et Mnevis 
atque Mendesius hircus dii esse putabantur. 

Deinde Biophis, sub quo lege statutum est, ut 
feminae quoque regiam dignitatem obtinerent. 

Tum alii tres, quorum aetate nullum insigne 
facinus patratum est. 

Sub septimo mythici aiunt flumen Nilum moelle 
simul et aqua fluxisse undecim diebus. 

1 Miller: MS. idemque. 


3. Biophis, in whose reign it was decided that 
women also might hold the kingly office. In 
the reigns of the three succeeding kings, no 
notable event occurred. 

7. In the seventh reign, as the story goes, the Nile 
flowed blended with honey for 11 days. 

8. Next, Seséchris was king for 48 years: the 
greatness of his stature is said to have been 
5 cubits 3 palms. 

9. In the ninth reign there happened no event 
worthy of mention. These kings ruled for 
297 years. 

Total for the First and Second Dynasties, 549 years, 
according to the recension of Eusebius. 


The Second Dynasty consisted of nine kings. 

First came Béchus, in whose reign a huge hole 
opened at Bubastus, and swallowed up many 

He was succeeded by Cechous, in whose time 
Apis and Mnevis and the Mendesian goat were 
worshipped as gods. 

Next came Biophis, in whose reign it was decreed 
by law that women also might hold the royal office. 

In the reigns of the three succeeding kings, no 
notable event occurred. 

Under the seventh king fabulists tell how the 
river Nile flowed with honey as well as water for 
11 days. 


ΕΒ. 10,11] MANETHO 

Postea Sesochris annis XLVIII, quem aiunt quin- 
que cubitos altum, tres vero palmos latum fuisse. 

Sub nono tandem nihil memoria dignum actum 

Hi regnaverunt annis CCXCVII. 

Fr. 11. Syncellus, p. 104. A@PIKANOY. 

Τρίτη δυναστεία Μεμφιτῶν βασιλέων 
> / an / 27> 4 
ἐννέα, av a’ Νεχερώφης, ἔτη Kn’: ἐφ᾽ οὗ 
Wiguesta ἀπέστησαν Αἰγυπτίων, καὶ τῆς σελήνης παρὰ 

λόγον αὐξηθείσης διὰ δέος ἑαυτοὺς παρέδοσαν. 
B’ Τόσορθρος, ἔτη KO’, «ἐφ᾽ οὗ ᾿Ϊμούθης 3» 

“Ὁ 3 \ \ ας 9 > , 

οὗτος Ἀσκληπιὸς «παρὰ τοῖς 5) Αἰγυπτίοις 

1 Νεχορόφης Α. 3 Conj. Sethe. 

1 For this absurd perversion of the Greek words, see 
p- 36 n. 1: πλάτος was added, perhaps as a corruption 
of παλαιστῶν, and replaced μέγεθος in the Greek version of 

2 The Old Kingdom, Dynasties III.-V.: c. 2780-c. 2420 B.c. 

Dynasty 1Π1., c. 2780-c.27208.c. For identifications with 
monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, Geschichte ὃ, 
I. ii. p. 174: he identifies (2) Tosorthos (Zoser I.—‘‘ the 
Holy ’’), and holds that (1) Necheréphés is one name 
of Kha‘sekhemui, (6) Tosertasis may be Zoser II. Atoti, 
and (9) Kerpherés may be Neferkeré‘ IT. 

8 Zoser was not the first builder with hewn stone: his 
predecessor, Kha‘sekhemui, used squared blocks of lime- 
stone for building purposes; see Petrie, Royal Tombs, 
ii. p. 13. Granite blocks had already formed the floor 
of the tomb of Udymu (Dynasty I.). 

Two tombs of Zoser are known: (1) a mastaba at Bét 
Khallaf near This (Baedeker 8, p. 231), see J. Garstang, 
Mahasna and Bét Khalléf; and (2) the famous Step 



Next, Sesochris ruled for 48 years: he is said to 
have been 5 cubits high and 3 palms broad.! 

Finally, under the ninth king no memorable event 

These kings reigned for 297 years. 

Dynasty III. 

Fr. 11 (from Syncellus). Tue Account or AFrt- 

The Third Dynasty ? comprised nine kings of 

1. Necheréphés, for 28 years. In his reign the 
Libyans revolted against Egypt, and when 
the moon waxed beyond reckoning, they 
surrendered in terror. 

2. Tosorthros,? for 29 years. <In his reign lived 
Imuthés,4> who because of his medical skill 
has the reputation of Asclepios among the 

Pyramid at Sakkara, which was the work o. the great 
architect Imhotep (Baedeker 8, p. 156 f.). 

‘If the emendation in the text be not accepted, the 
statement would surely be too inaccurate to be attributed 
to Manetho. The Egyptian Asclepios was Imouth or 
Imhotep of Memphis, physician and architect to King 
Zoser, afterwards deified: on Philae (now for the most 
part submerged) Ptolemy II. Philadelphus built a little 
temple to Imhotep. See Sethe, Untersuchungen, ii. 4 
(1902): J. B. Hurry, Imhotep (Oxford, 1926). 

One of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, edited by Grenfell 
and Hunt, P. Oxy. XI. 1381, of i./a.p., has for its subject 
the eulogy of Imuthés-Asclepius: the fragment pre- 
served is part of the prelude. See G. Manteuffel, De 
Opusculis Graecis Aegypti e papyris, ostracis, lapidibusque 
collectis, 1930, No. 3. 


Fr. 11, 12 MANETHO 

κατὰ τὴν ἰατρικὴν νενόμισται, καὶ τὴν διὰ 
ξεστῶν λίθων οἰκοδομίαν εὕρατο - ἀλλὰ καὶ 
γραφῆς ἐπεμελήθη. 

y’ Tvpets} erm @. 

8 Μέσωχρις, ἔτη ιζ΄. 

ε΄ Σ᾿ ὠῦφις, ἔτη ws’. 

ς΄ Τοσέρτασις, ἔτη fh’. 

ζ΄ Ἄχης, ἔτη pp’. 

Σήφουρις, «ἔτη» λ΄, 

θ’ Κερφέρης, ἔτη xs’. 



Ὅ “ Ν δ' 
μοῦ, ἔτη avd’. 
¢ A ~ ~ ~ be ‘ 
Ομοῦ τῶν τριῶν δυναστειῶν κατὰ ᾿Αφρικανὸν 

ἔτη PEO’. 

Fr. 12 (a). Syncellus, p. 106. KATA ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

Τρίτη δυναστεία Μεμφιτῶν βασιλέων 


a’ Νεχέρωχις, ἐφ᾽ οὗ Λίβυες ἀπέστησαν Αἰγυπ- 
τίων, καὶ τῆς σελήνης παρὰ λόγον αὐξη- 
θείσης διὰ δέος ἑαυτοὺς παρέδοσαν. 

B’ Μεθ᾿ ὃν Σέσορθος. .., ὃς Ἀσκληπιὸς παρὰ 
Αἰγυπτίοις ἐκλήθη διὰ τὴν ἰατρικήν. οὗτος 

\ \ \ ~ / > A 4 
καὶ τὴν διὰ ξεστῶν λίθων οἰκοδομὴν εὕρατο, 
ἀλλὰ καὶ γραφῆς" ἐπεμελήθη. 

Οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ ἕξ οὐδὲν ἀξιομνημόνευτον ἔπραξαν. 

Οἱ καὶ ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτεσιν phn’. 

« ~ ~ ~ ~ A A Ed ΄ 

Ομοῦ τῶν τριῶν δυναστειῶν κατὰ τὸν Εὐσέβιον 
” ‘ 
ἔτη ψμζ΄. 

1 Τύρις A. 


Egyptians, and who was the inventor of the 
art of building with hewn stone. He also 
devoted attention to writing. 
. Tyreis (or Tyris), for 7 years. 
. Mesdchris, for 17 years. 
Séyphis, for 16 years. 
. Tosertasis, for 19 years. 
. Achés, for 42 years. 
. Séphuris, for 30 years. 
- Kerpherés, for 26 years. 
Total, 214 years. 
Total for the first three dynasties, according to 
Africanus, 769 years. 


Fr. 12 (a). (from Syncellus), AccoRDING TO 

The Third Dynasty consisted of eight kings of 
Memphis : 

1. Necheréchis, in whose reign the Libyans re- 
volted against Egypt, and when the moon 
waxed beyond reckoning, they surrendered 
in terror. 

2. He was succeeded by Sesorthos . . .: he was 
styled Asclepios in Egypt because of his 
medical skill. He was also the inventor of 
the art of building with hewn stone, and 
devoted attention to writing as well. 

The remaining six kings achieved nothing worthy 

of mention. These eight kings reigned for 198 years. 

Total for the first three dynasties, according to 

Eusebius, 747 years. 


Fr. 12, 14 MANETHO 

(b) Eusresrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
Ρ. 96. 

Tertia dynastia Memphitarum regum VIII. 

Necherochis, sub quo Libyes ab Aegyptiis defec- 
erunt: mox intempestive! crescente luna territi ad 
obsequium reversi sunt. 

Deinde Sosorthus . . ., qui ob medicam artem 
Aesculapius ab Aegyptiis vocitatus est. Is etiam 
sectis lapidibus aedificiorum struendorum auctor 
fuit: libris praeterea scribendis curam impendit. 

Sex reliqui nihil commemorandum gesserunt. 

Regnatum est annis CXCVII. 

Fr. 14. Syncellus, p. 105. KATA A@®PIKANON. 

Τετάρτη δυναστεία Μεμφιτῶν avy- 
γενείας ἑτέρας βασιλεῖς η΄. 

1intempestive, Margoliouth; importune, Aucher; 
immaniter, Mai. 

1 Dynasty IV., c. 2720-c. 2560 B.c. For identifications 
with monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, Ge- 
schichte δ, I. ii. p. 181: he identifies (1) Séris (Snofru), (2) 
Suphis I. (Cheops, Khufu), then after Dedefré‘ (not men- 
tioned by Manetho), (3) Suphis II. (Chephren), (4) Men- 
cherés (Mycerinus), and finally (an uncertain identification). 
(7) Sebercherés (Shepseskaf). For (3) Chephren and 




The Third Dynasty consisted of eight kings of 
Memphis : 

Necherochis, in whose reign the Libyans revolted 
against Egypt: later when the moon waxed un- 
seasonably, they were terrified and returned to 
their allegiance. 

Next came Sosorthus...: he was_ styled 
Aesculapius by the Egyptians because of his medical 
skill. He was also the inventor of building with 
hewn stone ; and in addition he devoted care to the 
writing of books. 

The six remaining kings did nothing worthy of 
mention. The reigns of the whole dynasty amount 
to 197 years. 

Dynasty IV. 

Fr. 14 ( from Syncellus). Accorpinc ΤῸ AFRICANUS. 

The Fourth Dynasty! comprised eight kings of 
Memphis, belonging to a different line : 

(4) Mycerinus, Diodorus i. 64 gives the good variants 
(3) Chabryés and (4) Mencherinus. On the Chronology of 
Dynasty IV. see Reisner, Mycerinus (cf. infra, note 2), 
pp. 243 ff. Reisner reads the name Dedefré in the form 
Radedef, and identifies it with Ratoisés. 

The Greek tales of the oppression of Egypt by Cheops 
and Chephren, etc., are believed to be the inventions of 
dragomans. Cf. Herodotus, ii. 124 (contempt for the 
gods), 129 (Mycerinus), with How and Wells’s notes. 
Africanus has, moreover, acquired as a treasure the 
“sacred book’’ of Cheops. 



a’ Σῶρις, ἔτη κθ΄. 

β' Σοῦφις, ἔτη Ey'- ὃς τὴν μεγίστην ἤγειρε 
πυραμίδα͵ ἣν φησιν ᾿Ηρόδοτος" ὑπὸ Χέοπος 
γεγονέναι. οὗτος δὲ καὶ ὑπερόπτης εἰς 
θεοὺς ἐγένετο καὶ τὴν ἱερὰν συνέγραψε 
βίβλον, ἣν ὡς μέγα χρῆμα ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ 
γενόμενος ἐκτησάμην. 

γ΄ Σοῦφις, ἔτη Es". 

& Μενχέρης, ἔτη &y’. 

ε΄ ‘Patoions, ἔτη ke’. 

ς΄ Βίχερις, ἔτη Kp’. 

ζ΄ Σεβερχέρης, ἔτη ζ΄. 

η΄ Θαμφθίς, ἔτη θ΄. 

“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη aol’? 

ὋὉμοῦ τῶν 8’ δυναστειῶν τῶν [μετὰ τὸν κατα- 

κλυσμὸν] ἔτη αμς΄ κατ᾽ ‘Adpixavov. 

1Hdt. ii. 124. 200’ A. 

10QOn the Pyramids of Giza, see Baedeker °, pp. 133 ff. ; 
Noel F. Wheeler, ‘‘ Pyramids and their Purpose,” 
Antiquity, 1935, pp. 5-21, 161-189, 292-304; and for 
the fourth king of Dynasty IV. see G. A. Reisner, 
Mycerinus: The Temples of the Third Pyramid at Giza, 
1931. Notwithstanding their colossal dimensions and 
marvellous construction, the Pyramids have not escaped 
detraction: Frontinus (De Aquis, i. 16) contrasts “ the 



1. Séris, for 29 years. 

2. Suphis [I.], for 63 years. He reared the Great 
Pyramid,’ which Herodotus says was built 
by Cheops. Suphis conceived a contempt 
for the gods: he also composed the Sacred 
Book, which I acquired in my visit to Egypt ” 
because of its high renown. 

. Suphis [11.]. for 66 years. 

. Mencherés, for 63 years. 

. Ratoisés, for 25 years. 

. Bicheris, for 22 years. 

. Sebercherés, for 7 years. 

. Thamphthis, for 9 years. 


Total, 277 years.® 
Total for the first four dynasties [after the Flood], 
1046 years according to Africanus. 

idle pyramids’ with “the indispensable structures”’ of 
the several aqueducts at Rome; and Pliny (H.N. 36, 8, 
§ 75) finds in the pyramids “ an idle and foolish ostenta- 
tion of royal wealth’”’. But the pyramids have, at any 
rate, preserved the names of their builders, especially 
Cheops, to all future ages, although, as Sir Thomas Browne 
characteristically wrote (Urn-Burial, Chap. 5): “ To : 

be but pyramidally extant is a fallacy of duration”’ . 
‘“Who can but pity the founder of the Pyramids 2? 
The modern Egyptologist says: “The Great Pyramid 
is the earliest and most impressive witness . .. to the 
final emergence of organized society from prehistoric 
chaos and local conflict’? (J. H. Breasted, History of 
Egypt, p. 119). 

2 Africanus went from Palestine to Alexandria, attracted 
by the renown of the philosopher Heraclas, Bishop of 
Alexandria: see Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. vi. 31, 2. 

2 The MS. A gives as total 274: the items add to 284. 


Fr. 15, 16 MANETHO 

Fr. 15. Syneellus, p. 106. KATA EYZEBION. 

Τετάρτη δυναστεία βασιλέων if’ Μεμφιτῶν ovy- 
γενείας ἑτέρας βασιλείας. 

*Qv τρίτος Σοῦφις, ὃ τὴν μεγίστην πυραμίδα 
> / Ὁ Ἥ, / « \ Xe e 
ἐγείρας, ἥν φησιν ᾿Ηρόδοτος ὑπὸ Χέοπος γεγονέναι, 
ὃς καὶ ὑπερόπτης εἰς θεοὺς γέγονεν, ὡς μετανοή- 

1] A \ « A / / a e 

σαντα αὐτὸν τὴν ἱερὰν συγγράψαι βίβλον, ἣν ws 
μέγα χρῆμα Αἰγύπτιοι περιέπουσι. τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν 

δὲ 3 / > / a ἢ > , 
οὐδὲν ἀξιομνημόνευτον ἀνεγράφη. ot καὶ ἐβασί- 
λευσαν ἔτεσιν υμη΄. 

Ὁμοῦ τῶν δ' δυναστειῶν [μετὰ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν] 
«αρῆε΄ κατὰ Εὐσέβιον. 

Fr. 16. Eusrsius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p., 91s 

Quarta dynastia Memphitarum regum XVII ex 
alia regia familia, quorum tertius, Suphis, maximae 
pyramidis auctor, quam quidem Herodotus a Cheope 
structam ait: qui in deos ipsos superbiebat ; tum 
facti poenitens sacrum librum! conscribebat, quem 
Aegyptii instar magni thesauri habere se putant. 
De reliquis regibus nihil memorabile litteris man- 

datum est. Regnatum est annis CCCCXLVIII. 

llibros Sacrarii (Aucher), “the sanctuary books,” 
“books for the shrine.”’ 



Fr. 15 (from Syncellus). AccorpInc To Eusebius. 

Tne Fourth Dynasty comprised seventeen kings 
of Memphis belonging to a different royal line. 

Of these the third was Suphis, the builder of the 
Great Pyramid, which Herodotus says was built 
by Cheops. Suphis conceived a contempt for the 
gods, but repenting of this, he composed the Sacred 
Book, which the Egyptians hold in high esteem. 

Of the remaining kings no achievement worthy of 
mention has been recorded. 

This dynasty reigned for 448 years. 

Total for the first four dynasties [after the Flood], 
1195 years according to Eusebius. 


The Fourth Dynasty consisted of seventeen kings 
of Memphis belonging to a different royal line. The 
third of these kings, Suphis, was the builder of the 
Great Pyramid, which Herodotus declares to have 
been built by Cheops. Suphis behaved arrogantly 
towards the gods themselves: then, in penitence, 
he composed the Sacred Book in which the Egyptians 
believe they possess a great treasure. Of the re- 
maining kings nothing worthy of mention is recorded 
in history. The reigns of the whole dynasty amount 
to 448 years. 


Fr. 18, 19 MANETHO 

Fr. 18. Syncellus, p. 107. KATA A®PIKANON. 

Πέμπτη δυναστεία βασιλέων η΄ ἐξ ᾽Ελε- 

a Sacks ae ἔτη κη΄. 
Σεφρής, ἔτη ιγ΄. 
Νεφερχέρης, ἔτη κ΄. 

Σισίρης, ἔτη Le 

Χέρης, ἔτη κ΄. 

‘Paboupns, ἔτη po’. 

Μενχέρης, ἔτη 0’. 

Τανχέρης, ἔτη μδ΄. 
"Ovvos, ἔτη Ay’. 

~ ις ὩΣ oes 


= wv 

μοῦ, ἔ ἔτη oun. “γίνονται σὺν τοῖς προτεταγ- 
μένοις αμς΄ ἔτεσι τῶν τεσσάρων δυναστειῶν ἔτη 

Fr. 19 (4). Syncellus, p. 109. KATA EYSEBION. 

Πέμπτη δυναστεία βασιλέων τριάκοντα 
ἑνὸς ἐξ ᾿Ελεφαντίνης. ὧν πρῶτος ᾿᾽Οθόης. 
οὗτος ὑπὸ τῶν δορυφόρων ἀνῃρέθη. 

1 Τατχέρης corr. Lepsius. 2”OBvos A. 

1 Dynasty V.c. 2560-c. 2420 B.c. For identifications with 
monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, Geschichte®, 
I. ii. p. 203: his list runs (1) Userkaf, (2) Sahuré‘, (3) 
Nefererkeré' Kakai, (4) Nefrefré‘ or Shepseskeré‘, (δ) 
Kha‘neferré‘, (6) Neweserré‘ Ini, (7) Menkeuhor (Akeuhor), 
(8) Dedkeré‘ Asosi, (9) Unas. 



Dynasty V. 
Fr. 18 ( from Syncellus). Accorptnc To AFRICANUS. 

The Fifth Dynasty 1 was composed of eight kings 
of Elephantine : 

. Usercherés, for 28 years. 

. Sephrés, for 13 years. 

. Nephercherés, for 20 years. 

. Sisirés, for 7 years. 

Cherés, for 20 years. 

Rathurés, for 44 years. 

. Mencherés, for 9 years. 

. Tancherés (? Tatcherés), for 44 years. 
. Onnus, for 33 years. 

Total, 248 years.” 

Along with the aforementioned 1046 years of the 
first four dynasties, this amounts to 1294 years. 

Fr. 19 (a) (from Syncellus), AccorDING TO 

The Fifth Dynasty consisted of thirty-one kings of 
Elephantine. Of these the first was Othoés,? who 
was murdered by his bodyguard. 

2 The items total 218 years; but if the reign of Othoés, 
the first king of Dynasty VI. is added, the total will then 
be 248 years. 

In the chronology of Eusebius, Dynasty V. is sup- 
pressed: the kings whom he mentions belong to 
Dynasty VI. 


Fr. 19, 20 MANETHO 

€ ΄ > 
O δὲ 5’ Diws, ἑξαέτης ἀρξάμενος, ἐβασίλευσε 
μέχρις ἐτῶν ἕκατόν. γίνονται οὖν σὺν τοῖς προ- 
/ ~ ~ 
τεταγμένοις αρῆε΄ ἔτεσι τῶν τεσσάρων δυναστειῶν 

(ἔτη) jaohe’ : 

(Ὁ) Eusresrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 

Quinta dynastia regum XXXI Elephantinorum, 
quorum primus Othius, qui a satellitibus suis occisus 
est. Quartus Phiops, qui regiam dignitatem a sexto 
aetatis anno ad centesimum usque tenuit. 

Fr. 20. Syncellus, p. 108. KATA A®PIKANON. 

"Extn δυναστεία βασιλέων ἕξ Μεμφιτῶν. 
a’ ᾽Οθόης,; ἔτη λ΄’, ὅς ὑπὸ τῶν δορυφόρων 
, / 7 , 
B’ Φιός, ἔτη vy’. 
γ' Μεθουσοῦφις, ἔτη ζ΄. 
ι ᾿Οθώης A. 

1 Karst translates the Armenian as referring to the 
sixtieth year—‘“‘ began to rule at the age of 60”; but 
Aucher’s Armenian text has the equivalent of sexennis, 
“six years old ’’ (Margoliouth). 



The fourth king, Phidps, succeeding when six 
years old, reigned until his hundredth year. Thus, 
along with the aforementioned 1195 years of the first 
four dynasties, this amounts to 1295 years. 


The Fifth Dynasty consisted of thirty-one kings of 
Elephantine. Of these the first was Othius, who was 
killed by his attendants. The fourth king was Phidps, 
who held the royal office from his sixth ' right down 
to his hundredth year. 

Dynasty VI. 
Fr. 20 ( from Syncellus). AccorpINcG To AFRICANUS. 

The Sixth Dynasty * consisted of six kings of 
Memphis : 
1, Othoés, for 30 years: he was murdered by his 
2. Phius, for 53 years. 
3. Methusuphis, for 7 years. 

2 Dynasties VI.-VIII., the last Memphites, c. 2420- 
c. 2240 B.c. Dynasty VI. Meyer (Geschichte *, I. ii. p. 236) 
identifies as follows: (1) Othoés (Teti or Atoti), then 
after Userkeré‘, (2) Phius (Pepi I.), (3) Methusuphis 
(Merenré‘ I.), (4) Phidps (Pepi II.), (5) Menthesuphis 
(Merenré‘ II.), (6) Nitécris. Sethe (Sesostris, p. 3) draws 
attention to the intentional differentiation of the same 
family-name—Phius for Pepi I., Phidps for Pepi II.: 
so also (3) Methusuphis and (5) Menthesuphis, and ¢f. 
infra on Psametik in Dynasty XXVI. Are these varia- 
tions due to Manetho or to his source ? 


Fr. 20, 21 MANETHO 

δ΄ Φίωψ, ἑξαέτης ἀρξάμενος βασιλεύειν, διε- 
γένετο μέχρι ἐτῶν ρ΄. 

ε΄ Μενθεσοῦφις, ἔτος ἕν. 

s’ Νίτω κρις, γεννικωτάτη καὶ εὐμορφοτάτη 
τῶν κατ᾽ αὐτὴν γενομένη, ξανθὴ τὴν χροιάν, 
ἣ τὴν τρίτην ἤγειρε πυραμίδα, ἐβασίλευσεν 
ἔτη ι 

“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη τὸ γίνονται σὺν τοῖς προτεταγ- 

μένοις ασηδ' τῶν ε΄ δυναστειῶν ἔτη ,av4C’. 

Fr. 21 (a). Syncellus, p. 109. KATA ΕὙΣΈΒΙΟΝ. 

"Extn δυναστεία. 
A / > / ~ > Ε] A 
Γυνὴ Νίτωκρις ἐβασίλευσε, τῶν κατ᾽ αὐτὴν 
᾽ὔ \ A 
γεννικωτάτη καὶ εὐμορφοτάτη, ξανθή τε τὴν χροιὰν 
\ , 
ὑπάρξασα, ἣ καὶ λέγεται τὴν τρίτην πυραμίδα 

1The remarkable descriptions of social disorganization 
and anarchy, addressed to an aged king in the Leiden 
Papyrus of Ipuwer and known as The Admonitions of an 
Egyptian Sage, are, according to Erman, to be associated 
with the end of this reign : see A. Erman, ‘“‘ Die Mahnworte 
eines agyptischen Propheten’”’ in Sitz. der preuss. Akad. 
der Wissenschaften, xlii., 1919, p. 813. 

2 Nitécris is doubtless the Neit-okre(t) of the Turin 
Papyrus: the name means “ Neith is Excellent’”’ (cf. 
App. 11. Eratosthenes, No. 22, ᾿Αθηνᾶ νικηφόρος), and was 
a favourite name under the Saite Dynasty (Dyn. XXVI.), 
which was devoted to the worship of Neith. See 
Herodotus, ii. 100, 134, Diod. Sic. I. 64. 14 (if Rhodépis 
is to be identified with Nitdécris), Strabo 17, 1. 33 (a 
Cinderella-like story), Pliny, N.H. 36. 12. 78, and G. A 
Wainwright, Sky-Religion, pp. 41 ff. 

A queen’s reign ending the Dynasty is followed by a 
period of confusion, just as after Dyn. XII. when Queen 



4, Phiéps, who began to reign at the age of six, 
and continued until his hundredth year.} 

5. Menthesuphis, for 1 year. 

6. Nitdcris,” the noblest and loveliest of the women 
of her time, of fair complexion, the builder of 
the third pyramid, reigned for 12 years. 

Total, 203 years. Along with the aforementioned 
1294 years of the first five dynasties, this 
amounts to 1497 years. 

Fr. 21 (a) (from Syncellus). AccorDING TO 

The Sixth Dynasty. 

There was a queen Nitécris, the noblest and 
loveliest of the women of her time; she had a fair 
complexion, and is said to have built the third 

Scemiophris (Sebeknofruré‘) closes the line: ef. perhaps, 
in Dyn. IV., Thamphthis, of whom nothing is known. 

In 1932 Professor Selim Hassan discovered at Giza the 
tomb of Queen Khentkawes, a tomb of monumental 
dimensions, the so-called fourth or “ false’’ pyramid. 
Khentkawes was the daughter of Mycerinus; and, dis- 
regarding the chronological difficulty, H. Junker, in 
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Instituts fiir Agyptische Alter- 
tumskunde in Kairo, iii. 2 (1932), pp. 144-149, put forward 
the theory that the name Nitécris is derived from 
Khentkawes, and that Manetho refers here to the so-called 
fourth pyramid, which merits the description (Fr. 21(b)),— 
*‘ with the aspect of a mountain’’. See further B. van de 
Walle in L’ Antiquité Classique, 3 (1934), pp. 303-312. 

’ The correct total is 197 years: the reign of Phiéps is 
reckoned at 100, instead of 94 years (the Turin Papyrus 
gives 90 + ὦ years). 


Fr. 21, 23, 24 MANETHO 

a \ > La 1 Μ , z Β » ’ 
Οἱ καὶ ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη τρία ἐν ἄλλῳ oy. 
~ ~ 

Γίνονται σὺν τοῖς προτεταγμένοις ασῆε΄ τῶν 

πέντε δυναστειῶν ἔτη ,avhn’ 
/ ¢ / > / > ~ , 

ΖΣημειωτέον ὁπόσον Πύσέβιος ᾿ἀφρικανοῦ λείπεται 
ἀκριβείας ἐν τε τῇ τῶν βασιλέων ποσότητι καὶ ταῖς 
τῶν ὀνομάτων ὑφαιρέσεσι καὶ τοῖς χρόνοις, σχεδὸν 

Ve? ~ > - / / 

τὰ Adpixavod αὐταῖς λέξεσι γράφων. 

(b) Eusresrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 

Sexta dynastia. Femina quaedam Nitocris reg- 
navit, omnium aetatis suae virorum fortissima et 
mulierum formosissima, flava rubris genis. Ab hac 
tertia pyramis excitata dicitur, speciem collis prae 
se ferens. 

Ab his quoque regnatum est annis CCIII. 

Fr. 23. Syncellus, p. 108. KATA A@®PIKANON, 

“Εβδόμη δυναστεία Μεμφιτῶν βασιλέων ο’, 
οἵ ἐβασίλευσαν ἡμέρας ο΄. 

Fr. 24 (a). Syncellus, p. 109. ΚΑΤΑ ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

“Εβδόμη δυναστεία Μεμφιτῶν βασιλέων 
πέντε, ot ἐβασίλευσαν ἡμέρας οε΄. 

1 ἣ καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν Mm. 


AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 21, 23, 24 

These rulers (or this ruler) reigned for three 
years: in another copy, 203 years. Along with the 
aforementioned 1295 years of the first five dynasties, 
this amounts to 1498 years. 

(Syncellus adds) : It must be noted how much less 
accurate Eusebius is than Africanus in the number 
of kings he gives, in the omission of names, and in 
dates, although he practically repeats the account 
of Africanus in the same words. 


The Sixth Dynasty. There was a queen Nitécris, 
braver than all the men of her time, the most beauti- 
ful of all the women, fair-skinned with red cheeks. 
By her, it is said, the third pyramid was reared, with 
the aspect of a mountain. 

The united reigns of all the kings amount to 203 

Dynasty VII. 
Fr. 23 (from Syncellus). Accorpinc To AFRICANUs. 

The Seventh Dynasty ! consisted of seventy kings 
of Memphis, who reigned for 70 days. 

Fr. 24 (a) (from Syncellus). AccoRDING TO 

The Seventh Dynasty consisted of five kings of 
Memphis, who reigned for 75 days. 

1 Dynasty VII.—a mere interregnum, or perod of 
confusion until one king gained supreme power. 


Fr. 24, 25, 26 MANETHO 

(b) Εὐβεβιῦβ, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
Be. Jie 

Septima dynastia Memphitarum regum V, qui 
annis LX XV dominati sunt. 

Fr. 25. Syncellus, p. 108. KATA AGPIKANON. 

Ογδόη δυναστεία Μεμφιτῶν βασιλέων 
KC’, οἱ ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη pus’. γίνονται σὺν 
τοῖς προτεταγμένοις ἔτη αχλθ’ τῶν ὀκτὼ δυνασ- 

Fr. 26 (a). Syncellus, p. 110. KATA ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 
᾿Ογδόη δυναστεία Mepditadv βασιλέων 

Ly a > ΄ Μ ε ΄ Ψ 
πέντε, ot ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη ἕκατόν. γίνονται 
A / ” / ~ > ‘ 
σὺν τοῖς προτεταγμένοις ἔτη αφηη τῶν ὀκτὼ 

(b) Eusresrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 

Octava dynastia Memphitarum regum V,! quorum 
dominatio annos centum occupavit. 

1V Aucher: aliter Mai. 

1 Dynasty VIII., according to Barbarus (Fr. 4) fourteen 
kings for 140 years: according to Meyer, probably eighteen 
kings who reigned for 146 years. 

[Footnote continued on opposite page. 



The Seventh Dynasty consisted of five kings of 
Memphis, who held sway for 75 years. 

Dynasty VIII. 

Fr. 25 (from Syncellus). AccorDING TO AFRICANUS. 

The Eighth Dynasty’ consisted of twenty-seven 
kings of Memphis, who reigned for 146 years. Along 
with the aforementioned reigns, this amounts to 1639 
years for the first eight dynasties. 

Fr. 26 (a) (from Syncellus), AccoRDING TO 

The Eighth Dynasty consisted of five kings of 
Memphis, who reigned for 100 years. Along with 
the aforementioned reigns, this amounts to 1598 
years for the first eight dynasties. 


The Eighth Dynasty consisted of five? kings of 
Memphis, whose rule lasted for 100 years. 

“The Turin Papyrus closes the first great period of 
Egyptian history at the end of what appears to be 
Manetho’s VIIIth Dynasty (the last Memphites)’”’: it 
reckons 955 years from Dynasty I. to Dynasties VII. 
and VIII. (H. R. Hall in C.A.H. i. pp. 298, 170). See 
A. Scharff in J. Hg. Arch. xiv., 1928, p. 275. 

2So Aucher, Petermann, and Karst. 


Fr. 27, 28 MANETHO 

Fr. 27. Syncellus, p. 110. KATA A®PIKANON. 

€ ~ 
Ἐνάτη δυναστεία ὋἩρακλεοπολιτῶν 

, , Θιυ , ” , - 
βασιλέων 18’, ot ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη υθ'. ὧν 
ὁ πρῶτος AxOons, δεινότατος τῶν πρὸ αὐτοῦ 
γενόμενος, τοῖς ἐν πάσῃ «Αἰγύπτῳ κακὰ εἰργάσατο, 
ὕστερον δὲ μανίᾳ περιέπεσε καὶ ὑπὸ κροκοδείλου 


Fr. 28 (a). Syncellus, p. 111. KATA ΕΥΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

νάτη δυναστεία «(Ηρακλεοπολιτῶν 
βασιλέων τεσσάρων, ot ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη 
ἑκατόν: ὧν πρῶτος Αχθώης, δεινότατος τῶν 
πρὸ αὐτοῦ γενόμενος, τοῖς ἐν πάσῃ Αἰγύπτῳ κακὰ 
εἰργάσατο, ὕστερον δὲ μανίᾳ περιέπεσε καὶ ὑπὸ 

κροκοδείλου διεφθάρη. 

(0) Eusresius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
Pa Bl z 

Nona dynastia Heracleopolitarum regum IV, annis 
C. Horum primus Ochthéis saevissimus regum fuit 

1"Ay8os A vulgo. 

1 Dynasties IX. and X. c. 2240-c. 2100 B.c.—two series 
of nineteen kings, both from Héracleopolis (Baedeker °, p. 
218), near the modern village of Ahnasia (Ancient Egyptian 
Hat-nen-nesut), 77 miles S. of Cairo, c. 9 miles S. of the 
entrance to the Fayaim. 

The Turin Papyrus gives eighteen kings for Dynasties 
IX. and X. as opposed to Manetho’s thirty-eight. 

[ Footnole continued on opposite page. 



Dynasty IX. 
Fr. 27 (from Syncellus). ACCORDING TO AFRICANUS. 

The Ninth Dynasty ! consisted of nineteen kings of 
Héracleopolis, who reigned for 409 years. The first 
of these, King Achthoés,? behaving more cruelly 
than his predecessors, wrought woes for the people 
of all Egypt, but afterwards he was smitten with 
madness, and was killed by a crocodile.® 

Fr. 28 (a) (from Syneellus). AccoRDING TO 

The Ninth Dynasty consisted of four kings of 
Héracleopolis, who reigned for 100 years. The first 
of these, King Achthéés, behaving more cruelly 
than his predecessors, wrought woes for the people 
of all Egypt, but afterwards he was smitten with 
madness, and was killed by a crocodile. 


The Ninth Dynasty consisted of four kings of 
Heracleopolis, reigning for 100 years. The first of 
these, King Ochthéis,t was more cruel than all his 

Manetho’s account of Dynasty IX. is best preserved by 
Africanus. Barbarus has almost the same figures—twenty 
kings for 409 years. 

*Achthoés: in the Turin Papyrus Akhtéi (Meyer, 
Geschichte 5, I. ii. p. 247—three kings of thisname). Meyer 
conjectures that the “‘ cruelty ’’ of Achthoés may be violent 
or forcible oppression of the feudal nobility. 

3 Cf. p. 28 n. 3. 

* Okhthovis (Petermann’s translation), -ov- representing 
the long o. 


Fr. 28, 29, 30,31 MANETHO 

qui sibi praecesserant, universamque Aegyptum diris 
calamitatibus affecit. Idem denique vesania cor- 
reptus est et a crocodilo peremptus. 

Fr. 29. Syncellus, p. 110. KATA A@®PIKANON. 

Δεκάτη δυναστεία ‘HpakXeotoArtav Ba- 
, , a 9 ͵ ” ͵ 
σιλέων 16’, ot ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη ρπε΄. 

Fr. 830 (a). Syncellus, p. 112. ΚΑΤΑ ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

Δεκάτη δυναστεία ᾿ Πρακλεοπολιτῶν βασιλέων 
ιθ΄, οἱ ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη ρπε΄. 

(0) Ετυβεβιῦβ, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 

Decima dynastia Heracleopolitarum regum XIX, 
annis CLXXXYV. 

Fr. 31. Syncellus, p. 110. ΚΑΤΑ A@PIKANON. 

‘Evéexdtn δυναστεία ΖΔιοσπολιτῶν βα- 
σιλέων ις΄, οἵ ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη μγ΄. μεθ᾽ ods 
Appevéuns, ἔτη ws”. 

Μέχρι τοῦδε τὸν πρῶτον τόμον καταγήοχε 

ὋὉμοῦ βασιλεῖς php’, ἔτη βτ', ἡμέραι ο΄. 

1The Middle Kingdom, Dynasties XI.-XITII.: ο. 2100- 
ec. 1700 B.c. 
(Footnote continued on opposite page. 

AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 28, 29, 30, 31 

predecessors, and visited the whole of Egypt with 
dire disasters. Finally, he was seized with madness, 
and devoured by a crocodile. 

Dynasty X. 
Fr. 29 ( from Syncellus). AccORDING TO AFRICANUS. 

The Tenth Dynasty consisted of nineteen kings of 
Héracleopolis, who reigned for 185 years. 

Fr. 30 (a) (from Syncellus). AccoRDING TO 

The Tenth Dynasty consisted of nineteen kings of 
Héracleopolis, who reigned for 185 years. 


The Tenth Dynasty consisted of nineteen kings of 
Heracleopolis, who reigned for 185 years. 

Dynasty XI. 
Fr. 31 ( from Syncellus). ACCORDING TO AFRICANUS, 

The Eleventh Dynasty ! consisted of sixteen kings 
of Diospolis [or Thebes], who reigned for 43 years. In 
succession to these, Ammenemés 2 ruled for 16 years. 

Here ends the First Book of Manetho. 

Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years 70 days. 

Dynasty XI. (c. 2100—c. 2000 B.c.) with its seat at Thebes: 
sixteen kings of Thebes ruling for only 43 years (Manetho) : 
Turin Papyrus gives six kings with more than 160 years. 

? Ammenemés is Amenemhét I.: see pp. 66f., nn. 1, 2. 



Fr. 32 (a). Syncellus, p. 112. KATA EYSEBION. 

‘Evdexatn δυναστεία Διοσπολιτῶν βασιλέων 

, ο» ΄ ” , > “a > / 
is’, of ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη μγ΄. μεθ᾽ ots “Apperve- 
NS, ἔτη ie 

Μέχρι τοῦδε τὸν πρῶτον τόμον καταγήοχεν ὁ 
ἜΘΗ μοῦ βασιλεῖς pbb’, ἔτη βτ', ἡμέραι 

(0) Eusesrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
Pin 91 
Undecima dynastia Diospolitarum regum XVI, 

annis XLIII. Post hos Ammenemes annis XVI. 

Hactenus primum librum Manetho produxit. 
Sunt autem reges CXCII, anni MMCCC, 



Fr. 32 (a) (from Syncellus). AccorRDING TO 

The Eleventh Dynasty consisted of sixteen kings 
of Diospolis [or Thebes], who reigned for 43 years. In 
succession to these, Ammenemés ruled for 16 years. 

Here ends the First Book of Manetho. 

Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years 79 days. 


The Eleventh Dynasty consisted of sixteen kings 
of Diospolis [or Thebes], who reigned for 43 years. In 
succession to these, Ammenemes ruled for 16 years. 

Here ends the First Book of Manetho. 

Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years. 


Fr. 34. Syncellus, p. 110. KATA A@®PIKANON. 

Δευτέρου τόμου Mave d. 
Δωδεκάτη δυναστεία Διοσπολιτῶν βασι- 
λέων ἑπτά. 

a’ Σεσόγχοσις,, Appavépov υἱός, ἔτη pss 

β΄ Ἡμμανέμης, ἔτη An’, ὃς ὑπὸ τῶν ἰδίων 
εὐνούχων ἀνῃρέθη. 

γ΄ Σέσωστρις," ἔτη μη΄, ὃς ἅπασαν ἐχειρώ- 
σατο τὴν Aciav ἐν ἐνιαυτοῖς ἐννέα, καὶ 
τῆς Εὐρώπης τὰ μέχρι Θρᾷκης, πανταχόσε 

1 γεσονγόσις (for Σεσόγχοσις) B: Σεσόγχωρις τα. 
2A: Σέσοστρις B 

1 Dynasty XII. c. 2000-1790 3B.c. (Meyer, Geschichte 5, 
I. ii. p. 270). Including Ammenemés whom Manetho 
places between Dynasty XI. and Dynasty XII., there are 
eight rulersin Dynasty XII.—(1) Ammenemés (Amenemhét 
I.), (2) Sesonchésis (Senwosret or Sesdéstris I.), (3) Am- 
manemés (Amenemhét II.), (4) Seséstris II. (omitted by 
Manetho), (5) Sesdstris (Senwosret III.), (6) Manetho’s 
Lamarés and Amerés (Amenemhét III., Nema‘tré‘), 
(7) Ammenemés (Amenemhét IV.), (8) Scemiophris 
(Queen Sebeknofruré‘). For (5), the great Sesdstris 
(1887-1850 B.c.) of Herodotus, ii. 102, Diod. Sic. I. 53 ff., 
see Sethe, Unters. zur Gesch. . . . Aeg. ii. 1, and Meyer, Ge- 
schichte δ, I. ii. p. 268. The name of Amenemhét bespeaks 
his Theban origin: he removed the capital further north 
to Dahshir, a more central position—‘‘ Controller of the 
Two Lands,” as its Egyptian name means. Thus the 
kings of Dynasty XII. are kings who came from Thebes, 
but ruled at Dahshur. 


[Footnote continued on opposite page. 


Dynasty XII. 

Fr. 34 ( from Syncellus). AccoRDING TO AFRICANUS. 

From the Second Book of Manetho. 
The Twelfth Dynasty! consisted of seven kings 
of Diospolis. 

1. Sesonchosis, son of Ammanemés, for 46 years. 

2. Ammanemés, for 38 years: he was murdered 
by his own eunuchs.? 

3. Seséstris, for 48 years: in nine years he sub- 
dued the whole of Asia, and Europe as far as 
Thrace, everywhere erecting memorials of 

In Dynasty XII. the conquests of Dynasty VI. in the 
south were extended; and Seséstris III. was the first 
Egyptian king to conquer Syria. Among works of peace 
the great irrigation schemes in the Faytim perpetuated 
the name of Amenemhét III. in ‘‘ Lake Moeris’’. (See 
G. Caton-Thompson and E. W. Gardner, The Desert 
Fayiim, 1934.) Manetho mentions his building of the 
Labyrinth: it is significant that after the reign of 
Seséstris III. and his wide foreign conquests, his son 
should have built the Labyrinth. Vases of the Kamares 
type from Crete have been found at Kahin, not far from 
the Labyrinth. 

2See A. de Buck (Mélanges Maspero, vol. i., 1935, 
pp. 847-52) for a new interpretation of the purpose of 
The Instruction of Amenemmes : in this political pamphlet 
the dead king speaks from the tomb in support of his son 
Sesostris, now holding the throne in spite of strong opposi- 
tion, and violently denounces the ungrateful ruffians who 
murdered him. It seems probable that Manetho’s note here 
refers to the death of Ammenemés I. (Battiscombe Gunn). 


Fr. 34, 35 MANETHO 

μνημόσυνα ἐγείρας τῆς τῶν ἐθνῶν σχέσεως, 
ἐπὶ μὲν τοῖς γενναίοις ἀνδρῶν, ἐπὶ δὲ τοῖς 
ἀγεννέσι γυναικῶν μόρια ταῖς στήλαις ἐγ- 
χαράσσων, ὡς 5 ὑπὸ Αἰγυπτίων μετὰ "Ὄσιριν 
πρῶτον νομισθῆναι. 

δ΄ Aaya 8 ἔτῃ η΄, ὃς τὸν ἐν Apowor: 

ΧΟΡ)» “τ (δι Ρ Τῇ 

λαβύρινθον ἑαυτῷ τάφον κατεσκεύασε. 

ε Apepis,* ἔτη η΄ 

ς΄ Ἀμμενέμης," ἔτη η΄. 

ζ' Σκεμίοφρις, ἀδελφή, ἔτη 8’. 

“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη ρξ΄. 

Fr. 35. Syncellus, p. 112. ΚΑΤΑ ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

Δευτέρου τόμου Mave d. 

Δωδεκάτη δυναστεία Διοσπολιτῶν Ba- 
σιλέων ἑπτά. ὧν ὁ πρῶτος δΣεσόγχοσις," 
Apupeveuov υἱός, ἔτη ps’. 

1 κατασχέσεως τη. 2m.: ὃς MSS. 
8 “αμάρης Meyer. “᾿Αμμερής A. 
5° Auevéuns B. 6 Β : Leadyywpis A. 

'See Agyptische Inschriften aus den Museen zu Berlin, 
i. p. 257, for a stele at Semneh with an inscription in which 
the great Seséstris pours contempt upon his enemies, the 

* For the sexual symbols represented upon pillars, see 
Hat. ii. 102, 106, Diod. Sic. I. 55. 8: cf. the representation 
of mutilated captives on one of the walls of the Ramesseum, 
Diod. Sic. 1. 48. 2. It has been suggested that Herodotus, 
who saw the pillars of Sesostris in Palestine, may possiby 
have mistaken an Assyrian for an Egyptian relief. 



his conquest of the tribes.' Upon stelae 
[pillars] he engraved for a valiant race the 
secret parts of a man, for an ignoble race those 
of a woman.” Accordingly he was esteemed 
by the Egyptians as the next in rank to Osiris. 

4, Lacharés (Lamarés),° for 8 years: he built the 
Labyrinth 5 in the Arsinoite nome as his own 

5. Amerés, for 8 years. 

6. Ammenemés, for 8 years. 

7. Scemiophris, his sister, for 4 years. 

Total, 160 years. 

Fr. 35 (from Syncellus), AccorDiInc To EvsEBtvs. 

From the Second Book of Manetho. 

The Twelfth Dynasty consisted of seven kings of 
Diospolis. The first of these, Sesonchosis, son of 
Ammenemés. reigned for 46 years. 

3’ For other names of Amenemhét III., see note on 
Marés, App. II., No. 35, p. 224. 

4The Labyrinth is correctly attributed by Manetho to 
Amenemhét III., who built it as his mortuary temple 
(contrast Herodotus, ji. 148, who assigns this monument 
to the Dodecarchy). The Fayaim was a place of great 
importance during this dynasty, from Amenemhét I. 

The description of the nome as “ Arsinoite’’ has often 
been suspected as a later interpo.ation ; but if ‘ Arsinoite ἢ 
was used by Manetho himself, it gives as a date in his life 
the year 256 B.c. when Ptolemy Philadelphus commem- 
orated Queen Arsinoe (d. 270 B.c.) in the new name of 
the nome. (Cf. Intro. p. xvi for a possible reference to 
Manetho, the historian of Egypt, in 24] B.c.) 


Fr. 35, 36 MANETHO 

βι μμανέμης, ἔτη An’, Os ὑπὸ τῶν ἰδίων 
εὐνούχων ἀνῃρέθη. 

γ' Σέσωστρις," ἔτη μη΄, ὃς λέγεται γεγονέναι 
πηχῶν δ', παλαιστῶν γ΄, δακτύλων β΄. ὃς 
πᾶσαν ἐχειρώσατο τὴν ᾿Ασίαν ἐν ἐνιαυτοῖς 
ἐννέα, καὶ τῆς Εὐρώπης τὰ μέχρι Θράκης, 
πανταχόσε μνημόσυνα ἐγείρας τῆς τῶν 
ἐθνῶν κατασχέσεως, ἐπὶ μὲν τοῖς γενναίοις 
ἀνδρῶν, ἐπὶ δὲ τοῖς ἀγεννέσι γυναικῶν 
μόρια ταῖς στήλαις ἐγχαράσσων, ws? καὶ 
ὑπὸ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων «πρῶτον» 38 μετὰ 
"Ὄσιριν νομισθῆναι. 

Mc? ὃν Adpapts, ἔτη η΄, ὃς τὸν ἐν Apoevotrn 4 
~ 4 
λαβύρινθον ἑαυτῷ τάφον κατεσκεύασεν. 
« \ Z / Yee ἢ ” , a ΄ 
Οἱ δὲ τούτου διάδοχοι ἐπὶ ἔτη pf’, ot πάντες 
ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτεσι σμέ. 

Fr. 36. Eusrsrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
Ρ. 98. 

E Manethonis secundo libro. 

Duodecima dynastia Diospolitarum regum VII, 
quorum primus Sesonchosis Ammenemis filius annis 

Ammenemes annis XX XVIII, qui a suis eunuchis 
interemptus est. 

Sesostris annis XLVIII, cuius mensura fertur 
cubitorum quattuor, palmarumque trium cum digitis 

ΤΑ; Σέσοστρις B. 2m: ὃς MSS. δ Τὴ, 


2. Ammanemés, for 38 years: he was murdered 

by his own eunuchs. 

3. Seséstris, for 48 years: he is said to have 
been 4 cubits 3 palms 2 fingers’ breadths in 
stature. In nine years he subdued the whole 
of Asia, and Europe as far as Thrace, every- 
where erecting memorials of his conquest of the 
tribes. Upon stelae [pillars] he engraved for a 
valiant race the secret parts of a man, for an 
ignoble race those of a woman. Accordingly 
he was esteemed by the Egyptians as the next 
in rank to Osiris. 

Next to him Lamaris reigned for 8 years: he 
built the Labyrinth in the Arsinoite nome as his own 

His successors ruled for 42 years, and the reigns 
of the whole dynasty amounted to 245 years.1 


From the Second Book of Manetho. 

The Twelfth Dynasty consisted of seven kings of 
Diospolis. The first of these, Sesonchosis, son of 
Ammenemés, reigned for 46 years. 

2. Ammenemés, for 38 years: he was murdered 

by his own eunuchs. 

3. Seséstris, for 48 years: he is said to have 

been 4 cubits 3 palms 2 fingers’ breadth in 

1 The items given add to 182 years. 

4This variant spelling with -e- for -.- appears to be 

a mere scribal error due to confusion with words beginning 


FR. 37, 38, 39 MANETHO 

duobus. Is universam Asiam annorum novem spa- 
tio sibi subdidit, itemque Europae partem usque ad 
Thraciam. Idem et suae in singulas gentes domina- 
tionis monumenta ubique constituit; apud gentes 
quidem strenuas virilia, apud vero imbelles feminea 
pudenda ignominiae causa columnis insculpens. 
Quare is ab Aegyptiis proximos post Osirin honores 

Secutus est Lampares, annis VIII. Hic in 
Arsinoite labyrinthum cavernosum sibi tumulum 

Regnaverunt successores eius annis XLII. 

Summa universae dominationis annorum CCXLYV. 

Fr. 38. Syncellus, p. 113. KATA A®PIKANON. 

Τρισκαιδεκάτη δυναστεία Διοσπολιτῶν βασιλέων 

ξ'͵, ot ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη υνγ' .ὦ 

Fr. 39 (a). ϑγποοίϊιιβ, p. 114. KATA ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

Τρισκαιδεκάτη δυναστεία Διοσπολιτῶν βασιλέων 
ξ΄, ot ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη υνγ΄. 
1B: pd’ A 

ςς >? 

1 The Armenian has a word here for “ sufferings ’’ or 
“torments ἢ ᾿ (Margoliouth) : Karst expresses the general 
meaning as—‘‘ he engraved their oppression through (or, 
by means of) . 

3 Karst translates this word by “‘das héhlenwendelgang- 

8 Dynasty XITI., 1790-c. 1700 B.c. In the Turin Pa- 
pyrus there is a corresponding group of sixty kings: see 
the list in Meyer, Geschichte δ, I. ii. pp. 308 f., one of them 


AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 37, 38, 39 

stature. In nine years he subdued the whole 
of Asia, and Europe as far as Thrace. Every- 
where he set up memorials of his subjugation of 
each tribe: among valiant races he engraved 
upon pillars a man’s secret parts, among un- 
warlike races a woman’s, as a sign of disgrace. 
Wherefore he was honoured by the Egyptians 
next to Osiris. 

His successor, Lampares, reigned for 8 years: in 
the Arsinoite nome he built the many-chambered ? 
Labyrinth as his tomb. 

The succeeding kings ruled for 42 years. 

Total for the whole dynasty, 245 years. 

Dynasty XIII. 
Fr. 38 (from Syncellus). AccorDING To AFRICANUS. 

The Thirteenth Dynasty * consisted of sixty kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 453 years. 

Fr. 39 (a) (from Syncellus). AccOoRDING TO 

The Thirteenth Dynasty consisted of sixty kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 453 years. 

being a name ending in -mes, perhaps Dedumes, the king 
Τουτίμαιος of Fr. 42. The twenty-fifth king in the Turin 
Papyrus, Col. VII., Kha‘neferr6é‘ Sebekhotp IV., is prob- 
ably the King Chenephrés of whom Artapanus (i./B.c.) 
says that he was ‘“‘ king of the regions above Memphis 
(for there were at that time many kings in Egypt)’”’ in 
the lifetime of Moses (Artapanus, Concerning the Jews, 
quoted by Euseb., Praepar. Evang. ix. 27: see also 
Clement of Alexandria, Strom. i. 23, 154). 


Fr. 39, 41 MANETHO 

(b) Eusrsrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 

Tertia decima dynastia Diospolitarum regum LX, 
qui regnarunt annis CCCCLIII. 

Fr. 41 (a). Syncellus, p. 113. KATA AG®PIKANON. 

Τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτη δυναστεία Zoit av βασιλέων 
os’, ot ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη ρπδ' 3 

(b) Syncellus, p. 114. ΚΑΤΑ ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

Τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτη δυναστεία Zoit Ov βασιλέων 
/ a > / ” , > ΝΜ , 
os’, ot ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη ρπδ'. ἐν ἄλλῳ υπδ'. 

(c) Ευβεβιῦβ, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 99. 

Quarta decima dynastia Xoitarum* regum 

LXXVI, qui regnarunt annis CCCCLXXXIV. 

1Bony: a lacuna in A. 
* Aucher: Khsojitarum (Petermann’s translation). 

1 Dynasties XIV.-XVII., the Hykséds Age: c. 1700- 
1580 B.c. 

Dynasty XIV. Nothing is known of the kings of 
Dynasty XIV., whose seat was at Xois (Sakha) in 
the West Delta—an island and town in the Sebennytic 
nome (Strabo, 17. 1. 19). They were not rulers of Upper 
Egypt, but probably of the West Delta only. At this 
period there was, it is probable, another contemporary 
dynasty in Upper Egypt (Dynasty XVII. of Manetho). 

In the Turin Papyrus there is a long series of rulers’ 
names corresponding to this dynasty; but the number 




The Thirteenth Dynasty consisted of sixty kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 453 years. 

Dynasty XIV. 

Fr. 41 (a) (from Syncellus). AccorRDING TO 

The Fourteenth Dynasty ! consisted of seventy-six 
kings of Xois, who reigned for 184 years. 

(b) Accorpinc To EvsEsivs. 

The Fourteenth Dynasty consisted of seventy- 
six kings of Xois, who reigned for 184 years,—in 
another copy, 484 years. 


The Fourteenth Dynasty consisted of seventy-six 
kings of Xois, who reigned for 484 years. 

given by Manetho (76) was not approximated in the Papyrus 
which shows between twenty and thirty names of kings. 
Not one of these names is preserved on the Monuments, 
nor on the Karnak Tablet. The kings of Dynasty XIV., 
and even the last kings of Dynasty XIII., reigned sim- 
ultaneously with the Hyksés kings: cf. the double series 
of kings in Dynasty XVII. In the Royal Lists of Abydos 
and Sakkaéra the rulers of Dynasties XIII.-XVII. are 
altogether omitted. The Royal List of Karnak gives 
a selection of about thirty-five names of Dynasties XIII.- 
XVII., omitting Dynasty XIV. and the Hyksds. 



Fr. 42. Josrpnus, Contra Apionem, I. 14, δὲ 73-92.1 

73 “Apéoua δὴ πρῶτον ἀπὸ τῶν παρ᾽ Αἰγυπτίοις 
γραμμάτων. αὐτὰ μὲν οὖν οὐχ οἷόν τε παρα- 
τίθεσθαι τἀκείνων, Μανεθὼς 5 δ᾽ ἦν τὸ γένος Αἰ- 
γύπτιος, ἀνὴρ τῆς ᾿Ελληνικῆς μετεσχηκὼς παιδείας, 
ὡς δῆλός ἐστιν " γέγραφεν γὰρ ᾿Ελλάδι φωνῇ τὴν 
πάτριον ἱστορίαν ἐκ δέλτων 3 ἱερῶν, ὥς φησιν 

' For §§ 73-75, 82-90, see Eusebius, Praepar. Hvang. x. 18: 
for §§73-105, see Eusebius, Chron. i. pp. 151-8, Schéne 

2? Eus.: Μανέθων L, Lat. (same variation elsewhere). 

3 δέλτων Gutschmid (sacris libris Lat.: sacris monumentis 
Eus. Arm.., cf. ὃ 226): ze τῶν L. 

1 The invasion of the Hyksdés took place at some time 
in Dynasty XIII.: hence the succeeding anarchy in a 
period of foreign domination. The later Egyptians looked 
back upon it as the Jews did upon the Babylonian 
captivity, or the English upon the Danish terror. The 
keen desire of the Egyptians to forget about the Hyksdés 
usurpation accounts in part for our ignorance of what 
actually happened: “it is with apparent unwillingness 
that they chronicle any events connected with it ’’ (Peet, 
Egypt and the Old Testament, p. 69). In Egyptian texts 
the ‘‘infamous’”’ (Hyksés) were denoted as ‘Amu,—a 
title also given to the Hittites and their allies by Ramessés 
II. in the poem of the Battle of Kadesh (ed. Kuentz, § 97). 
Perhaps they were combined with Hittites who in 1925 
B.c. brought the kingdom of Babel to an end. It is 
certain that with the Hyksés numerous Semites came into 
Egypt: some of the Hyksés kings have Semitic names. 
For the presence of an important Hurrian element among 
the Hyksés, see E. A. Speiser, ‘‘ Ethnic Movements,” 
in Ann. of Amer. Sch. of Or. Res. xiii. (1932), p. 51. The 



Tue Hyksos Ace, c. 1700-c. 1580 B.c.} 

Fr. 42 (from Josephus, Contra Apionem, i. 14, 

[Josephus is citing the records of neighbouring 
nations in proof of the antiquity of the Jews.| 

I will begin with Egyptian documents. These I 
cannot indeed set before you in their ancient form ; 
but in Manetho we have a native Egyptian who was 
manifestly imbued with Greek culture. He wrote 
in Greek the history of his nation, translated, as he 
himself tells us, from sacred tablets ;* and on many 

Hyksés brought with them from Asia their tribal god, 
which was assimilated by the Egyptians to Séth, the god 
of foreign parts, of the desert, and of the enemy. 

In the first half of the second millennium B.c. the Hyksés 
ruled a great kingdom in Palestine and Syria (Meyer, 
Geschichte *, i. ὃ 304); and when their power was broken 
down by the arrival of hostile tribes, King Amésis took 
advantage of their plight to drive the Hyksés out of Egypt 
(A. Jirku, “ Aufstieg und Untergang der Hyksés,”’ in 
Journ. of the Palestine Orient. Soc. xii., 1932, p. 60). 

A dim tradition of Hyksés-rule is possibly preserved in 
Herodotus, ii. 128. Perhaps “ the shepherd Philitis”’ in 
that passage is connected with “ Philistines,”’ a tribe which 
may have formed part of these invaders. There is 
confusion between two periods of oppression of the common 
people,—under the pyramid-builders and under the 
Hyksés. For a translation of the Egyptian records which 
illustrate the Hyksés period, see Battiscombe Gunn and 
Alan H. Gardiner, J. Eg. Arch. v., 1918, pp. 36-56, “ The 
Expulsion of the Hyksés’’. 

* The word “ tablets”’ is a probable emendation, since 
Manetho would naturally base his History upon temple- 
archives on stone as well as on papyrus: cf. the Palermo 
Stone, the Turin Papyrus, etc. (Intro. pp. xxiii ff.). 



αὐτός, μεταφράσας, 6s! καὶ πολλὰ τὸν ᾿ Πρόδοτον 
> ~ ~ 
ἐλέγχει τῶν Αἰγυπτιακῶν ὑπ᾽ ἀγνοίας ἐψευσμένον. 
ia \ / ¢ \ > ~ / ~ 
7400T0s δὴ τοίνυν ὁ Μανεθὼς ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ τῶν 
Αἰγυπτιακῶν ταῦτα περὶ ἡμῶν γράφει: παραθή- 
σομαι δὲ τὴν λέξιν αὐτοῦ καθάπερ αὐτὸν ἐκεῖνον 
παραγαγὼν μάρτυρα" 
75 “Τουτίμαιος.Σ ἐπὶ τούτου οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ὅπως ὁ 8 θεὸς 
ἀντέπνευσεν, καὶ παραδόξως ἐκ τῶν πρὸς ἀνατολὴν 
~ A 
μερῶν ἄνθρωποι τὸ γένος ἄσημοι. καταθαρρήσαντες 
ἐπὶ τὴν χώραν ἐστράτευσαν καὶ ῥᾳδίως ἀμαχητὶ 
76 ταύτην κατὰ κράτος εἷλον, καὶ τοὺς ἡγεμονεύσαν- 
τας ἐν αὐτῇ χειρωσάμενοι τὸ λοιπὸν τάς τε πόλεις 
~ ~ ~ [1 
ὠμῶς ἐνέπρησαν καὶ τὰ τῶν θεῶν ἱερὰ κατέσ- 
καψαν, πᾶσι δὲ τοῖς ἐπιχωρίοις ἐχθρότατά πως 
ἐχρήσαντο, τοὺς μὲν σφάζοντες, τῶν δὲ καὶ τὰ 
Ἰ τέκνα καὶ γυναῖκας εἰς δουλείαν ἄγοντες. πέρας 
A \ / a > ᾽ ~ > ia e cA 
δὲ καὶ βασιλέα eva ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐποίησαν, ᾧ ὄνομα 
1 ὃς Eus.: om. L. 
2Gutschmid: τοῦ Τίμαιος ὄνομα L, Eus. (ὄνομα probably a 
gloss: ἄνεμος Gutschmid). 

36 Eus. (perhaps a survival of Ancient Egyptian usage): 
om. L: Meyer conj. θεός τις. 

1 Cf. Manetho, Fr. 88. 

2This account of the Hyksés invasion is obviously 
derived from popular Egyptian tales, the characteristics 
of which are deeply imprinted upon it. Meyer (Geschichte 5, 
I. ii. p. 313) quotes from papyri and inscriptions passages 
of similar style and content, e.g. Pap. Sallier I. describing 
the war with the Hyksés, and mentioning “ Lord Apépi 
in Auaris,”’ and an inscription of Queen Hatshepsut from 
the Speos Artemidos, referring to the occupation of 



points of Egyptian history he convicts Herodotus 1 
of having erred through ignorance. In the second 
book of his History of Egypt, this writer Manetho 
speaks of us as follows. I shall quote his own words, 
just as if I had brought forward the man himself as a 
witness : * 

“Tutimaeus.? In his reign, for what cause I 
know not, a blast of God smote us; and un- 
expectedly, from the regions of the East, invaders 
of obscure race marched in confidence of victory 
against our land. By main force they easily seized 
it without striking a blow ; * and having overpowered 
the rulers of the land, they then burned our cities 
ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of the 
gods, and treated all the natives with a cruel hos- 
tility, massacring some and leading into slavery the 
wives and children of others. Finally, they ap- 
pointed as king one of their number whose name was 

Auaris. See Breasted, Ancient Records, i. ὃ 24, ii. §§ 296 ff. 
Meyer adds that he would not be surprised if Manetho’s 
description reappeared word for word one day in a hieratic 
papyrus. Cf. ὃ 75 ὁ θεός : ὃ 76 the crimes of the Hyksés 
(Fr. 54, § 249, those of the Solymites and their polluted 
allies): § 77 the upper and lower lands: §§ 78, 237 re- 
ligious tradition to explain the name of Auaris and its 
dedication to Typhén: § 99 hollow phrases about military 
expeditions of Sethés: § 237 the form of the phrase ὡς 
χρόνος ἱκανὸς διῆλθεν, and many other passages. See also 
Weill, La fin du moyen empire égyptien, pp. 76 ff. 

8 See Fr. 38, n. 3. 

‘The success of the Hyksés may have been due to 
superior archery and to the use of horse-drawn chariots, 
previously unknown in Egypt (Maspero, Hist. Ane. ii. 
p- 51; Petrie, Hyksos and Israelite Cities, p. 70; H. R. 
Hall, ἄπο. Hist. of Near East 8, p. 213), as well as to superior 
weapons of bronze (H. R. Hall, C.A.H. i. p. 291 n., 312 f.). 



ἣν Σάλιτις. Kat οὗτος ev τῇ Μέμφιδι κατεγίνετο, 
΄, ~ 
τήν τε ἄνω Kal κάτω χώραν δασμολογῶν καὶ 
φρουρὰν ἐν τοῖς ἐπιτηδειοτάτοις καταλείπων 5 
τόποις. μάλιστα δὲ καὶ τὰ πρὸς ἀνατολὴν ἠσφα- 
ud > a 
λίσατο μέρη, προορώμενος, Acoupiwy ποτὲ μεῖζον 
/ a ~ 
18 ἰσχυόντων, ἐσομένην ἐπιθυμίᾳ 8 τῆς αὐτοῦ βασι- 
λ / ” ὃ «ς A δὲ > ~ ~ he 4 
elas ἔφοδον. εὑρὼν δὲ ev νομῷ τῷ Laity 
/ ? 
πόλιν ἐπικαιροτάτην, κειμένην μὲν πρὸς ἀνατολὴν 
τοῦ Βουβαστίτου ποταμοῦ, καλουμένην δ᾽ ἀπό 
τινος ἀρχαίας θεολογίας Αὔαριν, ταύτην ἔκτισέν 

1 Silitis Kus. Arm.: Σαΐτης Fr. 43, 48, 49. 
2 Hd. pr.: καταλιπὼν L. 3’ Bekker: ἐπιθυμίαν L. 
4Conj. Σεθροΐτῃ Manetho, Fr. 43, 48, 49. 

The name may be Semitic (¢f. Hebr. shallij), but it 
has not been found on the monuments. Possibly it is 
not strictly a proper name, but rather a title like “* prince,”’ 
‘*oeneral’’: “‘sultan ’’ comes from the same root. 

2 Cf. § 90. Manetho regards as historically true the 
Greek tales of the great Assyrian Hmpire of Ninus and 
Semiramis. The period referred to here is much earlier 
than the time when Assyria began to harass the Mediter- 
ranean regions. 

3 Tf ‘“‘ Saite’’ is correct here, it has nothing to do with 
the famous Sais, but is probably used for “‘ Tanite”’: 
cf. Herodotus, ii. 17, Strabo, 17, 1, 20 (P. Montet in Revue 
Biblique, xxxix. 1930). The Sethroite nome (Fr. 48, 45, 
49) is in the extreme Εἰ. of the Delta, adjoining the Tanite 
nome, For Sethroé see H. Junker, Zeit. f. dg. Sprache 75. 
1939, p. 78. 

4For Bubastis see Fr. 8 n. 2. The Bubastite branch is 
the farthest E., the next being the Tanitic. 

5 Auaris, in Ancient Egyptian Hetwa‘ret, “town of the 
desert strip,’ but this meaning does not explain the 
“religious tradition ’’. (The older interpretations, “‘ house 
of the flight,’’ “‘ house of the leg,’’ were attached to the 
Seth-Typhén legend: ef. n. 3 infra.) Tanis was a strong- 



Salitis.1 He had his seat at Memphis, levying 
tribute from Upper and Lower Egypt, and always 
leaving garrisons behind in the most advantageous 
positions. Above all, he fortified the district to the 
east, foreseeing that the Assyrians,” as they grew 
stronger, would one day covet and attack his kingdom. 

“Τὴ the Saite [Sethroite] nome* he found a city 
very favourably situated on the east of the Bubastite 
branch 4 of the Nile, and called Auaris® after an 

hold of the Hyksés: in O.7. Numbers xiii. 22, “ Now 
Hebron (in S. Palestine) was built seven years before Zoan 
in Egypt,’’ Zoan is Tanis (Dja‘net), and the statement 
probably refers to the Hyksés age. Sethe cautiously 
said, ‘‘ Seth is the god of the Hyksés cities, Tanis and 
Auaris’’. But in Revue Biblique, xxxix., 1930, pp. 5-28, 
Pierre Montet, the excavator of Tanis, brought forward 
reasons to identify Auaris and Pi-Ra‘messes with Tanis ; 
and Alan H. Gardiner (J. Hg. Arch. xix., 1933, pp. 122- 
128) gave further evidence for this view (p. 126): “San 
el-Hagar marks the site of the city successively called 
Auaris, Pi-Ra‘messe, and Tanis’’. Im spite of the criti- 
cism of Raymond Weill (J. Hg. Arch. xxi., 1935, pp. 10-25), 
who cited a hieroglyphic document (found in the temple 
of Ptah in Memphis) in which Auaris and “ the field (or 
land) of Tanis’’ are separate, Pierre Montet (Syria, xvii., 
1936, pp. 200-202) maintains the identity of Auaris, 
Pi-Ra‘messes, and Tanis. [So does H. Junker, Zeit. f. dg. 
Sprache 75. 1939, pp. 63-84.] 

Meanwhile, a new identification of Pi-Ra‘messés had 
been suggested: by excavation M. Hamza (Annales du 
Service des Antiquités de Egypte, xxx. 1930, p. 65) found 
evidence tending to identify Pi-Ra‘messés with the palace 
of Ramessés II. at Tell el-Yahudiya, near Kantir, ὁ. 25 
kilometres south of Tanis; and William C. Hayes (Glazed 
Tiles from a Palace of Ramessés II. at Kantir : The Metro- 
politan Museum of Art Papers, No. 3, 1937) supports this 
theory that Kantir was the Delta residence of the Rames- 
side kings of Egypt, pointing out that there is a practically 

(Footnote continued on page 81 


τε Kal τοῖς τείχεσιν ὀχυρωτάτην ἐποίησεν͵ ἐν- 
΄ > ~ \ “ Θ ~ > ” ‘ 
οικίσας αὐτῇ Kal πλῆθος ὁπλιτῶν εἰς εἴκοσι Kal 
79 τέσσαρας μυριάδας ἀνδρῶν προφυλακήν. ἔνθα δὲ 
κατὰ θέρειαν ἤρχετο, τὰ μὲν σιτομετρῶν καὶ 
΄ / A A \ - > 
μισθοφορίαν παρεχόμενος, τὰ δὲ Kal ταῖς ἐξοπ- 
λισίαις πρὸς φόβον τῶν ἔξωθεν ἐπιμελῶς γυμνάζων. 
ΝΜ > > , ” \ ΄ >? 4 
ἄρξας δ᾽ ἐννεακαίδεκα ἔτη, τὸν βίον ἐτελεύτησε. 
A ~ \ -“ > , ,ὔ ‘ 
80 μετὰ τοῦτον δὲ ἕτερος ἐβασίλευσεν τέσσαρα καὶ 
4, ” Xr / B 4 2 θ᾽ a 
τεσσαράκοντα ἔτη καλούμενος Βνών,Σ pel ὃν 
ἄλλος ᾿Απαχνὰν ὃ ἕξ καὶ τριάκοντα ἕτη καὶ μῆνας 
ἕπτά, ἕπειτα δὲ καὶ Ἄπωφις ᾿ ἕν καὶ ἑξήκοντα καὶ 
Ἶ A 5 / A ~ ν 3. δ᾽ ~ δὲ 
81 ᾿Ιαννὰς 5 πεντήκοντα καὶ μῆνα ἕνα, ἐπὶ πᾶσι δὲ 
\ cA 6 > a \ / \ ~ ὃ , 
καὶ "Acais ® ἐννέα καὶ τεσσαράκοντα καὶ μῆνας δύο. 
\ ΑΌ. A a > > A > / ~ 
καὶ οὗτοι μὲν ἕξ ev αὐτοῖς ἐγενήθησαν πρῶτοι 
ἄρχοντες, ποθοῦντες 7 ἀεὶ καὶ μᾶλλον τῆς Αἰγύπτου 
82 ἐξᾶραι τὴν ῥίζαν. ἐκαλεῖτο δὲ τὸ σύμπαν αὐτῶν ® 
1 Hic autem Lat.: ἐνθάδε L. 
2 Manetho, Fr. 43, 48, 49: Βηών L. 
3 Apakhnan Eus.: Παχνὰν Fr. 43: Apachnas Lat. 
4 Aphosis Eus. Arm.: “Adofis MSS., Fr. 43: “Adwdus Fr. 49. 
δ Ιανίας ed. pr.: Samnas Lat.: Anan Eus. Arm.: ’Avvas 
or Avvay Gutschmid. 
6 Ases Lat.: Aseth Eus. (Gutschmid and Meyer hold 
‘AonO to be the form used by Josephus). 
7 Ed. pr.: πορθοῦντες L. i 
8 πολεμοῦντες ἀεὶ Kai ποθοῦντες μᾶλλον MSS. Big. and Hafn. 

in Hudson. 
9 σύμπαν αὐτῶν Eus., omne genus eorum Lat.: om. ἴω. 



ancient religious tradition.! This place he rebuilt 
and fortified with massive walls, planting there a 
garrison of as many as 240,000 heavy-armed men to 
guard his frontier. Here he would come in summer- 
time, partly to serve out rations and pay his troops, 
partly to train them carefully in manceuvres and so 
strike terror into foreign tribes. After reigning for 
19 years, Salitis died; and a second king, named 
Bnon,? succeeded and reigned for 44 years. Next 
to him came Apachnan, who ruled for 36 years and 
7 months ;° then Apéphis for 61, and Iannas for 50 
years and 1 month; then finally Assis for 49 years 
and 2 months. These six kings, their first rulers, 
were ever more and more eager to extirpate the 
Egyptian stock. Their race as a whole was called 

unbroken series of royal Ramesside monuments which 
cover a period of almost 200 years. 

In 1906 Petrie discovered at Kantir a vast fortified 
encampment of Hyksés date and a Hyksés cemetery: see 
Petrie, Hyksés and Israelite Cities, pp. 3-16 (the earthwork 
ramparts of the camp were intended to protect an army 
of chariots). 

1 See Fr. 54, ὃ 237, for its connexion with Seth-Typhon, 
to whom the tribal god of the Hyksés was assimilated. 

2 Of these Hyks6s names Bnén and Apachnan are un- 
explained. Apdpi (the name of several kings—at least 
three), and perhaps Aséth (Assis), seem to be pure Egyptian: 
Iannas is presumed to be Khian, whose cartouche turned 
up surprisingly and significantly on the lid of an alabastron 
in the Palace of Minos at Knossos in Crete, as well as on 
a basalt lion from Baghdad. On Khian, see Griffith in 
Proc. of Soc. of Bibl. Arch. xix. (1897), pp. 294 f., 297. 

8JIn his History (and for short reigns in the Epitome, 
see e.g. Dynasty X XVII.) Manetho reckoned by months 
as well as by years, like the Turin Papyrus and the Palermo 
Stone: see Intro. pp. xxiv f. 



ἔθνος ‘Yxouws,) τοῦτο δέ ἐστιν βασιλεῖς ποιμένες - 
A ‘A “ > <= A ~ ul / 
τὸ yap UK καθ᾽ ἱερὰν γλῶσσαν βασιλέα onpaiver, 
τὸ δὲ σὼς ποιμήν ἐστι καὶ ποιμένες κατὰ τὴν 
κοινὴν διάλεκτον, καὶ οὕτω συντιθέμενον γίνεται 
« > 
Yrows. τινὲς δὲ λέγουσιν αὐτοὺς “ApaBas εἶναι. 
> ~ 

83 [ἐν 5 δ᾽ ἄλλῳ ἀντιγράφῳ od βασιλεῖς σημαίνεσθαι 

A ~ a a / > A x , > 
διὰ τῆς τοῦ BK προσηγορίας, ἀλλὰ τοὐναντίον aiy- 
μαλώτους δηλοῦσθαι ποιμένας “3 τὸ γὰρ ὕκ πάλιν 
Αἰγυπτιστὶ καὶ τὸ ak δασυνόμενον αἰχμαλώτους 
ε ~ 4 4 \ ~ αλλ θ 4, /, 
ῥητῶς μηνύειν. καὶ τοῦτο μᾶλλον πιθανώτερόν 

~ « 
μοι φαίνεται καὶ παλαιᾶς ἱστορίας ἐχόμενον. 
4 Ἁ ΄ ,ὔ 
84 Τούτους τοὺς προκατωνομασμένους βασιλέας, 
‘ 5 A ~ TT / Xr ,ὔ Α A 
[καὶ] ® τοὺς τῶν ΠΙἼοιμένων καλουμένων καὶ τοὺς 
ἐξ αὐτῶν γενομένους, κρατῆσαι τῆς Αἰγύπτου 

1 “Υκουσσώς Eus. (Hikkusin Eus. Arm.): so also infra. 

2 The bracketed clause (already in Eus.) is apparently an 
ancient gloss, derived from ὃ 91: cf. the similar marginal 
annotations to §§ 92, 98. 

3 ποιμένας Eus.: οὐ ποιμένας L. 

4 μηνύειν Holwerda: μηνύει L. 
δ᾽ Bracketed by Thackeray, Reinach. 

1 Hyksdés, “‘ rulers of foreign lands’’ (Erman-Grapow, 
Worterbuch, iii. p. 171, 29). Another form of the name, 
Hykussés, is preserved by Eusebius, but it is uncertain 
whether the medial -u- is really authentic—the Egyptian 
plural (Meyer). Hyk = ruler of a pastoral people, a 

‘“The Hyksés, like the foreign Kassite Dynasty in 
Babylonia, adopted the higher culture of the conquered 



Hyksés,! that is ‘ king-shepherds’: for hyk in the 
sacred language means ‘king,’ and 505 in common 
speech is ‘shepherd’ or ‘ shepherds’:? hence the 
compound word ‘ Hyksés’. Some say that they 
were Arabs.” ? In another copy‘? the expression 
hyk, it is said, does not mean “kings”: on the 
contrary, the compound refers to “ captive- 
shepherds”. In Egyptian hyk, in fact, and hak 
when aspirated expressly denote “captives”’.6 This 
explanation seems to me the more convincing and 
more in keeping with ancient history. 

These kings whom I have enumerated above, and 
their descendants, ruling over the so-called Shepherds, 
dominated Egypt, according to Manetho, for 511 

country’ (J. Garstang, The Heritage of Solomon, 1934, 
. 62). 

Ps This is correct: for the Egyptian word 3’sw, 

** Bedouins,’’ which in Coptic became shés, ‘* a herdsman,”’ 

see Erman-Grapow, Worterbuch, iv. p. 412, 10 (B.G.). 

3 In a papyrus (11. 111. A.D.) quoted by Wilcken in Archiv 
fiir Pap. iii. (1906), pp. 188 ff. (Chrestomathie, I. ii. p. 322) 
ἄμμος ὑκσιωτική is mentioned—aloe [or cement (Preisigke)] 
from the land of the Hyksiétae, apparently in Arabia. 
This gives some support to the statement in the text. 

4 Josephus, in revising this treatise just as he revised 
his Antiquities, appears to have used a second version of 
Manetho’s Aegyptiaca. Did Josephus ever have before 
him Manetho’s original work ? Laqueur thinks it more 
probable that Josephus consulted revisions of Manetho 
made from the philo- or the anti-Semitic point of view: 
see Intro. p. xx. Since the third century B.c. an exten- 
sive literature on the origin of the Jews had arisen. 

5 This appears to be a Jewish explanation (§ 91), to 
harmonize with the story of Joseph. 

6 The reference here is to the Egyptian word h’k, “ booty,” 
δ prisoners of war’ (Erman-Grapow, Worterbuch, iii. p. 33) 



ga φησὶν ἔτη πρὸς τοῖς πεντακοσίοις ἕνδεκα. μετὰ 
ταῦτα δὲ τῶν ἐκ τῆς Θηβαΐδος καὶ τῆς ἄλλης 
Αἰγύπτου βασιλέων γενέσθαι φησὶν ἐπὶ τοὺς 
Ποιμένας ἐπανάστασιν, καὶ πόλεμον! συρραγῆναι 
΄ ἢ , ὅν ἃ \ ᾽ ΗΡ 
86 μέγαν καὶ πολυχρόνιον. ἐπὶ δὲ βασιλέως, ᾧ 
ὄνομα εἶναι Μισφραγμούθωσις" ἡττημένους 8 φησὶ 
τοὺς Ποιμένας * ἐκ μὲν τῆς ἄλλης Αἰγύπτου πάσης 
ἐκπεσεῖν, κατακλεισθῆναι δ᾽ εἰς τόπον ἀρουρῶν 
ἔχοντα μυρίων τὴν περίμετρον Αὔαριν ὃ ὄνομα τῷ 
δητόπῳ. τοῦτόν φησιν ὁ Μανεθὼς ἅπαντα τείχει 
τε μεγάλῳ καὶ ἰσχυρῷ περιβαλεῖν τοὺς Π]οιμένας, 
ὅπως τήν τε κτῆσιν ἅπασαν ἔχωσιν ἐν ὀχυρῷ 
‘ \ , A ec ~ \ A “ 
88 καὶ τὴν λείαν τὴν ἑαυτῶν. τὸν δὲ Μισφραγμου- 
θώσεως υἱὸν Θούμμωσιν ® ἐπιχειρῆσαι μὲν αὐτοὺς 
διὰ πολιορκίας ἑλεῖν κατὰ κράτος, ὀκτὼ καὶ 
τεσσαράκοντα μυριάσι στρατοῦ προσεδρεύσαντα 
τοῖς τείχεσιν: ἐπεὶ δὲ τῆς πολιορκίας ἴ ἀπέγνω, 
14 αὐτοῖς L, Lat.: om. Eus. 
2 Eus.: ‘Adtodpaypovdwois 1, (Lat.): so also infra. 
3 Conj. Cobet: ἡττωμένους L. 
44 ἐξ αὐτοῦ L: om. Eus.: ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ ed. pr. 
5 Avapw 1, (Lat.): Avapis Eus. 

δ Θούμμωσιν L: Θμούθωσιν Eus. 
7L: τὴν πολιορκίαν Eus. 

1This number of years, much too high for the length 
of the Hyksés sway in Egypt, may perhaps refer to the 
whole period of their rule in Palestine and Syria: see 
A. Jirku, in Journ. of the Palestine Orient. Soc. xii., 1932, 

. 5] τι. 4. 

᾿ 2 Misphragmuthésis, 7.e. Menkheperré* (Tuthmésis III.) 
and his son Thummiésis, 7.e. Tuthmdsis IV., are here said 
to have driven out the Hyksés. In Fr. 50, ὃ 94, Tethmésis 
is named as the conqueror. In point of historical fact the 



years. Thereafter, he says, there came a revolt of 
the kings of the Thebaid and the rest of Egypt 
against the Shepherds, and a fierce and prolonged 
war broke out between them. By a king whose 
name was Misphragmuthosis,” the Shepherds, he 
says, were defeated, driven out of all the rest of 
Egypt, and confined in a region measuring within 
its circumference 10,000 ariirae,? by name Auaris. 
According to Manetho, the Shepherds enclosed this 
whole area with a high, strong wall, in order to safe- 
guard all their possessions and spoils. Thummiésis, 
the son of Misphragmuthdésis (he continues), at- 
tempted by siege to force them to surrender, blockad- 
ing the fortress with an army of 480,000 men. 
Finally, giving up the siege in despair, he concluded 

victorious king was Amésis, and he took Auaris by main 
force: the genuine Manetho must surely have given this 
name which is preserved by Africanus and Eusebius, as 
also by Apién in Tatian, adv. Graecos, §38. See p. 101 
n. 2, and cf. Meyer, Aeg. Chron. pp. 73 f. 

Weill, La fin du moyen empire égyptien, p. 95, explains 
the error by assuming that the exploit of the capture of 
Auaris was usurped by Tuthmésis IV., as it was usurped 
earlier by Hatshepsut and later by Ramessés III. 

Breasted (C.A.H. ii. p. 83) holds that, since with the 
catastrophic fall of Kadesh on the Orontes before the 
arms of Tuthmdsis III. the last vestige of the Hyksés 
power disappeared, the tradition of late Greek days made 
Tuthmésis IIT. the conqueror of the Hyksés. He points 
out that the name Misphragmuthésis is to be identified 
with the two cartouche-names of Tuthmésis III.: it is a 
corruption of “‘Menkheperré‘ Tuthmésis”’. 

? Lit. “‘ with a circumference of 10,000 arirae’’. The 
text (which cannot be attributed as it stands to Manetho 
-τὴν περίμετρον must be a later addition) implies a wrong 
use of ardra as a measure of length; it is, in reality, a 
measure of area, about half an acre. 



’ὔ / ΄ Ἁ Μ > ’ 
ποιήσασθαι συμβάσεις, ἵνα τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐκλιπόντες 
a 4 4 > “-“ 3 / \ 
ὅποι βούλονται πάντες ἀβλαβεῖς ἀπέλθωσι. τοὺς 
80δὲ ἐπὶ ταῖς ὁμολογίαις πανοικησίᾳ μετὰ τῶν 
κτήσεων οὐκ ἐλάττους μυριάδων ὄντας εἴκοσι καὶ 
τεσσάρων ἀπὸ τῆς Αἰγύπτου τὴν ἔρημον εἰς Συρίαν 
διοδοιπορῆσαι. φοβουμένους δὲ τὴν ᾿Ασσυρίων 
90 δυναστείαν, τότε γὰρ ἐκείνους τῆς ᾿Ασίας κρατεῖν, 
ἐν τῇ νῦν ᾿Ιουδαίᾳ καλουμένῃ πόλιν οἰκοδομησα- 
μένους τοσαύταις μυριάσιν ἀνθρώπων ἀρκέσουσαν, 
“εροσόλυμα ταύτην ὀνομάσαι. 
9 “Ev ἄλλῃ δέ τινι βίβλῳ τῶν Αἰγυπτιακῶν 
M 0 \ ~ / \ 1 ” A 
ανεθὼς τοῦτό φησι «τὸ» ἔθνος, τοὺς καλου- 
μένους ΠΠοιμένας, αἰχμαλώτους ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς 
᾽ ~ / / / > ~ ‘ 
αὐτῶν βίβλοις γεγράφθαι, λέγων ὀρθῶς: καὶ 
γὰρ τοῖς ἀνωτάτω προγόνοις ἡμῶν τὸ ποιμαίνειν 
πάτριον ἦν, καὶ νομαδικὸν ἔχοντες τὸν βίον οὕτως 
> ~ / >’ / / / > 
92 ἐκαλοῦντο []οιμένες. αἰχμάλωτοί te πάλιν οὐκ 
> ’, e i ~ > / > / > id 
ἀλόγως ὑπὸ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων aveypadnoar, ἐπειδή- 
περ ὃ πρόγονος ἡμῶν ᾿Ιώσηπος 5 ἑαυτὸν ἔφη πρὸς 
τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Αἰγυπτίων αἰχμάλωτον εἶναι, 

1 Bekker: om. L. 

51, (in margin): ἐν ἑτέρῳ ἀντιγράφῳ εὑρέθη οὕτως" κατήχθη 
πραθεὶς παρὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν εἰς Αἴγυπτον πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα τῆς 
Αἰγύπτου, καὶ πάλιν ὕστερον τοὺς αὑτοῦ ἀδελφοὺς μετεπέμψατο 
τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπιτρέψαντος. 

1240,000—the number of the garrison mentioned in 
§ 78, where they aro described as “ hoplites ”’. 

2 On the origin of “‘ Jeru-Salem,’’ see A. Jirku in Zettschr. 
d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellschaft, 90 (1936), pp. « 10 κα f.: 
the first part, Jeru-, is non-Semitic (cf. Ο.1΄. Hzek. xvi. 2, 
45: 2 Sam. xxiv. 16, and the names Jeru-ba‘al, Jeru-’el ; 



a treaty by which they should all depart from Egypt 
and go unmolested where they pleased. On these 
terms the Shepherds, with their possessions and 
households complete, no fewer than 240,000 persons,1 
left Egypt and journeyed over the desert into Syria. 
There, dreading the power of the Assyrians who were 
at that time masters of Asia, they built in the land 
now called Judaea a city large enough to hold all 
those thousands of people, and gave it the name of 

In another book 3 of his History of Egypt Manetho 
says that this race of so-called Shepherds is, in the 
sacred books of Egypt, described as “‘ captives ” ; 
and his statement is correct. With our remotest 
ancestors, indeed, it was a hereditary custom to 
feed sheep; and as they lived a nomadic life, they 
were called Shepherds. On the other hand, in the 
Egyptian records they were not unreasonably styled 
Captives, since our ancestor Joseph told the king of 
Egypt® that he was a captive, and later, with the 

also, Jaru-wataS in an inscr. of Boghazk6i); the second 
part, Salem, is a Canaanitish divine name, found in the 
texts of Ras esh-Shamra. The name of the city occurs 
in the El-Amarna Letters in the form ‘ Urusalimmu,”’ 
the oldest literary mention of Jerusalem. 

3 Cf. ὃ 83 for the same information, there attributed to 
“another copy ”’. 

4 Cf. O.T. Genesis xlvi. 32-34, xlvii. 3. 

5 In the Biblical narrative Joseph told the chief butler 
or cup-bearer (Genesis xl. 15). The margin of the Floren- 
tine MS. has a note on this passage: “‘In another copy 
(i.e. of the treatise Against Apion) the following reading 
was found—‘he was sold by his brethren and brought 
down into Egypt to the king of Egypt; and later, again, 

> 99 

with the king’s consent, summoned his brethren to Egypt’. 


Fr. 42, 43 MANETHO 

‘ ‘ > ᾿ > A ΝΜ ΄ 
καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς εἰς τὴν Αἴγυπτον ὕστερον 
/ ~ / > / > A 
μετεπέμψατο, τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπιτρέψαντος. ἀλλὰ 
περὶ μὲν τούτων ἐν ἄλλοις ποιήσομαι τὴν ἐξέτασιν 

Fr. 48. Syncellus, p. 113. ΚΑΤΑ ΑΦΡΙΚΑΝΟΝ. 

Πεντεκαιδεκάτη δυναστεία []οιμένων. ἦσαν 
δὲ Φοίνικες ξένοι βασιλεῖς ς΄, ot καὶ Μέμφιν 
- « ἌΡ = ΕἸ - , ” 
εἷλον, of Kal ἐν τῷ Σεθροΐτῃ νομῷ πόλιν ἔκτισαν, 
ἀφ᾽ ἧς ὁρμώμενοι Αἰγυπτίους ἐχειρώσαντο. 
~ sh > / Μ , > > 
v πρῶτος Σαΐτης ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη ιθ΄, ad 
οὗ καὶ ὁ Σαΐτης νομός." 
Β' Βνῶν, ἔτη μδ΄. 
γ΄ Παχνάν, ἔτη ξα΄. 
δ΄ Σταάν, ἔτη ν΄. 
ε΄ Ἄρχλης, ἔτη pl’. 
, » ” ’ 
ς΄ “Adwdus,? ἔτη Ea’. 
μοῦ, ἔτη ond’. 
1 Τὴ B the words οἱ καὶ ἐν τῷ Σεθροΐτῃ νομῷ .. . ἐχειρώσαντο 

come after ὁ Latrns νομός. 
2m.: “Adofis MSS. 

1 The reference seems to be to Fr. 54, § 227 ff., but ἐν 
ἄλλοις usually refers to a separate work. 

* Africanus gives a less correct list than Josephus (cf. 
the transposition of Apéphis to the end): there is further 
corruption in Eusebius (Fr. 48) and the Book of S6this 
(App. IV.). 

3 This statement of the Phoenician origin of the Hyksés 
kings has generally been discredited until recently: now 
the Ras esh-Shamra tablets, which imply a pantheon 
strikingly similar to that of the Hyksés, have shown that 
the Hyksés were closely related to the Phoenicians. 



king’s consent, summoned his brethren to Egypt. 
But I shall investigate this subject more fully in 
another place.! 

Dynasty XV. 
Fr. 43 (from Syncellus). ACCORDING TO AFRICANUS.? 

The Fifteenth Dynasty consisted of Shepherd Kings. 
There were six foreign kings from Phoenicia,* who 
seized Memphis: in the Sethroite nome they founded 
a town, from which as a base they subdued Egypt. 

The first of these kings, Saités, reigned for 19 
years: the Saite nome ὅ is called after him. 

2. Bnén, for 44 years. 

3. Pachnan [Apachnan], for 61 years. 

4, Staan,° for 50 years. 

5. Archlés,® for 49 years. 

6. Aphéphis,’ (Aphobis), for 61 years. 

Total, 284 years. 

‘See p. 80 n. 3. The Saite nome proper, as opposed 
to this “ Tanite’’? nome, is mentioned in Egyptian texts 
of the Old Kingdom. For the famous Sais, the seat of 
Dynasty XXVI. (now Sa El-Hagar, see Baedeker,® p. 36 
—N.W. of Tanta on the right bank of the Rosetta branch), 
the centre of the cult of Neith, “‘the metropolis of the 
lower country ”’ (Strabo, 17. 1, 18), ef. Herodotus, ii. 62 ; 
Diod. i. 28, 4 (for its relation to Athens). 

5 For Iannas (in Josephus), the Khian of the Monuments, 
see p. 83 n. 2. 

® Archlés here, and in Eusebius (I’r. 48), corresponds 
with Assis (or Aseth) in Josephus (Fr. 42, § 80); but the 
change in the form of the name is extraordinary. 

* The Jength of reign (61 years, as in Josephus) leads one 
to believe that Africanus has transposed Apdphis from 
the 4th place to the 6th; but in point of fact the last 
Hyksés king whom we know by name was called Apepi. 


Fr. 44, 45, 46 MANETHO 

Fr. 44 (a). Synecellus, p. 114. KATA EYZEBION. 

Πεντεκαιδεκάτη δυναστεία AtvoomoAuta@v βα- 

σιλέων, ot ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη ov’. 

(0) υβεβιῦβ, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 

Quinta decima dynastia Diospolitarum regum, qui 
regnarunt annis CCL. 

Fr. 45. Syncellus, p. 114. KATA A®PIKANON 

“Εκκαιδεκάτη δυναστεία [Ποιμένες ἄλλοι βασιλεῖς 
Ἴ μ 

Ap’: ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη dun’. 

Fr. 46 (a). Syncellus, p. 114. KATA ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

“Εκκαιδεκάτη δυναστεία Θηβαῖοι βασιλεῖς €’,' οἵ 
1.3 / ” , 
καὶ ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη pi’. 

(0) Ευβεβιῦβ, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
ΒΡ Ὁ" 

Sexta decima dynastia Thebaeorum regum V, qui 
regnarunt annis CXC, 

ιη΄ Boeckh. 

AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 44, 45, 46 

Fr. 44 (a) (from Syncellus). AccorDING TO 

The Fifteenth Dynasty consisted of kings of 
Diospolis, who reigned for 250 years. 


The Fifteenth Dynasty consisted of kings of 
Diospolis, who reigned for 250 years. 

Dynasty XVI. 

Fr. 45 (from Syncellus). AccorDING TO AFRICANUS. 

The Sixteenth Dynasty were Shepherd Kings again, 
32 in number: they reigned for 518 years. 

Fr. 46 (a) (from Syncellus), AccoRDING TO 

The Sixteenth Dynasty were kings of Thebes, 5 
in number: they reigned for 190 years. 


The Sixteenth Dynasty were kings of Thebes, 5 
in number: they reigned for 190 years. 

1 Barbarus gives 318 years (p. 23, XV.) ; Meyer conjec- 
tures that the true number is 418 (Aeg. Chron. p. 99). 
Contrast Fr. 42, § 84 (511 years). 


Fr. 47, 48 MANETHO 

Fr. 47. Syncellus, p. 114. KATA A®PIKANON. 

‘Entaxaidexatyn δυναστεία [Ποιμένες ἄλλοι βα- 
7 μ 
σιλεῖς py’ καὶ Θηβαῖοι ἢ" Διοσπολῖται μγ΄. 

ὋὉμοῦ οἱ Ποιμένες καὶ οἱ Θηβαῖοι ἐβασίλευσαν 
ἔτη ρνα΄. 

Fr. 48 (a). Syncellus, p. 114. ΚΑΤΑ ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

“Επτακαιδεκάτη δυναστεία []οιμένες ἦσαν ἀδελ- 
φοὶ 5 Φοίνικες ξένοι βασιλεῖς, ot καὶ Μέμφιν εἷλον. 
ὯΩν πρῶτος Σαἵτης ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη ιθ΄, ad’ 
e \ ¢ sh \ > ΄, « A > ~ 
οὗ καὶ 6 Σαΐτης νομὸς ἐκλήθη, ot καὶ ἐν τῷ 
Σεθροΐτῃ νομῷ πόλιν ἔκτισαν, ἀφ᾽ ἧς ὁρμώμενοι 

Αἰγυπτίους ἐχειρώσαντο. 

1 Miiller. 
2 A lapsus calami for δὲ (Meyer): Africanus (Fr. 43) pre- 
serves the true text: ἦσαν δὲ Φοίνικες . . 

1See H. E. Winlock, ‘‘Tombs of the Seventeenth 
Dynasty at Thebes,” in J. Hg. Arch. x. pp. 217 ff. 

2 Barbarus gives 221 years (p. 23, XVI.). According to 
Manetho the total length of the foreign usurpation prob- 
ably was 929 years (260 in Josephus + 518 + 161). 
Josephus (Fr. 42, § 84) gives 511 years. These statements, 
even if based on actual traditions, have no weight as 
compared with the certain data of the Monuments. The 
almost complete lack of buildings of the Hyksés time and 
the close connexion of the Thebans of Dynasty XVII. 



Dynasty XVII 
Fr. 47 (from Syncellus). AccorpiINc TO AFRICANUS. 

The Seventeenth Dynasty |! were Shepherd Kings 
again, 43 in number, and kings of Thebes or Dios- 
polis, 43 in number. 

Total of the reigns of the Shepherd Kings and the 
Theban kings, 151 years.” 

Fr. 48 (a) (from Syncellus). AccoRDING TO 

The Seventeenth Dynasty were Shepherds and 
brothers : they were foreign kings from Phoenicia, 
who seized Memphis. 

The first of these kings, Saités, reigned for 19 
years: the Saite nome‘ is called after him. These 
kings founded in the Sethroite nome a town, from 
which as a base they subdued Egypt. 

with those of Dynasty XIII. tend to show that the 
Hyksés rule in the Nile Valley lasted for about a hundred 
and twenty years, c. 1700-1580 B.c. Under one of the 
Theban kings, Ta‘o, who bore the epithet ‘“‘ The Brave,”’ 
war with the Hyksés broke out c. 1590 B.c. ; Kamose, the 
last king of Dynasty XVII., continued the war of in- 
dependence, and Amésis (of Dynasty XVIII.) finally 
expelled the usurpers. 

* This must be a mistake of transcription: see note 2 on 
the text. 

“See Fr. 42, ὃ 78, n. 3, Fr. 43, n. 4. 



B’ Βνῶν, ἔτη μ΄. 

γ'" Ἄφωφις, ἔτη ιδ'. 

Μεθ’ ὃν Ἄρχλης, ἔτη λ΄. 

“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη py’. 

Κατὰ τούτους Αἰγυπτίων βασιλεὺς ᾿Ιωσὴφ δείκ- 

(0) Ευβεβιῦβ, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
Ρ. 99 sq. 

Septima decima dynastia Pastorum, qui fratres 
erant Phoenices exterique reges, et Memphin occu- 

Ex his primus Saites imperavit annis XIX, a quo 
Saitarum quoque nomos nomen traxit. Eidem in 
Sethroite nomo urbem condiderunt, unde incursione 
facta Aegyptios perdomuerunt. 

Secundus Bnon, annis XL. 
Deinde Archles, annis XXX. 
Aphophis, annis XIV. 

Summa annorum CIII. 
Horum aetate regnavisse in Aegypto Josephus 

1Om. A. 

1See p. 95 ἢ. 3. 2See p. 80 n. 3. 



2. Bnoén, for 40 years. 
3. Aphophis, for 14 years. 

After him Archlés reigned for 30 years. 
Total, 103 years. 

It was in their time that Joseph was appointed 

king of Egypt. 


The Seventeenth Dynasty consisted of Shepherds, 
who were brothers! from Phoenicia and foreign 
kings: they seized Memphis. The first of these 
kings, Saites, reigned for 19 years: from him, too, the 
Saite nome? derived its name. These kings founded 
in the Sethroite nome a town from which they made 
a raid and subdued Egypt. 

The second king was Bnon, tor 40 years. 
Next, Archles, for 30 years. 
Aphophis, for 14 years. 

Total, 103 years. 

It was in their time that Joseph appears to have 
ruled in Egypt.® 

The Armenian text of this sentence is rather difficult, 
but Professor Margoliouth, pointing out that the Armenian 
present infinitive is used here for the perfect, approves 
of this rendering. Karst translates the Armenian in the 
following sense: “It is under these kings that Joseph 
arises, to rule over Egypt’”’. 


Fr. 49. Scholia in Platonis Timaeum, 21 E 

Σαϊτικός - ἐκ τῶν Μανεθὼ Αἰγυπτιακῶν. ‘En- 
τακαιδεκάτη δυναστεία [Ποιμένες - ἦσαν ἀδελφοὶ" 
Φοίνικες ξένοι βασιλεῖς, ot καὶ Μέμφιν εἷλον. 

ὯΩν πρῶτος Σαΐτης ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη ιθ΄, ἀφ᾽ οὗ 
δι 6 Po \ > / a tn ~ “᾿ 
καὶ 6 Σαΐτης νομὸς ἐκλήθη - ot καὶ ἐν τῷ Σεθρωΐτῃ 
~ / ” > ae c 4 > / 
νομῷ πόλιν ἔκτισαν, ἀφ᾽ ἧς ὁρμώμενοι Αἰγυπτίους 


Δεύτερος τούτων Βνῶν, ἔτη μ'. 

Τρίτος Apxans, ἔτη λ΄. 

Τέταρτος Ἄφω φις, ἔτη 0d’. 

Ὅ “ ’ 

μοῦ, py’. 

Ὃ δὲ Σαΐτης προσέθηκε τῷ μηνὶ ὥρας ιβ’, ὡς 
εἶναι ἡμερῶν λ΄, καὶ τῷ ἐνιαυτῷ ἡμέρας ς᾽, καὶ 
γέγονεν ἡμερῶν τξέ. 

1 δὲ conj.: of. Fr. 48 (a). 



Fr. 49 (from the Scholia to Plato). 

Saitic, of Sais. From the Aegyptiaca of Manetho. 
The Seventeenth Dynasty consisted of Shepherds: 
they were brothers! from Phoenicia, foreign kings, 
wboseized Memphis. The first of these kings, Saités, 
reigned for 19 years: the Saite nome” is called after 
him. These kings founded in the Sethréite nome a 
town, from which as a base they subdued Egypt. 

The second of these kings, Bnén, reigned for 40 
years; the third, Archaés, for 30 years; and the 
fourth, Aphéphis, for 14 years. Total, 103 years. 

Saités added 12 hours to the month, to make its 
length 30 days; and he added 6 days to the year, 
which thus comprised 365 days.° 

1See p. 95 n. 3. 2 See p. 80 n. 3. 

8 The addition of 5 days (not 6, as above) to the short 
year of 360 days was made long before the Hyksés age: 
it goes back to at least the Pyramid Age, and probably 
earlier. The introduction of the calendar, making an 
artificial reconciliation of the lunar and solar years, perhaps 
as early as 4236 B.C., is believed to give the earliest fixed 
date in human history: see V. Gordon Childe, New Light 
on the Most Ancient East, 1934, pp. 5 f. 



Fr. 50. Josepnus, Contra Apionem, I, 15, 16, 
§§ 93-105.1 

(Continued from Fr. 42.) 

Ni A δὲ ~ > / ΄ / 

93 υνὶ δὲ τῆς ἀρχαιότητος ταύτης παρατίθεμαι 
τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους μάρτυρας. πάλιν οὖν τὰ τοῦ 
Μανεθῶ 3 πῶς ἔχει πρὸς τὴν τῶν χρόνων τάξιν 

94 ὑπογράψω. φησὶ δὲ οὕτως - “wera τὸ ἐξελθεῖν ἐξ 
Αἰγύπτου τὸν λαὸν τῶν ΠἼὨοιμένων εἰς Ιεροσόλυμα, 
ὁ ἐκβαλὼν αὐτοὺς ἐξ Αἰγύπτου βασιλεὺς Τέθμωσις 
ἐβασίλευσεν μετὰ ταῦτα ἔτη εἰκοσιπέντε καὶ 
μῆνας τέσσαρας καὶ ἐτελεύτησεν, καὶ παρέλαβεν 

Ἁ 3 \ « > ~ εν / ” / 
ν ἀρχὴν ὃ αὐτοῦ υἱὸς Χέβρων ἔτη Sexarpia. 
95 μεθ᾽ ὃν ᾿Ἀμένωφις εἴκοσι καὶ μῆνας ἕπτά. τοῦ 
δὲ ἀδελφὴ ‘Apecois® εἰκοσιὲν καὶ μῆνας ἐννέα. 
~ δὲ My ὃ bd \ ~ >? / ~ 
ths δὲ Μήφρης δώδεκα καὶ μῆνας ἐννέα. τοῦ 
δὲ Μηφραμούθωσις εἰκοσιπέντε καὶ μῆνας δέκα. 
lo δὲ Θ ~ 4 > / \ ~ > 7 ~ δ᾽ 
θότου 0€ ὥὕμωσις“ evvea καὶ μῆνας OKTW. τοῦ 
Apevwdis τριάκοντα καὶ μῆνας δέκα. τοῦ δὲ 

1§§ 94-105 are quoted by Theophilus, Ad Autolycum, ITI, 
20f. §§ 103, 104 are quoted by Eusebius, Praepar. Evang., 
Χ, 13. 

2 Niese: ΪΜανέθωνος L. 

8 Naber: ᾿Αμενσὶς Fr. 52: ᾿Αμεσσὴς L. 

4 Τυθμώσης Manetho, Fr. 51: Τούθμωσις Fr. 52, 53. 

1The New Kingdom: Dynasties XVIII.-XX.: 6. 1580- 
ὁ. 1100 B.c. 

Dynasty XVIII. c. 1580-1310 B.c. 

For identifications with the monumental evidence which 
is firmly established, see Meyer, Geschichte*, ii. 1, p. 78: 
the names and order of the first nine kings are: (1) Amésis 



Dynasties, XVIII} XIX. 

Fr. 50 (from Josephus, Contra Apionem, i. 15, 
16, §§ 93-105)—(continued from Fr. 42). 

For the present I am citing the Egyptians as wit- 
nesses to this antiquity of ours. I shall therefore 
resume my quotations from Manetho’s works in their 
reference to chronology. His account is as follows: 
** After the departure of the tribe of Shepherds from 
Egypt to Jerusalem, Tethmésis,” the king who drove 
them out of Egypt, reigned for 25 years 4 months 
until his death, when he was succeeded by his 
son Chebrén, who ruled for 13 years. After him 
Amen6phis reigned for 20 years 7 months ; then his 
sister Amessis for 2] years 9 months; then her son 
Méphrés for 12 years 9 months; then his son Méphra- 
muthésis for 25 years 10 months; then his son 
Thmésis for 9 years 8 months ; then his son Amenéphis 

(Chebr6én is unexplained), (2) Amendphis I., (3) Tuthmésis 
I., (4) Tuthmésis IT., (5) Hatshepsut (apparently Manetho’s 
Amessis or Amensis: the same length of reign, 21 years), 
(6) Tuthmdsis III. (corresponding to Méphrés, i.e. 
Menkheperré* or Meshperé‘, and Misphragmuthésis, 7.e. 
Menkheperré‘ Thutmose), (7) Amendéphis 11., (8) Tuthmésis 
IV. (the order of these two being reversed by Manetho), 
(9) Amenéphis III. (Hérus, the same length of reign, 
36 years). 

The remaining kings of the dynasty are: Amendéphis IV. 
(Akhnaten, see p. 123 n. 1), Semenkhkaré‘ (ἢ Acenchérés), 
Tat‘ankhamon (ἢ Chebrés), Ay (ἢ Acherrés): see C.A.H. 
ii. p. 702. On rulers Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6, see Wm. F. 
Edgerton, The Thutmosid Succession, 1933. 

For Dynasty XIX. see p. 148 n. 1. 

2 Tethmésis = Amdsis: see note on Misphragmuthésis, 
Fr. 42, § 86. For the scarab of Amosis see Plate 1, 3. 



0) \ ‘ ~ [4 “ δὲ 
ρος τριακονταὲξ καὶ μῆνας πέντε. τοῦ δὲ 
θυγάτηρ ᾿ἀκεγχερὴς δώδεκα καὶ μῆνα ἕνα. τῆς 
971 δὲ ‘Pddwris ἀδελφὸς ἐννέα. τοῦ δὲ ‘Axeyynpns 
δώδεκα καὶ μῆνας πέντε. τοῦ δὲ ᾿Ακεγχήρης 
ἕτερος δώδεκα καὶ μῆνας τρεῖς. τοῦ δὲ “Appais 
τέσσαρα καὶ μῆνα ἕνα. τοῦ δὲ 'Ραμέσσης ἕν 
καὶ μῆνας τέσσαρας. τοῦ δὲ Ἁρμέσσης Μιαμοῦν 

« A \ “ 4 ~ \ > / 
ἑξηκονταὲξ καὶ μῆνας δύο. τοῦ δὲ ᾿Αμένωφις 
΄ A ~ σ -“ A / ε \ 
98 δεκαεννέα καὶ μῆνας ἕξ. τοῦ δὲ Σέθως ὁ Kai 
‘Papéoons,! ἱππικὴν καὶ ναυτικὴν ἔχων δύναμιν, 

A ἣν > A σ - > , “ > 4, 
τὸν μὲν ἀδελφὸν “Appaiv ἐπίτροπον τῆς Αἰγύπτου 
κατέστησεν, καὶ πᾶσαν μὲν αὐτῷ τὴν ἄλλην βα- 

\ / > / /, A > / 
σιλικὴν περιέθηκεν ἐξουσίαν, μόνον δὲ ἐνετείλατο 
διάδημα μὴ φορεῖν μηδὲ τὴν βασιλίδα μητέρα τε 

~ / > ~ > ἐς A sa ~ Ν» 
99 τῶν τέκνων ἀδικεῖν, ἀπέχεσθαι δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων 
~ / > ‘ A 3, ἃ tA \ 
βασιλικῶν παλλακίδων. αὐτὸς δὲ ἐπὶ Κύπρον καὶ 
Φοινίκην καὶ πάλιν ᾿Ασσυρίους τε καὶ Μήδους 

1 18. : Ζέθωσις καὶ ἱΡαμέσσης L. 

2L (in margin): εὑρέθη ἐν ἑτέρῳ ἀντιγράφῳ οὕτως" μεθ᾽ ὃν 
Σέθωσις καὶ ἹΡαμέσσης δύο ἀδελφοί: ὁ μὲν ναυτικὴν ἔχων δύναμιν 
τοὺς κατὰ θάλατταν | ἀπαντῶντας καὶ διαχειρωμένους f (διαπειρω- 
μένους Naber) ἐπολιόρκει" μετ᾽ οὐ πολὺ δὲ καὶ τὸν ἱῬαμέσσην 
ἀνελών, “Appaiv ἄλλον αὑτοῦ ἀδελφὸν ἐπίτροπον τῆς Αἰγύπτου 
καταστῆσαι (for κατέστησε). 

1 Howard Carter (Tutankhamen, iii. p. 3) points out that 
monuments of Amenéphis III. are dated to his 37th year, 
perhaps even to his 40th year; and he explains that 
Manetho has given the length of his reign as sole ruler. 
More commonly, the high figures assigned to the reigns of 
kings may be explained by the assumption that over- 
lapping co-regencies have been included. 

2 Miamtin = Mey-amiun, “‘ beloved of Amin”, 



for 30 years 10 months;? then his son Orus for 36 years 
5 months; then his daughter Acenchérés for 12 years 
1 month; then her brother Rathétis for 9 years; 
then his son Acenchérés for 12 years 5 months, his 
son Acenchérés II. for 12 years 3 months, his son 
Harmais for 4 years 1 month, his son Ramessés for 
1 year 4 months, his son Harmessés Miamin? for 
66 years 2 months, his son Amenéphis for 19 years 
6 months, and his son Sethés, also called Ramessés,? 
whose power lay in his cavalry and his fleet. This 
king appointed his brother Harmais viceroy of Egypt, 
and invested him with all the royal prerogatives, 
except that he charged him not to wear a diadem, 
nor to wrong the queen, the mother of his children, 
and to refrain likewise from the royal concubines. 
He then set out on an expedition against Cyprus and 
Phoenicia and later against the Assyrians and the 

?The margin of the Florentine MS. has a note here: 
“The following reading was found in another copy: 
* After him Sethdsis and Ramessés, two brothers. The 
former, with a strong fleet, blockaded his murderous (?) 
adversaries by sea. Not long after, he slow Ramessés and 
appointed another of his brothers, Harmais, as viceroy of 
Egypt.’”’ This is intended as a correction of the text of 
Josephus, but it contains the error of the Florentine MS. 
in the reading Σέθωσις καὶ ἹΡαμέσσης. Sethdsis is the 
Sesostris of Herodotus, ii. 102, where his naval expedition 
in the “‘ Red Sea ”’ is described. 

Meyer, Aeg. Chron. p. 91, considers the words ‘“‘ also 
called Ramesses’ an addition to Manetho. See ὃ 245. 

W. Struve (see p. 148 n. 1) would here emend Sethés 
into Sesés, which was a name of Ramesés II.: according 
to the monuments he reigned for 67 years (cf. Fr. 55, 2), 
and his triumphant Asiatic campaigns were told by 
Hecataeus of Abdera (Osymandyas in Diodorus Siculus, 
i. 47 ff.). 



στρατεύσας, ἅπαντας τοὺς μὲν δόρατι, τοὺς δὲ 
3 \ / a ~ ~ ΄ e ‘ 
ἀμαχητὶ φόβῳ δὲ τῆς πολλῆς δυνάμεως ὑποχειρίους 
ἔλαβε, καὶ μέγα φρονήσας ἐπὶ ταῖς εὐπραγίαις ἔτι 
καὶ θαρσαλεώτερον ἐπεπορεύετο τὰς πρὸς ἀνατολὰς 
100 πόλεις τε καὶ χώρας καταστρεφόμενος. χρόνου 
ε ~ / σ “ ε \ > 
τε ἱκανοῦ γεγονότος, “Appais 6 καταλειφθεὶς ἐν 
Αἰγύπτῳ πάντα τάμπαλιν οἷς ἁδελφὸς ' παρήνει 
μὴ ποιεῖν ἀδεῶς ἔπραττεν" καὶ γὰρ τὴν βασιλίδα 
/ ” \ aA Μ / > ~ 
βιαίως ἔσχεν καὶ ταῖς ἄλλαις παλλακίσιν ἀφειδῶς 
διετέλει χρώμενος, πειθόμενος δὲ 3 ὑπὸ τῶν φίλων 
101 διάδημα ἐφόρει καὶ eles τῷ ἀδελφῷ. ὁ δὲ 
τεταγμένος ἐπὶ τῶν ἱερέων ὃ τῆς Αἰγύπτου γράψας 
βιβλίον ἔπεμψε τῷ Σεθώσει, δηλῶν αὐτῷ πάντα 
Avie 3 “ ¢ > A 39 ““κῖο oe 
Kal ὅτι ἀντῆρεν ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτῷ Ἃρμαϊς. παρα- 
χρῆμα οὖν ὑπέστρεψεν εἰς Π,Ἂηλούσιον καὶ ἐκράτησεν 
“ 7 / ε \ , >? / > \ ~ 
102 τῆς ἰδίας βασιλείας. ἡ δὲ χώρα ἐκλήθη ἀπὸ τοῦ 
αὐτοῦ ὀνόματος Αἴγυπτος λέγεται γὰρ ὅτι 6 
μὲν Σέθως ἐκαλεῖτο Αἴγυπτος, Ἅρμαϊς δὲ 6 ἀδελφὸς 
αὐτοῦ Aavads.”’ 
1 ἁδελφὸς Gutschmid: ἀδελφὸς L. ὅτε conj. Niese. 
3 ἱερέων L (perhaps an Ancient Egyptian formula): ἱερῶν 
Hudson (sacra Lat., fana Eus.)—with this ef. Revenue Laws 

of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 519 (258 B.C.) of ἐπὶ τῶν ἱερῶν τεταγ- 
μένοι 4 λέγεται Gutschmid: λέγει L (dicit Lat.). 

1A frequent title from the Old Kingdom onwards is 

‘overseer of the priests of Upper and Lower Egypt,” 
tease applied to the high priest of Amin. The emenda- 
tion ἱερῶν (for ἱερέων) is supported by a reference in a 
papyrus of about the time of Manetho. 

*See Fr. 54, § 274, n. 1 (pp. 140-141). 

3 With the return of Sethdésis to a country in revolt, ef. 
Herodotus, ii. 107 (return of Sesostris and the perilous 



Medes; and he subjugated them all, some by the 
sword, others without a blow and merely by the 
menace of his mighty host. In the pride of his con- 
quests, he continued his advance with still greater 
boldness, and subdued the cities and lands of the 
East. When a considerable time had elapsed, 
Harmais who had been left behind in Egypt, reck- 
lessly contravened all his brother’s injunctions. He 
outraged the queen and proceeded to make free with 
the concubines; then, following the advice of his 
friends, he began to wear a diadem and rose in tevolt 
against his brother. The warden of the priests of 
Egypt | then wrote a letter which he sent to Sethdsis, 
revealing all the details, including the revolt of his 
brother Harmais. Sethésis forthwith returned to 
Pélusium ? and took possession of his kingdom ὃ; and 
the land was named Aegyptus after him. It is said 
that Sethés was called Aegyptus, and his brother 
Harmais, Danaus.” 4 

banquet), Diod. Sic. i. 57, 6-8. The tale appears to be 
a piece of folklore (Maspero, Journ. des Savants, 1901, 
pp- 599, 665 ff.). See Wainwright, Sky-Religion, p. 48. 

4Danaus: cf. ὃ 231. See Meyer, Aeg. Chron. p. 75, for 
the theory that the identification of Sethés and Harmais 
with Aegyptus and Danaus is due, not to Manetho, but to 
a Jewish commentator or interpolator. 

The tradition is that Danaus, a king of Egypt, was 
expelled by his brother and fled to Argos with his fifty 
daughters, and there “the sons of Aegyptus’’ were slain 
by “the daughters of Danaus.” The legend appears to 
have existed in Egypt as well as in Greece: see Diod. Sic. 
i, 28. 2, 97. 2. For attempts to explain the story in terms 
of Aegean pre-history, see J. L. Myres, Who Were the 
Greeks ? (1930), pp. 323 ff.; M. P. Nilsson, The Mycenaean 
Origin of Greek Mythology (1932), p. 64. 





Fr. 50, 51 MANETHO 

~ al ? > ~ 
Ταῦτα μὲν ὁ Μανεθώς. δῆλον δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἐκ τῶν 
ta ~ 
εἰρημένων ἐτῶν, τοῦ χρόνου συλλογισθέντος, ὅτι 
of καλούμενοι []οιμένες, ἡμέτεροι δὲ πρόγονοι, 
τρισὶ καὶ ἐνενήκοντα καὶ τριακοσίοις πρόσθεν ἔτεσιν 
~ A 
ex τῆς Αἰγύπτου ἀπαλλαγέντες THY χώραν ταύτην 
> , ἍἋ \ > ΕΣ 5 / 7 
ἐπῴκησαν ἢ Δαναὸν eis Ἄργος ἀφικέσθαι " καίτοι 
A > a ? 
τοῦτον ἀρχαιότατον ᾿Αργεῖοι νομίζουσι. δύο τοίνυν 
a / ~ 
ὁ Μανεθὼς ἡμῖν τὰ μέγιστα μεμαρτύρηκεν ἐκ τῶν 
~ «ε 
παρ᾽ Αἰγυπτίοις γραμμάτων, πρῶτον μὲν τὴν ἑτέ- 
»Μ > ” ” A A > - 
ρωθεν ἄφιξιν εἰς Αἴγυπτον, ἔπειτα δὲ τὴν ἐκεῖθεν 
ἀπαλλαγὴν οὕτως ἀρχαίαν τοῖς χρόνοις, ὡς ἐγγύς 
a A > ~ 
που προτερεῖν" αὐτὴν τῶν ᾿ΪΙλιακῶν ἔτεσι χιλίοις. 
€ \ δ Fy We, 4 > > ~ > > , 
ὑπὲρ ὧν δ᾽ 6 Μανεθὼς οὐκ ἐκ τῶν παρ᾽ Αἰγυπτίοις 
αὶ 3 3 3 « st \ « λό » ~ 
ypappdatwr,® ἀλλ᾽, ὡς αὐτὸς ὡμολόγηκεν, ἐκ τῶν 
ἀδεσπότως μυθολογουμένων προστέθεικεν, ὕστερον 
> / A) ’ 3 AY ‘ > / 
ἐξελέγξω κατὰ μέρος ἀποδεικνὺς τὴν ἀπίθανον 
αὐτοῦ ψευδολογίαν. 

Fr. 51. ΤΗΒΟΡΗΠΙΒ, Ad Autolycum, III, 20 (Otto). 

ὋὉ δὲ Μωσῆς odnyjnoas* rods "Iovdaious, ὡς 
ἔφθημεν εἰρηκέναι, ἐκβεβλημένους ἀπὸ γῆς Αἰγύπτου 

1 δὲ Eus.: om. L, Lat. 

2 που προτερεῖν Eus., Lat.: τοῦ πρότερον L. 

3 γραμμάτων ed. pr. (litteris Lat., libris Eus.): πραγμάτων L. 
48. ἦν : ὡδήγησε Boeckh. 

1 This total is reckoned from Tethmésis (Amésis) to the 
end of the reign of Sethésis, the latter being taken as 60 
years (cf. ὃ 231, where Sethés is said to have reigned for 
59 years after driving out Hermaeus). 



Such is Manetho’s account; and, if the time is 
reckoned according to the years mentioned, it is clear 
that the so-called Shepherds, our ancestors, quitted 
Egypt and settled in our land 393 years! before the 
coming of Danaus to Argos. Yet the Argives regard 
Danaus as belonging to a remote antiquity.” Thus 
Manetho has given us evidence from Egyptian records 
upon two very important points: first, upon our 
coming to Egypt from elsewhere ; and secondly, upon 
our departure from Egypt at a date so remote that it 
preceded the Trojan war® by wellnigh a thousand 
years.4 As for the additions which Manetho has 
made, not from the Egyptian records, but, as he has 
himself admitted, from anonymous legendary tales,° 
I shall later refute them in detail, and show the im- 
probability of his lying stories. 

Fr. 51 5 (from Theophilus, Ad Autolyc. iii. 19). 

Moses was the leader of the Jews, as I have already 
said, when they had been expelled from Egypt by 

2 The mythical King Inachus was held to be still more 
ancient: cf. Fr. 4, 1 (p. 19 n. 4). 

8 The traditional date of the Trojan war is 1192-1183 

4 This appears to be about four times too high a figure: 
250 years would be a nearer estimate. 

5 Cf. Fr. 54, §§ 229, 287, for Manetho’s use of popular 

®This list of Dynasties XVIII., XIX. is obviously 
derived wholly from Josephus, any variations from the 
text of Josephus being merely corruptions. Theophilus, 
Bishop of Antioch, wrote his apologia for the Christian 
faith (three books addressed to a friend Autolycus) in the 
second half of ii. A.D. 



e \ , \ e ” / σ 
ὑπὸ βασιλέως Φαραὼ οὗ τοὔνομα Τέθμωσις, ὅς, 

/ \ \ >? \ ~ ve / ” 
φασίν, μετὰ τὴν ἐκβολὴν τοῦ λαοῦ ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη 

” / \ ~ , « « / 4 
εἴκοσι πέντε Kal μῆνας δ΄, ws ὑφήρηται Mavabads. 




Kai peta τοῦτον Χεβρῶν, ἔτη ιγ΄. 

Μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον Ἀμένωφις, ἔτη kK’, μῆνας 

Μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον ἡ ἀδελφὴ αὐτοῦ Ἀ μέσση, 
ἔτη Ka’, μῆνα a’ 

. Μετὰ δὲ ταύτην Μήφρης, ἔτη ιβ’, μῆνας 0’. 
. Μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον Μηφραμμούθωσις, ἔτη 

a) a , 
κ΄," μῆνας ι΄. 

. Καὶ μετὰ τοῦτον Τυθμώσης, ἔτη θ', μῆνας 

. Kai μετὰ τοῦτον Ἀμένωφις,3 ἔτη λ', μῆνας 


. Mera δὲ τοῦτον *"Qpos, ἔτη das,’ μῆνας ε΄. 
. Τούτου δὲ θυγάτηρ, «ἈΑἈκεγχερής», ἔτη 

ι{81, μῆνας α' 

. Μετὰ δὲ ταύτην “Ῥαθῶτις, ἔτη θ'». 
. «Μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον ΑΙ κεγχήρης, ἔτη of’, μῆνας 


. «Μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον Ak> εἰ[γ]χ[ή]ρης, ἔτη of’, 

μῆνας γ'. 

. Τοῦ δὲ Appais, ἔτη 8’, μῆνα a’. 
. Καὶ μετὰ τοῦτον Ραμέσσης ἐνιαυτὸν, μῆνας 


. Καὶ μετὰ τοῦτον Ῥαμέσσης Μιαμμού, 

ἔτη €s’° καὶ μῆνας β'. 


King Pharaéh whose name was Tethmésis. After 
the expulsion of the people, this king, it is said, 
reigned for 25 years 4 months, according to Manetho’s 


After him, Chebrén ruled for 13 years. 

After him, Amendphis, for 20 years 7 months. 

After him, his sister Amessé, for 2] years 1 
month [9 months in Josephus]. 

. After her, Méphrés, for 12 years 9 months. 
. After him, Méphrammuthésis, for 20 years [25 

years in Josephus] 10 months. 

. After him, Tuthmésés, for 9 years 8 months. 

. After him, Amendphis, for 30 years 10 months, 
. After him, Orus, for 36 years 5 months. 

. Next, his daughter [Acenchérés] reigned for 12 

years 1 month. 

. After her, [Rathétis, for 9 years. 
. After him, Acenchérés, for 12 years 5 months. 
. After him, Aclenchérés [II.], for 12 years 3 


. His son Harmais, for 4 years 1 month. 
. After him, Ramessés for 1 year and 4 months. 
. After him, Ramessés Miammi(n), for 66 years 

2 months. 

1q’ t.e, ἕνα, in error for ἐννέα, Josephus, Fr. 50, ὃ 95 
2¥or xe’, as in Josephus, Fr. 50, § 95. 
8 Aapevodis Otto. 
4 Restored from J osephus (Boeckh): MSS. θυγάτηρ ἔ ἔτη ι΄, 
μῆνας γ΄. μετὰ δὲ ταύτην Μερχερής, € ἔτη ιβ΄, μῆνας γ΄. 
5 μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον Μέσσης Μιαμμού, ἔτη [ξ]ς΄ Otto. 


Fr. 51, 52 MANETHO 

17. Kai μετὰ τοῦτον Ἀμένωφις, ἔτη v6’, μῆνας 
Τοῦ δὲ Σέθως, ὃς" καὶ “Payéoons, ἔτη ι', dv? 
φασιν ἐσχηκέναι πολλὴν δύναμιν ἱππικῆς καὶ 
παράταξιν ναυτικῆς. 

Fr. 52. Syncellus, pp. 115, 130, 133. 

᾿Οκτωκαιδεκάτη δυναστεία Διοσπολιτῶν 
βασιλέων ts’. 

*Qv πρῶτος Ἀμώς, ἐφ᾽ οὗ Μωῦσῆς ἐξῆλθεν ἐξ 
Αἰγύπτου, ὡς ἡμεῖς ἀποδεικνύομεν, ὡς δὲ ἡ παροῦσα 
ψῆφος ἀναγκάζει, ἐπὶ τούτου τὸν Μωῦσέα συμβαίνει 
νέον ἔτι εἶναι. 

Δεύτερος κατὰ ᾿Αφρικανὸν κατὰ τὴν ιη΄ δυναστείαν 
> / 7 Ν ΄ 
ἐβασίλευσε Χεβρώς, ἔτη ιγ΄. 

Τρίτος, Auevwo Ais, ἔτη κδ' 3 

Τέταρτος, Awevais,® ἔτη Kp’. 

1 τοῦ δὲ Θοῖσσος Otto. 

2 οὕς Otto, adding after ναυτικῆς the words κατὰ τοὺς ἰδίους 

3 κα΄ τη. 4 τετάρτη Miller. δ᾽ Auepais A. 

1See p. 100 n. 1. 

2See p. 101 n. 2. On the basis of new evidence scholars 
now tend to conclude that the Exodus took place c. 1445 
B.c. (see e.g. J. W. Jack, The Date of the Exodus, 1925): 
Jericho fell c. 1400 B.c. (J. Garstang, The Heritage of 
Solomon, 1934, p. 281). 

8.7.6. Africanus. 



17. After him, Amenéphis, for 19 years 6 months. 

18. Then, his son Sethés, also called Ramessés, 
for 10 years. He is said to have possessed 
a large force of cavalry and an organized 

Dynasty XVIII. 

Fr. 52 (from Syncellus). AccORDING TO AFRICANUS. 

The Eighteenth Dynasty ! consisted of 16 kings of 

The first of these was Amés, in whose reign 
Moses went forth from Egypt,” as I* here declare ; 
but, according to the convincing evidence of the 
present calculation’ it follows that in this reign 
Moses was still young. 

The second king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, ac- 
cording to Africanus, was Chebrés, who reigned for 
13 years. 

The third king, Amenéphthis,° reigned for 24 (21) 

; The fourth king (queen), Amensis(Amersis), reigned 
for 22 years. 

“ T.e. by Syncellus. 

5 This Greek transcription of ‘“* Amenhotpe,”’ retaining 
both the labial and the dental, is the fullest form 
of the name, ‘“ Amenédthés’’ showing assimilation : 
“Amend6phis,’”” which is regularly used to represent 
““Amenhotpe,”’ actually comes from another name, 
*“Amen(em)dpe’’ (B.G.). The month Phamenéth 
(February-March) is named from the “feast of 
Amendthés ’’. 



Iléuntos, Μίσαφρις, ἔτη vy’. 

“Exros, Μισφραγμούθωσις, ἔτη Ks’, ἐφ οὗ ὃ 

ἐπὶ Δευκαλίωνος κατακλυσμός. 

Ὁμοῦ ἐπὶ Apdcews τοῦ καὶ Μισφραγμουθώσεως 
ἀρχῆς κατὰ Adpixavov γίνονται ἔτη ξθ΄. Τοῦ γὰρ 
Αμὼς οὐδ᾽ ὅλως εἶπεν ἔτη. 

ζ΄ Τούθμωσις, ἔτη θ΄. 
n Ἀμενῶφις, ἔτη λα΄ Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ Μέμ- 
νων εἶναι νομιζόμενος καὶ φθεγγόμενος λίθος. 
GY *Qpos, ἔτη λζ΄. 
(« ἈἈχερρῆς, ἔτη λβ΄. 
ια΄ ῬΡαθῶς, ἔτη ἕξ. 
iB’ Χεβρής, ἔτη ιβ΄. 
ιγ΄ Axeppijs, ἔτη ιβ΄. 
ιδ΄ Appecis,| ἔτη ε΄. 
ιε΄ Ῥαμεσσῆς, ἔτος a’ 
is’ Αμενωφάθ," ἔτη ιθ 
ὋὉμοῦ, ἔτη o€y’. 

1B: "Apeons A. *B: ᾿Αμενώφ G. 

‘This note about Memnén in both Africanus and Euse- 
bius should be transferred to the ninth king of the dynasty, 
Orus or Amendéphis III. 

[Footnote continued on opposite page. 



The fifth, Misaphris, for 13 years. 

The sixth, Misphragmuthdésis, for 26 years: in his 
reign the flood of Deucalion’s time occurred. 

Total, according to Africanus, down to the reign of 
Amésis, also called Misphragmuthdsis, 69 years. Of 
the length of the reign of Amés he said nothing at all. 

7. Tuthmésis, for 9 years. 
8. Amendphis, for3l years. Thisis the king who 
was reputed to be Memnon and a speaking 
, Statue.! 
9. Orus, for 37 years. 

10. Acherrés,” for 32 years. 

11. Rathés, for 6 years. 

12. Chebrés, for 12 years. 

13. Acherrés, for 12 years. 

14. Armesis, for 5 years. 

15. Ramessés, for 1 year. 

16. Amendphath (Amendph), for 19 years. 

Total, 263 years. 

The reference is to the two monolithic colossi of 
Amendphis III. (Baedeker 8, pp. 345 f.): see Pausanias, 
i. 42 (the Thebans say it was a statue not of Memnén, but 
of Phamenéph, who dwelt in those parts) with J. G. 
Frazer’s note (vol. ii. pp. 530 f.), and Tacitus, Ann. ii. 61. 
Amenéphis III. (Memnén) is correctly named in Greek 
Amenéth and Phamenéth by the poetess Balbilla (time of 
Hadrian): see Werner Peek in Mitt. des Deutsch. Inst. 
fiir dg. Alt. in Kairo, v. 1 (1934), pp. 96, 99; Sammelbuch, 
8211, 8213. 

2 For possible identifications of Nos. 10, 12, and 13 see 
p- 101 n.1. Nos. 14, 15, and 16 should be transferred to 
Dynasty XIX.: see p. 148 n. 1. Armesis (Armais) is 
probably Haremhab: Ramessés, vizier of Haremhab and 
afterwards Ramessés I., was probably of Heliopolitan 
origin (P. E. Newberry). 



Fr. 53 (a). Syncellus, pp. 116, 129, 133, 135. 

᾿Οκτωκαιδεκάτη δυναστεία Διοσπολιτῶν 
βασιλέων ιδ'. 

ὯΩν πρῶτος, Ἄμωσις, ἔτη κε΄. 

β' Χεβρὼ ν δεύτερος, ἔτη ty’. 
γ΄ Appevddrs, ἔτη xa’. 
’ Μίφρης, ἔτη ιβ΄. 
ε΄ Μισφραγμούθωσις, ἔτη ks’. 

Ὁμοῦ an’ Δμώσεως τοῦ πρώτου τῆς προκειμένης 
un’ δυναστείας ἕως Μισφραγμουθώσεως ἀρχῆς κατὰ 
Εὐσέβιον ἔτη γίνονται oa’, βασιλεῖς πέντε ἀντὶ τῶν 
ἕξ: τὸν γὰρ τέταρτον Ἡμένσην παραδραμών, οὗ ὃ 
Adpixavos καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ μέμνηνται, ἔτη KB’ αὐτοῦ 

ς΄ Τούθμωσις, ἔτη &. 
ζ΄ ἈἈμένωφις, ἔτη λα΄. Οὗτός ἐστιν ὃ Μέμνων 
εἶναι νομιζόμενος καὶ φθεγγόμενος λίθος. 
*Qpos, ἔτη As’ (ἐν ἄλλῳ Xn’). 
θ΄ ᾿Αχενχέρσης, «ἔτη ιβ'.. 
«Ἄθωρις, ἔτη λθ' 1». 
«Κενχέρη-», ἔτη ws’ 3 


Kara τοῦτον Μωῦσῆς τῆς ἐξ Αἰγύπτου πορείας 
τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων ἡγήσατο. (Syncellus adds: όνος 
Εὐσέβιος ἐπὶ τούτου λέγει τὴν τοῦ ᾿Ισραὴλ διὰ 
Μμωὺῦσέως ἔξοδον, μηδενὸς αὐτῷ λόγου μαρτυροῦντος, 
ἀλλὰ καὶ πάντων ἐναντιουμένων τῶν πρὸ αὐτοῦ, ὡς 



Fr. 53 (a) (from Syncellus), ACCORDING TO 

The Eighteenth Dynasty consisted of fourteen 
kings of Diospolis. 

The first of these, Amésis, reigned for 25 years, 

2. The second, Chebroén, for 13 years. 

3. Ammend6phis, for 21 years. 

4. Miphrés, for 12 years. 

5. Misphragmuthésis, for 26 years. 

Total from Amésis, the first king of this Eighteenth 
Dynasty, down to the reign of Misphragmuthosis 
amounts, according to Eusebius, to 71 years; and 
there are five kings, not six. For he omitted the 
fourth king, Amensés, mentioned by Africanus and 
the others, and thus cut off the 22 years of his reign. 

6. Tuthmésis, for 9 years. 

7. Amenéphis, for 31 years. This is the king 

who was reputed to be Memné6n and a speak- 
_ ing statue.! 

8. Orus, for 36 years (in another copy, 38 years). 

9. Achenchersés [for 12 years]. 

[Ath6ris, for 39 years (? 9).] 

[Cencherés] for 16 years. 

About this time Moses led the Jews in their march 
out of Egypt. (Syncellus adds: Eusebius alone 
places in this reign the exodus of Israel under Moses, 
although no argument supports him, but all his pre- 
decessors hold a contrary view, as he testifies.) 

1See p. 113 n. 1. 

16’ Miler. 
2B omits “Adwpis and Κενχέρης, reading θ΄ ᾿Αχενχέρσης, 
ἔτη ις΄. 


ι Ayeppis, ἔτη η΄. 

wa’ Χερρῆς, ἔτη ιε΄. 

iB’ ᾿Αρμαὶῖς 6 καὶ Δαναὸς, ἔτη ε', μεθ᾽ ἃ ἐκ τῆς 

Αἰγύπτου ἐκπεσὼν καὶ φεύγων τὸν ἀδελφὸν 
Αἴγυπτον εἰς τὴν ᾿Ελλάδα ἀφικνεῖται, κρα- 
τήσας τε τοῦ Ἄργους βασιλεύει τῶν "Ap- 

ty’ Ῥαμεσσῆς!" 6 καὶ Αἴγυπτος, ἔτη ξη΄. 

ιδ΄ ᾿Ἀμμένωφις, ἔτη μ΄. 

“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη τμη΄. 

Προσέθηκεν ὑπὲρ τὸν ᾿Αφρικανὸν ἔτη me’ Εὐ- 
σέβιος κατὰ τὴν ιη΄ δυναστείαν. (Syncellus, p. 116: 
Εὐσέβιος δύο βασιλεῖς περιέκρυψεν, ἔτη δὲ προσ- 
ἔθηκε πε΄, Tun’ παραθεὶς ἀντὶ o€y’ τῶν παρ᾽ Ἄφρι- 

(0) Eusesius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p- 99 

Octava decima dynastia Diospolitarum regum 
XIV, quorum primus 

Amoses, annis X XV. 

Chebron, annis XIII. 

Amophis, annis X XI. 

Memphres, annis XII. 

Mispharmuthosis, annis X XVI. 

Tuthmosis, annis IX. 

Amenophis, annis XX XI. Hic est qui Memnon 

putabatur, petra loquens. 

Orus, annis X XVIII. 

1 Dindorf: ᾿Αμεσσὴς B. 


10. Acherrés, for 8 years. 

11. Cherrés, for 15 years. 

12. Armais, also called Danaus, for 5 years: there- 
after, he was banished from Egypt and, 
fleeing from his brother Aegyptus, he arrived 
in Greece, and, seizing Argos, he ruled over 
the Argives. 

13. Ramessés, also called Aegyptus, for 68 years. 

14. Ammendphis, for 40 years. 

Total, 348 years. 

Eusebius assigns 85 years more than Africanus to 
the Eighteenth Dynasty. (Syncellus elsewhere says : 
Eusebius leaves out two kings, but adds 85 years, 
setting down 348 years instead of the 263 years of the 
reckoning of Africanus.) 


The Eighteenth Dynasty consisted of fourteen 
kings of Diospolis. The first of these, Amoses, 
reigned for 25 years. 

. Chebron, for 13 years. 

. Amophis, for 21 years. 

. Memphres, for 12 years. 

. Mispharmuthosis, for 26 years. 

. Tuthmosis, for 9 years. 

. Amenophis, for 31 years. This is the king 
who was reputed to be Memnon, a speaking 

8. Orus, for 28 years. 

AID oS Ww bo 


Fr. 53, 54 MANETHO 

Achencheres! ...., annis XVI. Huius aetate 
Moses ducem se praebuit Hebraeis ab Aegypto 

Acherres, annis VIII. 

Cherres, annis XV. 

Armais, qui et Danaus, annis V; quibus peractis, 
Aegyptiorum regione pulsus Aegyptumque 
fratrem suum fugiens, evasit in Graeciam, 
Argisque captis, imperavit Argivis. 

Ramesses, qui et Aegyptus, annis LX VIII. 

Amenophis, annis XL. 

Summa dominationis CCCXLVIII. 

Fr. 54. Josepnus, Contra Apionem, I, 26-31, 
§§ 227-287. 

227 [ἘΦ ἑνὸς δὲ πρώτου στήσω τὸν λόγον, ᾧ καὶ 
μάρτυρι μικρὸν ἔμπροσθεν τῆς ἀρχαιότητος ἐχρη- 
228 σάμην. ὁ γὰρ Μανεθὼς οὗτος, ὁ τὴν Αἰγυπτιακὴν 
ἱστορίαν ἐκ τῶν ἱερῶν γραμμάτων μεθερμηνεύειν 
ὑπεσχημένος, προειπὼν τοὺς ἡμετέρους προγόνους 
πολλαῖς μυριάσιν ἐπὶ τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐλθόντας 
κρατῆσαι τῶν ἐνοικούντων, εἶτ᾽ αὐτὸς ὁμολογῶν 
χρόνῳ πάλιν ὕστερον ἐκπεσόντας τὴν νῦν “lov- 
δαίαν κατασχεῖν καὶ κτίσαντας “Ιεροσόλυμα τὸν 
νεὼν κατασκευάσασθαι, μέχρι μὲν τούτων ἠκολού- 
229 θησε ταῖς ἀναγραφαῖς. ἔπειτα δὲ δοὺς ἐξουσίαν 

1 A lacuna here, as in the Greek version. 

1 According to O.T. 1 Kings vi. 1, the building of 
Solomon’s Temple was begun 480 years after the Exodus: 


AEGYPTIACA Fr. 53, 54 

9. Achencheres ..., for 16 years. In his time 
Moses became leader of the Hebrews in their 
exodus from Egypt. 

10. Acherres, for 8 years. 

11. Cherres, for 15 years. 

12. Armais, also called Danaus, for 5 years: at the 
end of this time he was banished from the 
land of Egypt. Fleeing from his brother 
Aegyptus, he escaped to Greece, and after 
capturing Argos, he held sway over the 

13. Ramesses, also called Aegyptus, for 68 years. 

14. Amenophis, for 40 years. 

Total for the dynasty, 348 years. 

Fr. 54(from Josephus, Contra Apionem, I. 26-31, 
§§ 227-287). 

(Josephus discusses the calumnies of the Egyptians 
against the Jews, whom they hate.) 

The first writer upon whom I shall dwell is one 
whom I used a little earlier as a witness to our anti- 
quity. I refer to Manetho. This writer, who had 
undertaken to translate the history of Egypt from 
the sacred books, began by stating that our ancestors 
came against Egypt with many tens of thousands and 
gained the mastery over the inhabitants; and then 
he himself admitted that at a later date again they 
were driven out of the country, occupied what is now 
Judaea, founded Jerusalem, and built the temple. 
Up to this point he followed the chronicles : there- 

if the Exodus is dated c. 1445 B.c. (see p. 110 n. 2), the 
Temple was founded c. 965 B.o. 


« ~ A ~ / / A , " 
αὑτῷ διὰ τοῦ φάναι γράψειν τὰ μυθευόμενα καὶ 
λεγόμενα περὶ τῶν “lovdaiwy λόγους ἀπιθάνους 

/ > - / € A ~ 
παρενέβαλεν, ἀναμῖξαι βουλόμενος ἡμῖν πλῆθος 
Αἰγυπτίων λεπρῶν καὶ ἐπὶ ἄλλοις ἀρρωστήμασιν, 
ὥς φησι, φυγεῖν ἐκ τῆς Αἰγύπτου καταγνωσθέντων. 

230 “ἱμένωφιν γὰρ βασιλέα προθείς, ψευδὲς ὄνομα, 
καὶ διὰ τοῦτο χρόνον αὐτοῦ τῆς βασιλείας ὁρίσαι 

\ / / : ἌΝΩ ~ ΝΜ / 
μὴ τολμήσας, καίτοι ye ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων βασιλέων 
ἀκριβῶς τὰ ἔτη προστιθείς, τούτῳ προσάπτει 
τινὰς μυθολογίας, ἐπιλαθόμενος σχεδὸν ὅτι πεν- 
τακοσίοις ἔτεσι καὶ δεκαοκτὼ πρότερον ἱστόρηκε 

/ ἣ ~ / ” aa «4 / 
γενέσθαι τὴν τῶν [Π]οιμένων ἔξοδον εἰς “Ιεροσόλυμα. 
231 Τέθμωσις γὰρ ἦν βασιλεὺς ὅτε ἐξήεσαν, ἀπὸ δὲ 
τούτου τῶν μεταξὺ" βασιλέων κατ᾽ αὐτόν ἐστι 
τριακόσια ἐνενηκοντατρία ἔτη μέχρι τῶν δύο 
ἀδελφῶν Σέθω καὶ “Eppaiov, ὧν τὸν μὲν Σέθων 
Αἴγυπτον, τὸν δὲ Ἕρμαιον Δαναὸν μετονομα- 
σθῆναί φησιν, ὃν ἐκβαλὼν ὁ Σέθως ἐβασίλευσεν 
ἔτη νθ΄ καὶ μετ᾽ αὐτὸν ὁ πρεσβύτερος τῶν υἱῶν 

> ae / / 4 aay / Μ 

292 auTou Papibys Es’. τοσούτοις οὖν πρότερον ετεσιν 
ἀπελθεῖν ἐξ Αἰγύπτου τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν ὧμο- 

7 > \ > 4 > / > / 
λογηκώς, εἶτα τὸν Auevwdw εἰσποιήσας ἐμβόλιμον 
βασιλέα, φησὶν τοῦτον ἐπιθυμῆσαι θεῶν γενέσθαι 

, σ μὰ e ~ ‘ > ~ 
θεατήν, ὥσπερ “Qp cis τῶν πρὸ αὐτοῦ βεβασιλευ- 

1 προθείς Cobet: προσθείς 1,. 

τούτου τῶν μεταξὺ conj. Niese (et ab hoc tempore regum 
qui postea fuerunt Lat.): τούτων μεταξὺ τῶν L. 

1 Cf. “‘ the botch (or boil) of Egypt ’”’ (perhaps elephan- 
tiasis), Deuteronomy xxvili. 27. 



after, by offering to record the legends and current 
talk about the Jews, he took the liberty of inter- 
polating improbable tales in his desire to confuse 
with us a crowd of Egyptians, who for leprosy 
and other maladies! had been condemned, he says, 
to banishment from Egypt. After citing a king 
Amenophis, a fictitious person,—for which reason he 
did not venture to define the length of his reign, 
although in the case of the other kings he adds 
their years precisely,—Manetho attaches to him cer- 
tain legends, having doubtless forgotten that ac- 
cording to his own chronicle the exodus of the 
Shepherds to Jerusalem took place 518 years? 
earlier. For Tethmésis was king when they set out ; 
and, according to Manetho, the intervening reigns 
thereafter occupied 393 years down to the two 
brothers Sethés and Hermaeus, the former of whom, 
he says, took the new name of Aegyptus, the latter 
that of Danaus. Sethés drove out Hermaeus and 
reigned for 59 years; then Rampsés, the elder of his 
sons, for 66 years. Thus, after admitting that so 
many years had elapsed since our forefathers left 
Egypt, Manetho now interpolates this intruding 
Amendphis. This king, he states, conceived a desire 
to behold the gods, as Οἵ one of his predecessors on 

2 This number seems to be obtained by adding 393 + 
59 + 66: in that case the reign of Sethdésis is counted 
twice, (1) as 60, (2) as 59 years (ef. Fr. 50, § 103). 

3 Or, or Hérus, is the ninth king in Manetho’s list of 
Dynasty XVIII. (Frs. 51, 52), in reality Amendéphis III. 
Reinach points out that Herodotus (ii. 42) tells the same 
story of the Egyptian Heracles, and conjectures that there 
is perhaps confusion with the god Horus. 



κότων, ἀνενεγκεῖν δὲ τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ὁμωνύμῳ 
μὲν αὐτῷ ᾿Αμενώφει, πατρὸς δὲ Παάπιος ' ὄντι, 
233 θείας δὲ δοκοῦντι μετεσχηκέναι φύσεως κατά τε 
σοφίαν καὶ πρόγνωσιν τῶν ἐσομένων. εἰπεῖν οὖν 
αὐτῷ τοῦτον τὸν ὁμώνυμον ὅτι δυνήσεται θεοὺς 
ἰδεῖν, εἰ καθαρὰν ἀπό τε λεπρῶν καὶ τῶν ἄλλων 
μιαρῶν ἀνθρώπων τὴν χώραν ἅπασαν ποιήσειεν. 
234 ἡσθέντα δὲ τὸν βασιλέα πάντας τοὺς τὰ σώματα 
λελωβημένους ἐκ τῆς Αἰγύπτου συναγαγεῖν - γενέ- 
235 σθαι δὲ τὸ πλῆθος" μυριάδας ὀκτώ" καὶ τούτους 

1 Hd. pr. (cf. ὃ 243): Πάπιος 1, 
2 Conj. Niese (after Lat.) : τοῦ πλήθους L. 

1¥or this Amendphis, a historical personage, later 
deified (cf. the deification of Imhotep, Fr. 11), Amenhotpe, 
son of Hapu, and minister of Amendphis IIT., see ἃ. 
Maspero, New Light on Ancient Egypt (1909), pp. 189-195: 
Sethe, in Aegyptiaca (Ebers, Festschrift), 1897, pp. 107-116: 
Breasted, Anc. Rec. ii. §§ 911 ff.; Warren R. Dawson, 
The Bridle of Pegasus, 1930, pp. 49-79. In 1934-35 
excavations by the French Institute, Cairo, revealed 
all that remains of the splendour of the funerary temple 
of Amenhotpe, son of Hapu, among a series of such temples 
to the N. of Medinet Habu: see Robichon and Varille, 
Le Temple du Scribe Royal Amenhotep, Fils de Hapou, i. 
Cairo, 1936. An inscription of iii. B.c. (and therefore 
contemporary with Manetho), headed ‘Ayevwrou ὑποθῆκαι, 
“Precepts of Amendétes or Amendéphis,’’ was published 
by Wilcken in Aegyptiaca, 1897, pp. 142 ff. It is in- 
scribed upon a limestone ostracon of Deir el-Bahri; and 
the first three injunctions run: “ Practise wisdom along 
with justice,’ “‘ Revere both the gods and your parents,” 



the throne, had done; and he communicated his 
desire to his namesake Amendéphis,' Paapis’ son, who, 
in virtue of his wisdom and knowledge of the future, 
was reputed to be a partaker in the divine nature. 
This namesake, then, replied that he would be able 
to see the gods if he cleansed the whole land of lepers 
and other polluted persons. The king was delighted, 
and assembled ? all those in Egypt whose bodies were 
wasted by disease: they numbered 80,000 persons. 

“Take counsel at leisure, but accomplish speedily whatever 
you do” 

An ostracon, found at Deir el-Bahri, and giving the 
draft of an inscription concerning the deified Amendphis, 
was published by A. Bataille, Etudes de Papyrologie, IV. 
(1938), pp. 125-131: it celebrates the cure of a certain 
Polyaratos. See O. Guéraud in Bull. Inst. Fr.d’ Arch. Or., 
xxvii. (1927), pp. 121 ff., P. Jouguet, “1,65 Grands Dieux 
de la Pierre Sainte a Thébes,”’ Mélanges Glotz, 11. pp. 

For the historical interpretation of this whole passage, 
§§ 232-251, see Meyer, Geschichte?, 11. 1, pp. 421 ff. King 
Amené6phis is at one time Merneptah, son of Rameses II. ; 
at another time, Amendphis IV. (Akhnaten), some 200 
years earlier. The doings of the polluted, the persecution 
of the gods, and the slaughter of the holy animals, clearly 
portray the fury of Akhnaten and his followers against 
Egyptian religion. For a popular Egyptian parallel to 
§§ 232 ff., see the Potter’s Oracle, one of the Rainer Papyri 
(iii. A.D.) edited by Wilcken in Hermes, xl. 1905, pp. 544 ff. 
and by G. Manteuffel, De Opusculis Graecis Acgypti e 
papyris, ostracis, lapidibusyue collectis, 1930, No. 7; and 
cf. the prophecy of the lamb, Manetho, Fr. 64. 

For a theory about the identity of the polluted (they 
are the troops of Sethés I., sent to Tanis by his father 
Ramessés I. during the ascendancy of Haremhab), see 
P. Montet, ‘‘ La Stéle de l’An 400 Retrouvée,’”’ in Kémi, 
lii. 1935, pp. 191-215. 

2 In an incredibly short time (§ 257). 



>? ~ A > A , 
εἰς τὰς λιθοτομίας τὰς ἐν τῷ πρὸς ἀνατολὴν μέρει 
~ / > a ? / Ld > / ‘ 
τοῦ Νείλου ἐμβαλεῖν αὐτόν, ὅπως ἐργάζοιντο καὶ 
~ LAA Ae / 4 / 1 / 
τῶν ἄλλων Αἰγυπτίων elev κεχωρισμένοι.: εἶναι δέ 
a ~ « 
τινας ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ τῶν λογίων ἱερέων φησὶ λέπρᾳ 
/ 2 Α δὲ "4 / > -“ ‘ 
236 συνεσχημεένους. TOV ὃε AMEevwWwpLW ἐκεῖνον, TOV 
σοφὸν καὶ μαντικὸν ἄνδρα, ὑποδεῖσαι ὃ πρὸς αὑτόν 
\ ‘ /, / ~ ~ > / 
τε καὶ τὸν βασιλέα χόλον τῶν θεῶν, εἰ βιασθέντες 
A , 
ὀφθήσονται καὶ προσθέμενον εἰπεῖν ὅτι συμμαχή- 
σουσί τινες τοῖς μιαροῖς καὶ τῆς Αἰγύπτου κρα- 
/ ὍΣ , A ~ 
τήσουσιν em ἔτη Sexatpia, μὴ τολμῆσαι μὲν 
αὐτὸν εἰπεῖν ταῦτα τῷ βασιλεῖ, γραφὴν δὲ κατα- 
λιπόντα περὶ πάντων ἑαυτὸν ἀνελεῖν, ἐν ἀθυμίᾳ 
237 δὲ εἶναι τὸν βασιλέαβ. κἄπειτα κατὰ λέξιν οὕτως 
γέγραφεν ' “᾿τῶν δ᾽ ἐν ταῖς λατομίαις ὡς χρόνος 
e \ ὃ ηλθ ἣ / > 0 \ « 
ἱκανὸς διῆλθεν ταλαιπωρούντων, ἀξιωθεὶς ὁ βασι- 
λεὺς ἵνα πρὸς " κατάλυσιν αὐτοῖς καὶ σκέπην ἀπο- 
΄ a / 
μερίσῃ τὴν τότε τῶν []οιμένων ἐρημωθεῖσαν πόλιν 
Avapw συνεχώρησεν: ἔστι δ᾽ ἡ πόλις κατὰ τὴν 
238 θεολογίαν ἄνωθεν Τυφώνιος. οἱ δὲ εἰς ταύτην 
~ / 
εἰσελθόντες καὶ τὸν τόπον τοῦτον εἰς ὃ ἀπόστασιν 
~ ~ « ~ 
ἔχοντες, ἡγεμόνα αὐτῶν twa τῶν ᾿Ηλιοπολιτῶν 
e , 0 / a D\ / 8 ? Ἢ A 
ἱερέων ᾿Οσάρσηφον λεγόμενον 8 ἐστήσαντο καὶ 

1 εἶεν κεχωρισμένοι cOnj. Holwerda: οὗ ἐγκεχωρισμένοι L. 

2 συνεσχημένους conj. Niese: συνεχομένους Dindorf: συγ- 
κεχυμένους L. 

3 ὑποδεῖσαι Dindorf: ὑποδεῖσθαι L. 

4 δ᾽ & Bekker: δὲ L. 5 πρὸς bracketed by Niese. 

6 εἰς bracketed as apparently spurious by Niese: <opyy- 
τήριον > ets ἀπ. Holwerda. 

7L: ᾽Οσάρσιφον conj. Hudson. 

8 Transp. Niese (a more natural place for the participle) : 
λεγόμενόν Twa... Oo. L. 



These he cast into the stone-quarries ! to the east of 
the Nile, there to work segregated from the rest of the 
Egyptians. Among them, Manetho adds, there were 
some of the learned priests, who had been attacked by 
leprosy. Then this wise seer Amendphis was filled 
with dread of divine wrath against himself and the 
king if the outrage done to these persons should be 
discovered ; and he added a prediction that certain 
allies would join the polluted people and would take 
possession of Egypt for 13 years. Not venturing to 
make this prophecy himself to the king, he left a 
full account of it in writing, and then took his own 
life. The king was filled with despondency. Then 
Manetho continues as follows (I quote his account 
verbatim) : ““ When the men in the stone-quarries had 
suffered bardships for a considerable time, they 
begged the king to assign to them as a dwelling-place 
and a refuge the deserted city of the Shepherds, 
Auaris, and he consented. According to religious 
tradition * this city was from earliest times dedi- 
cated to Typhén. Occupying this city and using the 
region as a base for revolt, they appointed as their 
leader one of the priests of Héliopolis called Osarséph,® 

1 The quarries of Tura were known to Herodotus (ii. 8, 
124) as the source of building-stone for the Pyramids. 

On forced labour in quarries in Ptolemaic times, 
Reinach refers to Bouché-Leclereq, Histoire des Lagides, 
ii. 241; iv. 193, 337 f. 

2 Cf. Fr. 42, ὃ 78. 

8 Osarséph, the leader of the movement, is later (§ 250) 
identified with Moses. The name Osarséph is a possible 
Egyptian name: cf. Ranke, Personennamen I. p. 85, 
No. 3 wsir-sp’. Wilcken (Chrestomathie, i. 1, p. 106) 
derives the name from a holy animal Séph; but the Jews 
would naturally see in it a form of the name Joseph. 



τούτῳ πειθαρχήσοντες ἐν πᾶσιν ὡρκωμότησαν. 
2396 δὲ πρῶτον μὲν αὐτοῖς νόμον ἔθετο μήτε προσ- 
κυνεῖν θεοὺς μήτε τῶν μάλιστα ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ 
~ / 
θεμιστευομένων ἱερῶν ζῴων ἀπέχεσθαι μηδενός, 
πάντα δὲ θύειν καὶ ἀναλοῦν, συνάπτεσθαι δὲ 
240 μηδενὶ πλὴν τῶν συνομωμοσμένων.Σ τοιαῦτα δὲ 
νομοθετήσας καὶ πλεῖστα ἄλλα μάλιστα τοῖς 
Αἰγυπτίοις ἐθισμοῖς ἐναντιούμενα ἐκέλευσεν πολυ- 
χειρίᾳ τὰ τῆς πόλεως ἐπισκευάζειν τείχη καὶ πρὸς 

πόλεμον ἑτοίμους γίνεσθαι τὸν πρὸς ‘Auéevwdw τὸν 
im > A ͵ / > ε ~ 
241 βασιλέαβ. αὐτὸς δέ, προσλαβόμενος μεθ᾽ ἑαυτοῦ 
καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἱερέων καὶ συμμεμιαμμένων τινὰς 8 
ἔπεμψε πρέσβεις πρὸς τοὺς ὑπὸ Τεθμώσεως 

> ’ὔ 4 > 4 A / 
ἀπελασθέντας ΠΙοιμένας εἰς πόλιν τὴν καλουμένην 

oT 5A \ ‘ bd € A \ A » 
ἐεροσόλυμα, καὶ τὰ καθ᾽ ἑαυτὸν καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους 

τοὺς συνατιμασθέντας δηλώσας ἠξίου συνεπιστρα- 
/ e Q ‘ put) ” > / 4 A 
242 τευειν Ομο υμαδὸν €1T Αἴγυπτον. ἐπάξειν μεν 
οὖν αὐτοὺς ἐπηγγείλατο πρῶτον μὲν εἰς Αὔαριν τὴν 
προγονικὴν αὐτῶν πατρίδα καὶ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια τοῖς 

» / > δ, ς / A σ 
ὄχλοις παρέξειν ἀφθόνως, ὑπερμαχήσεσθαι δὲ ὅτε 
δέοι καὶ ῥᾳδίως ὑποχείριον αὐτοῖς τὴν χώραν ποιή- 

- / 
243 σειν. οἱ δὲ ὑπερχαρεῖς γενόμενοι πάντες προθύμως 
“ ‘ 

εἰς κ΄ μυριάδας ἀνδρῶν συνεξώρμησαν καὶ μετ᾽ 

1 Ed. pr.: -ἥσαντες L. 2 Niese: συνωμοσμένων L. 
8 τινὰς add. Reinach (quosdam Lat.). 
4 ἐπανάξειν conj. Cobet. 

1“ Does the author know that the Decalogue begins 
with an admonition to have no other god but Jehovah ? 
Or does he recall Greek lists of duties (Xen., Mem. iv. 4, 



and took an oath of obedience to him in everything. 
First of all, he made it a law ! that they should neither 
worship the gods nor refrain from any of the animals 3 
prescribed as especially sacred in Egypt, but should 
sacrifice and consume all alike, and that they should 
have intercourse with none save those of their own 
confederacy. After framing a great number of laws 
like these, completely opposed to Egyptian custom, 
he ordered them with their multitude of hands, to 
repair the walls of the city and make ready for war 
against King Amendéphis. Then, acting in concert 
with certain other priests and polluted persons like 
himself, he sent an embassy to the Shepherds who 
had been expelled by Tethmisis,’ in the city called 
Jerusalem ; and, setting forth the circumstances of 
himself and his companions in distress, he begged 
them to unite wholeheartedly in an attack upon 
Egypt. He offered to conduct them first to their 
ancestral home at Auaris, to provide their hosts with 
lavish supplies, to fight on their behalf whenever need 
arose, and to bring Egypt without difficulty under 
their sway. Overjoyed at the proposal, all the 
Shepherds, to the number of 200,000, eagerly set out, 

19; Carmen Aureum, v. 1; ef. Dieterich, Nekyia, pp. 146 
f.) which inculeate reverence for the gods as the first 
precept ?”’ (Reinach). Add Isocrates, Ad Demonicum, 
§§ 13, 16, and the Precepts of Sansnés (ii./iii. A.D.), as 
inscribed in Nubia, C.I.G. iii. 5041 (Wilcken, Chrestomathie, 
I. ii. p. 147, No. 116)—the first precept is ‘‘ Revere the 
divinity ”’. 

2 Cf. Tac., Hist. v. 4: the Jews under Moses sacrificed 
the ram as if to insult Ammén, and the bull, because the 
Egyptians worship Apis. Cf. 0.7’. Leviticus xvi. 3. 

8 Tethmésis for Amésis, as in Fr. 50 (ὃ 94). 



οὐ πολὺ ἧκον εἰς Avapw. ᾿Αμένωφις δ᾽ 6 τῶν 
Αἰγυπτίων βασιλεὺς ὡς ἐπύθετο τὰ κατὰ τὴν 
ἐνείνων ἔφοδον, οὐ μετρίως συνεχύθη, τῆς παρὰ 
᾿Αμενώφεως τοῦ []αάπιος μνησθεὶς προδηλώσεως. 
344 καὶ πρότερον συναγαγὼν πλῆθος Αἰγυπτίων καὶ 
βουλευσάμενος μετὰ τῶν ἐν τούτοις ἡγεμόνων, τά 
τε ἱερὰ ζῷα τὰ [πρῶτα] μάλιστα ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς 
τιμώμενα ὡς ἑαυτὸν 5 μετεπέμψατο, καὶ τοῖς κατὰ 
μέρος ἱερεῦσι παρήγγελλεν ὡς ἀσφαλέστατα τῶν 
245 θεῶν συγκρύψαι τὰ ξόανα. τὸν δὲ υἱὸν Σέθων, 
τὸν καὶ ἹΡαμέσσην ἀπὸ “Ραψηοῦς τοῦ πατρὸς 
ὠνομασμένον, πενταέτη ὄντα ἐξέθετο πρὸς τὸν 
ἑαυτοῦ φίλον. αὐτὸς δὲ διαβὰς «σὺν» τοῖς 
ἄλλοις Αἰγυπτίοις, οὖσιν εἰς τριάκοντα μυριάδας 
ἀνδρῶν μαχιμωτάτων, καὶ τοῖς πολεμίοις ἀπ- 
240 αντήσας ἡ οὐ συνέβαλεν, ἀλλὰ “μὴ δεῖν ὃ θεομαχεῖν 
νομίσας παλινδρομήσας ἧ ἧκεν εἰς Meuou, ἀναλαβών 
τε τόν τε Ὦπιν καὶ τὰ ἄλλα τὰ ἐκεῖσε μεταπεμ- 
φθέντα ἱερὰ ζῷα, εὐθὺς εἰς Αἰθιοπίαν σὺν ἅπαντι τῷ 
στόλῳ καὶ πλήθει τῶν Αἰγυπτίων ἀνήχθη - χάριτι 
γὰρ ἦν αὐτῷ ὑποχείριος ὁ τῶν Αἰθιόπων βασιλεύς. 
247 dst ὑποδεξάμενος καὶ τοὺς ὄχλους πάντας ὑπολαβὼν 
οἷς ἔσχεν ἡ χώρα τῶν πρὸς ἀνθρωπίνην τροφὴν 
ἐπιτηδείων, καὶ πόλεις καὶ κώμας πρὸς τὴν τῶν 

1Qm. Lat.: bracketed by Bekker. 

2 Cobet: ws ye αὐτὸν L. 

8 Conj. Niese (ewm aliis Lat.). 

“Cobet (occurrens Lat.): ἀπαντήσασιν L. 
5 Herwerden (cf. ὃ 263): μέλλειν L. 

® Niese (after Lat.): ὅθεν L. 



and before long arrived at Auaris. When Amendphis, 
king of Egypt, learned of their invasion, he was sorely 
troubled, for he recalled the prediction of Amenéphis, 
son of Paapis. First, he gathered a multitude of 
Egyptians ; and having taken counsel with the lead- 
ing men among them, he summoned to his presence 
the sacred animals which were held in greatest rever- 
ence in the temples, and gave instructions to each 
group of priests to conceal the images of the gods as 
securely as possible. As for his five-year-old son 
Sethés, also called Ramessés after his grandfather 
Rapsés,! he sent him safely away to his friend.? 
He then crossed the Nile with as many as 300,000 of 
the bravest warriors of Egypt, and met the enemy. 
But, instead of joining battle, he decided that he 
must not fight against the gods, and made a hasty 
retreat to Memphis. There he took into his charge 
Apis and the other sacred animals which he had 
summoned to that place ; and forthwith he set off for 
Ethiopia * with his whole army and the host of 
Egyptians. The Ethiopian king, who, in gratitude 
for a service, had become his subject, welcomed him, 
maintained the whole multitude with such products 
of the country as were fit for human consumption, 

1 Rapsés: doubtless an error for Rampsés. There is 
confusion here: the grandfather is Ramessés II. See 
Meyer (Aeg. Chron. p. 91), who considers the words 
“‘Sethés also called’ an interpolation (cf. ὃ 98), intended 
to identify a Sethéds son of Amenéphis and a Ramessés 
son of Amendphis. 

2 A curious indefiniteness: the reference may be to the 
king of Ethiopia, mentioned in the next section. 

* The truth is that Ethiopia (Nubia, Cush) was at that 
time a province of the kingdom of the Pharaohs. 

F 129 


πεπρωμένων τρισκαίδεκα ἐτῶν ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς 
αὐτοῦ! ἔκπτωσιν αὐτάρκεις, οὐχ ἧττον δὲ καὶ 
/ ᾽ A ‘ \ > / 
στρατόπεδον Αἰθιοπικὸν πρὸς φυλακὴν ἐπέταξε 
“- ~ > ~ 
τοῖς παρ᾽ ‘Auevwidews τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπὶ τῶν 
C12 1k ~ A? 7 ‘ A A \ \ Aié 
248 ὁρίων τῆς Αἰγύπτου. Kal Ta μὲν κατὰ τὴν AlBto- 
πίαν τοιαῦτα: οἱ δὲ ΖΣολυμῖται κατελθόντες σὺν 
a a ~ / ‘ 
τοῖς μιαροῖς τῶν Αἰγυπτίων οὕτως ἀνοσίως Kat 
~ A σ A 
«ὠμῶς 3" τοῖς ἀνθρώποις προσηνέχθησαν, ὥστε τὴν 
“ \ 
τῶν προειρημένων «Ποιμένων» κράτησιν χρυσὸν 
a 7 
φαίνεσθαι τοῖς τότε τὰ τούτων ἀσεβήματα θεω- 
249 μένοις " Kal yap ov μόνον πόλεις Kal κώμας ἐνέ- 
mpnoav, οὐδὲ ἱεροσυλοῦντες οὐδὲ λυμαινόμενοι 
ξόανα θεῶν ἠρκοῦντο, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῖς ἀδύτοις 4 
~ ¢ ~ 
ὀπτανίοις τῶν σεβαστευομένων ἱερῶν ζῴων χρώ- 
μενοι διετέλουν, καὶ θύτας καὶ σφαγεῖς τούτων 
ἱερεῖς καὶ προφήτας ἠνάγκαζον γίνεσθαι καὶ γυμ- 
200 vods ἐξέβαλλον. λέγεται δὲ ὅτι «ὁ» τὴν πολιτείαν 
- A 
Kal τοὺς νόμους αὐτοῖς καταβαλόμενος ἱερεύς, TO 
,ὔ “HX λί » ὌὋ A 6 > ‘A ~ > 
γένος ιοπολίτης, ὄνομα ᾿Οσαρσὴφ" ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐν 
“HA 5A. ~ ὌὋ /, e / > ~ 
ιουπόλει θεοῦ *Ocipews, ws μετέβη εἰς τοῦτο 
τὸ γένος, μετετέθη τοὔνομα καὶ προσηγορεύθη 
27 Μωυσῆς. 
251 A μὲν οὖν Αἰγύπτιοι φέρουσι περὶ τῶν ᾿]ου- 
δαίων ταῦτ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ ἕτερα πλείονα, ἃ παρίημι 
1 - εἰς τὴν L (repeating πρὸς τὴν above): a verb (e.g. 
παρέσχεν) seems to have dropped out. 
2 Add. Reinach. 3 Add. Reinach. 

4Bekker: αὐτοῖς L. δ Cobet: om. L. 
6 Cf. ὃ 238: ’Ocapaid edd. 

1 According to Meyer (Aeg. Chron. p. 77), this section 
with its identification of Osarséph and Moses is due to an 



assigned to them cities and villages sufficient for the 
destined period of 13 years’ banishment from his 
realm, and especially stationed an Ethiopian army 
on the frontiers of Egypt to guard King Amendéphis 
and his followers. Such was the situation in 
Ethiopia. Meanwhile, the Solymites [or dwellers in 
Jerusalem] made a descent along with the polluted 
Egyptians, and treated the people so impiously and 
savagely that the domination of the Shepherds 
seemed like a golden age to those who witnessed the 
present enormities. For not only did they set towns 
and villages on fire, pillaging the temples and muti- 
lating images of the gods without restraint, but they 
also made a practice of using the sanctuaries as 
kitchens to roast the sacred animals which the people 
worshipped: and they would compel the priests and 
prophets to sacrifice and butcher the beasts, after- 
wards casting the men forth naked. It is said that 
the priest who framed their constitution and their 
laws was a native of Héliopolis, named Osarséph 
after the god Osiris, worshipped at Héliopolis ; 
but when he joined this people, he changed his 
name and was called Moses.” ἢ 

Such, then, are the Egyptian stories about the 
Jews,” together with many other tales which I pass 

anti-Semitic commentator on Manetho. It is interesting 
that Osiris should be thus identified with the mysterious 
god of the Jews, whose name must not be uttered. 

* Cf. Hecataeus of Abdera (in Diodorus Siculus, xl. 3): 
the Jews are foreigners expelled from Egypt because of a 
plague. See Meyer, Geschichte®, ii. 1, p. 424. Hecataeus 
lived for some time at the court of Ptolemy I. (323-285 B.c.), 
and used Egyptian sources for his Aegyptiaca. Cf. Intro. 
pp. xxvif. 



A 4, σ΄ 
συντομίας ἕνεκα. λέγει δὲ ὁ Μανεθὼς πάλιν ὅτι 
μετὰ ταῦτα ἐπῆλθεν 6 ᾿Δμένωφις ἀπὸ Αἰθιοπίας 

\ LX ὃ / Ai oe e\ 3 “ “Ῥά 
μετὰ μεγάλης δυνάμεως καὶ 6 υἱὸς αὐτοῦ ᾿Ράμψης, 
‘ ᾿ A ” 7, \ / « Ψ 
καὶ αὐτὸς ἔχων δύναμιν, καὶ συμβαλόντες οἱ δύο 
a a a > 
τοῖς ΠΠ]οιμέσι καὶ τοῖς μιαροῖς ἐνίκησαν αὐτοὺς καὶ 
Ἁ 3 / 997 > Α ΝΜ ~ 
πολλοὺς ἀποκτείναντες ἐδίωξαν αὐτοὺς ἄχρι τῶν 
252 ὁρίων τῆς Συρίας. ταῦτα μὲν καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα 
A , σ A - Α / 
Μανεθὼς συνέγραψεν. ὅτι δὲ ληρεῖ καὶ ψεύδεται 
περιφανῶς ἐπιδείξω, προδιαστειλάμενος ἐκεῖνο, τῶν 
- A LAA 1 A θ / 7 ὃ ὃ 
ὕστερον πρὸς ἄλλους" λεχθησομένων ἕνεκα. δέδωκε 
ΤᾺ »-ἃ > ~ 
yap οὗτος ἡμῖν Kal ὡμολόγηκεν ἐξ ἀρχῆς τὸ" μὴ 
A ΄ > ͵ 3 > > \ Μ 
εἶναι τὸ γένος Αἰγυπτίους, ἀλλ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἔξωθεν 
> , ~ “-“ > 4 \ / > 
ἐπελθόντας κρατῆσαι τῆς Αἰγύπτου καὶ πάλιν ἐξ 
Φ' ἐγας 3 A i > > > ‘ ct a 
253 αὐτῆς ἀπελθεῖν. ὅτι δ᾽ οὐκ ἀνεμίχθησαν ἡμῖν 
© ~ ΄ «ε 
ὕστερον τῶν Αἰγυπτίων οἱ τὰ σώματα λελωβη- 
μένοι, καὶ ὅτι ἐκ τούτων οὐκ ἦν Μωυσῆς ὁ τὸν 
‘ > 4 > A “- > ΄ a 
λαὸν ἀγαγών, ἀλλὰ πολλαῖς ἐγεγόνει γενεαῖς 
πρότερον, ταῦτα πειράσομαι διὰ τῶν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ 
89 λεγομένων ἐλέγχειν. 
, \ A Juste (7 “- ’ « 
954 Llpwrnv δὴ τὴν αἰτίαν τοῦ πλάσματος ὕὑπο- 
, / « Α 4 , 
τίθεται καταγέλαστον. ὁ βασιλεὺς γάρ, φησίν, 
> / ? 0 ΄ὔ A 6. A is -“ / 
Apevwdis ἐπεθύμησε τοὺς θεοὺς ἰδεῖν. ποίους ; 
εἰ μὲν τοὺς παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς νενομοθετημένους, τὸν 
βοῦν καὶ τράγον καὶ κροκοδείλους καὶ κυνοκεφά- 
255 λους, ἑώρα. τοὺς οὐρανίους δὲ πῶς ἐδύνατο ; καὶ 
Ἁ , 4 ᾿, \ > / -“ A / 
dua τί ταύτην ἔσχε τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ; ὅτι νὴ Mia 
1 Niese: ἀλλήλους 1, (alterna gratia Lat.). 
2 Conj. Niese: τε L. 



by for brevity’s sake. Manetho adds, however, that, 
at a later date, Amenéphis advanced from Ethiopia 
with a large army, his son Rampsés also leading a 
force, and that the two together joined battle with 
the Shepherds and their polluted allies, and defeated 
them. killing many and pursuing the others to the 
frontiers of Syria. This then, with other tales of a 
like nature, is Manetho’s account. Before I give 
proof that his words are manifest lies and nonsense, 
I shall mention one particular point, which bears 
upon my later refutation of other writers. Manetho 
has made one concession to us. He has admitted 
that our race was not Egyptian in origin, but came 
into Egypt from elsewhere, took possession of the 
land, and afterwards left it. But that we were not, 
at a later time, mixed up with disease-ravaged 
Egyptians, and that, so far from being one of these, 
Moses, the leader of our people, lived many genera- 
tions earlier, I shall endeavour to prove from 
Manetho’s own statements. 

To begin with, the reason which he suggests for 
his fiction is ridiculous. ‘“‘ King Amendphis,” he 
says, “‘ conceived a desire to see the gods.” Gods 
indeed! If he means the gods established by their 
ordinances,—bull, goat, crocodiles, and dog-faced 
baboons,—he had them before his eyes; and as 
for the gods of heaven, how could he see them ? 
And why did he conceive this eager desire ? 
Because, by Zeus,! before his time another king 

1A strange expression which seems to belong to an 
anti-Semitic polemic. In Josephus, c. Apion. li. 263 (a 
passage about Socrates), νὴ dia has been restored to the 

text by Niese’s conjecture, 


‘ / > ~ ‘ Μ ε , 
καὶ πρότερος αὐτοῦ βασιλεὺς ἄλλος ἑωράκει. 
παρ᾽ ἐκείνου τοίνυν ἐπέπυστο ποταποί τινές εἰσι 
καὶ τίνα πρόπον αὐτοὺς εἶδεν, ὥστε καινῆς αὐτῷ 

4 , 
256 τέχνης οὐκ ἔδει. ἀλλὰ σοφὸς ἦν ὁ μάντις, δι᾿ οὗ 

~ 7 ε A e / A 
τοῦτο κατορθώσειν ὁ βασιλεὺς ὑπελάμβανε. Kat 

~ ~ ~ > 
πῶς οὐ προέγνω τὸ ἀδύνατον αὐτοῦ τῆς ἐπιθυμίας ; 

> \ > 7 / A \ / t ὃ A A 
οὐ yap ἀπέβη. τίνα δὲ καὶ λόγον εἶχε διὰ τοὺς 

Ἅ ~ > ~ 
ἠκρωτηριασμένους ἢ λεπρῶντας ἀφανεῖς εἶναι 
τοὺς θεούς ; ὀργίζονται γὰρ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀσεβήμασιν, 
257 οὐκ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἐλαττώμασι τῶν σωμάτων. ὀκτὼ 
δὲ μυριάδας τῶν λεπρῶν καὶ κακῶς διακειμένων 
πῶς οἷόν τε μιᾷ σχεδὸν ἡμέρᾳ συλλεγῆναι; πῶς 
δὲ παρήκουσεν τοῦ μάντεως 6 βασιλεύς ; ὁ μὲν 
γὰρ αὐτὸν ἐκέλευσεν ἐξορίσαι τῆς Αἰγύπτου τοὺς 
΄ ε > 3 A > \ ,ὔ 
λελωβημένους, 6 δ᾽ αὐτοὺς εἰς τὰς λιθοτομίας 
+ le! σ ~ > Z , > > 
ἐνέβαλεν, ὥσπερ τῶν ἐργασομένων Sedpevos, ἀλλ 
A A 4 
258 οὐχὶ καθᾶραι τὴν χώραν προαιρούμενος. φησὶ 
δὲ τὸν μὲν μάντιν αὑτὸν ἀνελεῖν τὴν ὀργὴν τῶν 

~ A 
θεῶν προορώμενον καὶ τὰ συμβησόμενα περὶ τὴν 
Αἴγυπτον, τῷ δὲ βασιλεῖ γεγραμμένην τὴν πρόρ- 

259 pynow | καταλιπεῖν. εἶτα πῶς οὐκ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὁ 
μάντις τὸν αὑτοῦ θάνατον προηπίστατο; πῶς δὲ 
οὐκ εὐθὺς ἀντεῖπεν τῷ βασιλεῖ βουλομένῳ τοὺς 

\ > A - > » ς ‘ ~ A > 
θεοὺς ἰδεῖν ; πῶς δ᾽ εὔλογος 6 φόβος τῶν μὴ παρ 

͵, ~ n ͵ - 
αὐτὸν συμβησομένων κακῶν; ἢ τί χεῖρον ἔδει 
παθεῖν οὗ δρᾶν ἑαυτὸν ἔσπευδεν ; 
260 Τὸ δὲ δὴ πάντων εὐηθέστατον ἴδωμεν. πυθό- 

1 Ed. pr.: πρόσρησιν L. 
2 Herwerden (quam quod se ipse perimere festinabat Lat.): 
οὐδ᾽ av L. 



had seen them! From this predecessor, then, he 
had learned their nature and the manner in which 
he had seen them, and in consequence he had no need 
of a new system. Moreover, the prophet by whose 
aid the king expected to succeed in his endeavour, 
was asage. How, then, did he fail to foresee the im- 
possibility of realizing this desire ? It did, in fact, 
come to naught. And what reason had he for as- 
cribing the invisibility of the gods to the presence of 
cripples or lepers ? Divine wrath is due to impious 
deeds, not to physical deformities. Next, how 
could 80,000 lepers and invalids be gathered to- 
gether in practically a single day ? And why did 
the king turn a deaf ear to the prophet? The pro- 
phet had bidden him expel the cripples from Egypt, 
but the king cast them into stone-quarries, as if he 
needed labourers, not as if his purpose was to purge 
the land. Manetho says, moreover, that the pro- 
phet took his own life, because he foresaw the anger 
of the gods and the fate in store for Egypt, but left 
in writing his prediction to the king. Then how 
was it that the prophet had not from the first fore- 
knowledge of his own death? Why did he not 
forthwith oppose the king’s desire to see the gods ? 
Was it reasonable to be afraid of misfortunes which 
were not to happen in his time ? Or what worse 
fate could have been his than that which he hastened 
to inflict upon himself ? 

But let us now examine! the most ridiculous part 

1The passage §§ 260-266 repeats unnecessarily the 
substance of §§ 237-250: possibly these are extracts from 
two treatises utilizing the same material. 



μενος yap ταῦτα Kai περὶ τῶν μελλόντων φοβηθείς, 
\ λ δὴ / > / t ᾽ ~ / 1 

τοὺς λελωβημένους ἐκείνους, dv αὐτῷ καθαρίσαι 

προείρητο τὴν Αἴγυπτον, οὐδὲ τότε τῆς χώρας 

> / > A - 

ἐξήλασεν, ἀλλὰ δεηθεῖσιν αὐτοῖς ἔδωκε πόλιν, ὥς 

A / > A ~ 

φησι, τὴν πάλαι μὲν οἰκηθεῖσαν ὑπὸ τῶν Ποιμένων, 

0 ,ἷ A a 

261 Avapw δὲ καλουμένην. εἰς ἣν ἀθροισθέντας αὐτοὺς 
ἡγεμόνα φησὶν ἐξελέσθαι τῶν ἐξ ᾿Ηλιουπόλεως 

/ e ~ “- 
πάλαι γεγονότων ἱερέων, καὶ τοῦτον αὐτοῖς εἰσ- 
/ a ~ 
ἡγήσασθαι μήτε θεοὺς προσκυνεῖν μήτε τῶν ev? 
Αἰγύπτῳ θρησκευομένων ζῴων ἀπέχεσθαι, πάντα 
A / \ / / \ \ 
δὲ θύειν καὶ κατεσθίειν, συνάπτεσθαι δὲ μηδενὶ 
πλὴν τῶν συνομωμοσμένων,2 ὅρκοις τε τὸ πλῆθος 
ἐνδησάμενον, ἦ μὴν τούτοις ἐμμενεῖν τοῖς νόμοις, 
μὴ / \ Avi \ A / 
καὶ τειχίσαντα τὴν Avapw πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα 

6 iy > A \ θ “ ” 

262 πόλεμον ἐξενεγκεῖν. καὶ προστίθησιν ὅτι ἔπεμψεν 
εἰς “Ιεροσόλυμα παρακαλῶν ἐκείνους αὐτοῖς συμ- 
μαχεῖν καὶ δώσειν αὐτοῖς τὴν Avapw ὑπισχνού- 

A a > ~ « 
μενος, εἶναι γὰρ αὐτὴν τοῖς ἐκ τῶν “]εροσολύμων 
3 / / > 9.9, « / > \ 
ἀφιξομένοις προγονικήν, ἀφ᾽ ἧς ὁρμωμένους αὐτοὺς 

263 πᾶσαν τὴν Αἴγυπτον καθέξειν. εἶτα τοὺς μὲν 
> a Μ ~ / / ‘ / 
ἐπελθεῖν εἴκοσι στρατοῦ μυριάσι λέγει, τὸν βασιλέα 
δὲ ~ Ai / mA / > »7 - 

ἐ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων ‘Apuévwdw οὐκ οἰόμενον δεῖν 
θεομαχεῖν εἰς τὴν Αἰθιοπίαν εὐθὺς ἀποδρᾶναι, τὸν 
δὲ Anw καί τινα τῶν ἄλλων ἱερῶν ζῴων παρα- 

͵ὔ - « ~ / / 
τεθεικέναι τοῖς ἱερεῦσι διαφυλάττεσθαι κελεύσαντα. 

> ΠΕ , ? , , , 

264 εἶτα τοὺς “]εροσολυμίτας ἐπελθόντας τάς τε πόλεις 

ς / \ \ ¢€ 
ἀνιστάναι Kal τὰ ἱερὰ κατακαίειν Kal τοὺς ἱερέας 3 



of the whole story. Although he had learned these 
facts, and had conceived a dread of the future, the 
king did not, even then, expel from his land those 
cripples of whose taint he had previously been bidden 
to purge Egypt, but instead, at their request, he 
gave them as their city (Manetho says) the former 
habitation of the Shepherds, Auaris, as it was called. 
Here, he adds, they assembled, and selected as their 
leader a man who had formerly been a priest in 
Heliopolis. This man (according to Manetho) in- 
structed them not to worship the gods nor to refrain 
from the animals revered in Egypt, but to sacrifice 
and devour them all, and to have intercourse with 
none save those of their own confederacy. Then 
having bound his followers by oath to abide strictly 
by these laws, he fortified Auaris and waged war 
against the king. This leader, Manetho adds, sent 
to Jerusalem, inviting the people to join in alliance 
with him, and promising to give them Auaris, which, 
he reminded them, was the ancestral home of those 
who would come from Jerusalem, and would serve as 
a base for their conquest of the whole of Egypt. 
Then, continues Manetho, they advanced with an 
army of 200,000 men; and Amendphis, king of 
Egypt, thinking he ought not to fight against the 
gods, fled straightway into Ethiopia after enjoining 
that Apis and some of the other sacred animals should 
be entrusted to the custody of the priests. There- 
after, the men from Jerusalem came on, made deso- 
late the cities, burned down the temples, massacred 

1Cobet: καθαρεῦσαι L. 2Conj. Niese: ἐπ᾽ L. 
8. Niese: συνωμοσμένων L. “Bekker: ἱππέας L, Lat. 



> / a ~ > ,ὔ 
ἀποσφάττειν, ὅλως τε μηδεμιᾶς ἀπέχεσθαι παρα- 
, \ > / «ες \ \ / ‘ 
265 voutas μηδὲ ὠμότητος. ὁ δὲ τὴν πολιτείαν Kai 
τοὺς νόμους αὐτοῖς καταβαλόμενος ' ἱερεύς, φησίν, 
ἦν τὸ γένος ᾿Ἡλιοπολίτης, ὄνομα δ᾽ ᾿Οσαρσὴφ 5 
> ‘ a > € / a? / , 
ἀπὸ τοῦ ev ᾿Ηλιουπόλει θεοῦ ’Ooipews, μεταθέμενος 
260 δὲ Μωυσῆν αὑτὸν προσηγόρευσε. τρισκαιδεκάτῳ 
> ~ ~ 
δέ φησιν ἔτει τὸν ‘Auéevwdw,—toaobrov yap αὐτῷ 
~ > 
χρόνον εἶναι τῆς ἐκπτώσεως πεπρωμένον, --- ἐξ 
Αἰθιοπίας ἐπελθόντα μετὰ πολλῆς στρατιᾶς καὶ 
συμβαλόντα τοῖς [Ποιμέσι καὶ τοῖς μιαροῖς νικῆσαί 
τε τῇ μάχῃ καὶ κτεῖναι πολλοὺς ἐπιδιώξαντα 
29 μέχρι τῶν τῆς Συρίας ὅρων. 
267 Ἂν τούτοις πάλιν οὐ συνίησιν ἀπιθάνως ψευ- 
€ \ > ~ ~ 
δόμενος. of yap λεπροὶ καὶ TO μετ᾽ αὐτῶν πλῆθος, 
εἰ καὶ πρότερον ὠργίζοντο τῷ βασιλεῖ καὶ τοῖς 
τὰ περὶ αὐτοὺς πεποιηκόσι κατὰ [τε] ὃ τὴν τοῦ 
’, Ld 3 > ao ~ ~ 
μάντεως προαγόρευσιν, ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε τῶν λιθοτομιῶν 
eA \ / > ’ ~ \ 7 w 
ἐξῆλθον καὶ πόλιν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ καὶ χώραν ἔλαβον, 
πάντως ὁ ἂν γεγόνεισαν πρᾳότεροι πρὸς αὐτόν. 
> A Ἁ 5 3 - > , 907 \ n > -~ 6 
208 εἰ δὲ 57° κἀκεῖνον ἐμίσουν, ἰδίᾳ μὲν av αὐτῷ 
ἐπεβούλευον, οὐκ ἂν δὲ πρὸς ἅπαντας ἤραντο 
“ μι 
πόλεμον, δῆλον ὅτι πλείστας ἔχοντες συγγενείας 
“- A » a 
269 τοσοῦτοί ye TO πλῆθος ὄντες. ὅμως δὲ Kal τοῖς 
ἀνθρώποις πολεμεῖν διεγνωκότες, οὐκ ἂν εἰς τοὺς 
αὐτῶν θεοὺς πολεμεῖν ἐτόλμησαν οὐδ᾽ ὑὕπεναν- 
τιωτάτους ἔθεντο νόμους τοῖς πατρίοις αὐτῶν καὶ 
a « »“» ~ ~ 
270 οἷς ἐνετράφησαν. δεῖ δὲ ἡμᾶς τῷ Μανεθῷ 1 χάριν 
1 Hd. pr.: καταβαλλόμενος L. 
2°Ocapaid ed. pr.: ᾿Αρσὴφ L. 

3Om. Lat., Bekker. 4 Ed. pr.: πάντες L, Lat. 
5 εἰ δ᾽ ἔτι conj. Niese ( porro st adhuc Lat.). 



the priests, and, in short, committed every possible 
kind of lawlessness and savagery. The priest who 
framed their constitution and their laws was, ac- 
cording to Manetho, a native of Héliopolis, Osarséph 
by name, after Osiris the god worshipped in Hélio- 
polis: but he changed his name and called himself 
Moses. Thirteen years later—this being the des- 
tined period of his exile—Amendphis, according to 
Manetho, advanced from Ethiopia with a large army, 
and joining battle with the Shepherds and the pol- 
luted people, he defeated them, killing many, after 
pursuing them to the frontiers of Syria. 

Here again Manetho fails to realize the improba- 
bility of his lying tale. Even if the lepers and their 
accompanying horde were previously angry with the 
king and the others who had treated them thus in 
obedience to the seer’s prediction, certainly when 
they had left the stone-quarries and received from 
him a city and land, they would have grown more 
kindly disposed to him. If indeed they still hated 
him, they would have plotted against him personally, 
instead of declaring war against the whole people ; 
for obviously so large a company must have had 
numerous relatives in Egypt. Notwithstanding, 
once they had resolved to make war on the Egyptians, 
they would never have ventured to direct their war- 
fare against their gods, nor would they have framed 
laws completely opposed to the ancestral code under 
which they had been brought up. We must, how- 
ever, be grateful to Manetho for stating that the 

δ ἂν αὐτῷ ed. pr.: ἄνω (-- ἀνθρώπῳ) ἴω: ἂν (alone) conj. 
Niese: ἄν ἀνθρώπῳ Reinach. 
7 Niese: Mavédwu L. 



ἔχειν, ὅτι ταύτης τῆς παρανομίας οὐχὶ τοὺς ἐξ 
“Ιεροσολύμων ἐλθόντας ἀρχηγοὺς γενέσθαι φησίν, 
ἀλλ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἐκείνους ὄντας Αἰγυπτίους καὶ τού- 
των μάλιστα τοὺς ἱερέας ἐπινοῆσαί τε ταῦτα καὶ 
ὁρκωμοτῆσαι τὸ πλῆθος. 

21 "Ἐκεῖνο μέντοι πῶς οὐκ ἄλογον, τῶν μὲν οἰκείων 
αὐτοῖς καὶ τῶν φίλων συναποστῆναι ' οὐδένα μηδὲ 
τοῦ πολέμου τὸν κίνδυνον συνάρασθαι, πέμψαι δὲ 
τοὺς μιαροὺς εἰς “Ιεροσόλυμα καὶ τὴν παρ᾽ ἐκείνων 

272 ἐπάγεσθαι συμμαχίαν; ποίας αὐτοῖς φιλίας ἢ 
τίνος αὐτοῖς οἰκειότητος προὑὐπηργμένης ; τοὐ- 
ναντίον γὰρ ἦσαν πολέμιοι καὶ τοῖς ἔθεσι3 πλεῖστον 
διέφερον. ὁ δέ φησιν εὐθὺς ὑπακοῦσαι τοῖς ὑπ- 
ισχνουμένοις ὅτι τὴν Αἴγυπτον καθέξουσιν, ὥσπερ 
αὐτῶν οὐ σφόδρα τῆς χώρας ἐμπείρως ἐχόντων, 

213 ἧς βιασθέντες ἐκπεπτώκασιν. εἰ μὲν οὖν ἀπόρως 
ἢ κακῶς ἔπραττον, ἴσως ἂν καὶ παρεβάλλοντο, 
πόλιν δὲ κατοικοῦντες εὐδαίμονα καὶ χώραν 
πολλὴν κρείττω τῆς Αἰγύπτου καρπούμενοι, διὰ 
τί ποτ᾽ ἂν ἐχθροῖς μὲν πάλαι τὰ δὲ σώματα λε- 
λωβημένοις, οὗς μηδὲ τῶν οἰκείων οὐδεὶς ὑπέμενε, 
τούτοις ἔμελλον παρακινδυνεύσειν βοηθοῦντες ; οὐ 
γὰρ δή γε τὸν γενησόμενον προήδεσαν δρασμὸν 

214 τοῦ βασιλέως τοὐναντίον γὰρ αὐτὸς εἴρηκεν ws 

1 Bekker (consensit Lat.): συναποστῆσαι L. 
2? Hudson (moribus Lat.): ἤθεσι L. 

Τὴ ὃ 245 we are told that Amendéphis himself led his 
host in this useless march, and that his son was only 
5 years old. Only here is Pélusium mentioned as the 
destination of the march. 


| Footnote continued on opposite page. 


authors of this lawlessness were not the newcomers 
from Jerusalem, but that company of people who 
were themselves Egyptians, and that it was, above 
all, their priests who devised the scheme and bound 
the multitude by oath. 

Moreover, how absurd it is to imagine that, while 
none of their relatives and friends joined in the revolt 
and shared in the perils of war, these polluted persons 
sent to Jerusalem and gained allies there! What 
alliance, what connexion had previously existed be- 
tween them? Why, on the contrary, they were 
enemies, and differed widely in customs. Yet 
Manetho says that they lent a ready ear to the 
promise that they would occupy Egypt, just as if 
they were not thoroughly acquainted with the 
country from which they had been forcibly expelled ! 
Now, if they had been in straitened or unhappy cir- 
cumstances, they would perhaps have taken the risk ; 
but dwelling, as they did, in a prosperous city and 
enjoying the fruits of an ample country, superior to 
Egypt, why ever should they be likely to hazard 
their lives by succouring their former foes, those 
maimed cripples, whom none even of their own 
kinsfolk could endure ? For of course they did not 
foresee that the king would take flight. On the con- 
trary, Manetho has himself stated that the son! of 

Pélusium, ‘‘ the celebrated eastern seaport and key to 
Egypt” (Baedeker®, pp. 197, f.), the famous frontier 
fortress, in Ancient Egyptian Snw. A scarab of the late 
Twelfth Dynasty or early Thirteenth, published by 
Newberry in J. Eg. Arch. xviii. (1932), p. 141, shows the 
place-name written within the fortress-sign. The name 
Pélusium is from πηλός “‘ mud’’: cf. Strabo, 17. 1, 21, 
for the muddy pools or marshes around Pélusium. 



ὁ παῖς τοῦ ᾿Δμενώφιος τριάκοντα μυριάδας ἔχων 
εἰς τὸ Πηλούσιον ὑπηντίαζεν. καὶ τοῦτο μὲν 
ἤδεισαν πάντως οἱ παραγινόμενοι, τὴν δὲ μετά- 
> ~ \ \ A / > / wv 
νοιαν αὐτοῦ καὶ THY φυγὴν πόθεν εἰκάζειν ἔμελλον; 
ΝΜ 1 / / ~ Ae 4 AAG 
275 ἔπειτα κρατήσαντάς φησι τῆς Αἰγύπτου πολλὰ 
καὶ δεινὰ δρᾶν τοὺς ἐκ τῶν “]εροσολύμων ἐπι- 
στρατεύσαντας, καὶ περὶ τούτων ὀνειδίζει καθάπερ 
᾽, > a 
οὐ πολεμίους αὐτοὺς * ἐπαγαγὼν ἢ δέον τοῖς ἔξωθεν 
ἐπικληθεῖσιν ἐγκαλεῖν, ὁπότε ταῦτα πρὸ τῆς 
ἐκείνων ἀφίξεως ἔπραττον καὶ πράξειν ὠμωμό- 
ς \ ͵ > 4 > \ \ / 
276 κεσαν ot τὸ γένος Αἰγύπτιοι. ἀλλὰ καὶ χρόνοις 
2 > / > A Sed / A 
ὕστερον Apévwdis ἐπελθὼν ἐνίκησε μάχῃ Kal 
κτείνων τοὺς πολεμίους μέχρι τῆς Συρίας ἤλα- 
σεν - οὕτω γὰρ παντάπασίν ἐστιν ἡ Αἴγυπτος τοῖς 
« θ ὃ ~ ? “ > LA / 3 ε 
277 οποῦθενοηποτοῦν ἐπιοῦσιν εὐάλωτος. καίτοι“ οἱ 
τότε πολέμῳ κρατοῦντες αὐτήν, ζῆν πυνθανόμενοι 
A 3 / a A τὰ ~ > , > A 
tov Apevwduv, οὔτε τὰς ἐκ τῆς Αἰθιοπίας ἐμβολὰς 
ὠχύρωσαν, πολλὴν εἰς τοῦτο παρασκευὴν ἔχοντες, 
οὔτε τὴν ἄλλην ἡτοίμασαν δύναμιν. ὁ δὲ καὶ μέχρι 
τῆς Συρίας ἀναιρῶν, φησίν, αὐτοὺς ἠκολούθησε 
‘\ ~ ΄ ~ > ΄ ~ - > cs 
διὰ τῆς ψάμμου τῆς ἀνύδρου, δῆλον ὅτι οὐ ῥάδιον 
80 οὐδὲ ἀμαχεὶ στρατοπέδῳ διελθεῖν. 
\ Ἢ > \ Ἢ ” > ~ > 
918 Κατὰ μὲν οὖν tov Μανεθὼν οὔτε ἐκ τῆς Ai- 
γύπτου τὸ γένος ἡμῶν ἐστιν οὔτε τῶν ἐκεῖθέν 
τινες ἀνεμίχθησαν - τῶν γὰρ λεπρῶν καὶ νοσούντων 
πολλοὺς μὲν εἰκὸς ἐν ταῖς λιθοτομίαις ἀποθανεῖν 
πολὺν χρόνον ἐκεῖ γενομένους καὶ κακοπαθοῦντας, 
πολλοὺς δ᾽ ἐν ταῖς μετὰ ταῦτα μάχαις, πλείστους 
δ᾽ ἐν τῇ τελευταίᾳ καὶ τῇ φυγῇ. 
1 Hudson: εἶτα Niese: deinde Lat.: τὰ σιτία L. 


a ξξςς μας τπξΠ πτπΠΠτ ποι στ 


Amenéphis marched with 300,000 men to confront 
them at Pélusium. This was certainly known to 
those already present ; but how could they possibly 
guess that he would change his mind and flee ? 
Manetho next says that, after conquering Egypt, the 
invaders from Jerusalem committed many heinous 
crimes ; and for these he reproaches them, just as if 
he had not brought them in as enemies, or as if he 
was bound to accuse allies from abroad of actions 
which before their arrival native Egyptians were 
performing and had sworn to perform. But, years 
later, Amendéphis returned to the attack, conquered 
the enemy in battle, and drove them, with slaughter, 
right to Syria. So perfectly easy a prey is Egypt to 
invaders, no matter whence they come! And yet 
those who at that time conquered the land, on 
learning that Amenéphis was alive, neither fortified 
the passes between it and Ethiopia, although their 
resources were amply sufficient, nor did they keep 
the rest of their forces in readiness ! Amendphis, ac- 
cording to Manetho, pursued them with carnage over 
the sandy desert right to Syria. But obviously it is 
no easy matter for an army to cross the desert even 
without fighting. 

Thus, according to Manetho, our race is not of 
Egyptian origin, nor did it receive any admixture of 
Egyptians. For, naturally, many of the lepers and 
invalids died in the stone-quarries during their long 
term of hardship, many others in the subsequent 
battles, and most of all in the final engagement and 
the rout. 

* Reinach: αὐτοῖς L. §Conj. Thackeray: καὶ L. 




, A > A ? Cal \ 4 
o79 4)οιπόν μοι πρὸς αὐτὸν εἰπεῖν περὶ Μωυσέως 

lo A A ΝΜ A \ > 4 
τοῦτον δὲ τὸν ἄνδρα θαυμαστὸν μὲν Αἰγύπτιοι 
καὶ θεῖον νομίζουσι, βούλονται δὲ προσποιεῖν αὗ- 

a « 
τοῖς μετὰ βλασφημίας ἀπιθάνου, λέγοντες ᾿Ηλιο- 

~ a ε 
πολίτην εἶναι τῶν ἐκεῖθεν ἱερέων ἕνα διὰ τὴν 
/ / / > > a 
280X€mpav συνεξεληλασμένον. δείκνυται δ᾽ ἐν ταῖς 
ἀναγραφαῖς ὀκτωκαίδεκα σὺν τοῖς πεντακοσίοις 
πρότερον ἔτεσι γεγονὼς καὶ τοὺς ἡμετέρους 
ἐξαγαγὼν ἐκ τῆς Αἰγύπτου πατέρας εἰς τὴν 

’ A ~ > / ς > ¢ ~ Lud > ᾿] \ 

281 χώραν τὴν νῦν οἰκουμένην ὑφ᾽ ἡμῶν. ὅτι δ᾽ οὐδὲ 
συμφορᾷ τινι τοιαύτῃ περὶ τὸ σῶμα κεχρημένος 
ἦν, ἐκ τῶν λεγομένων ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ δῆλός ἐστι" τοῖς 

~ > / / / > / πὶ 
γὰρ λεπρῶσιν ἀπείρηκε μήτε μένειν ἐν πόλει μήτ 
ἐν κώμῃ κατοικεῖν, ἀλλὰ μόνους περιπατεῖν κατ- 
εσχισμένους τὰ ἱμάτια, καὶ τὸν ἁψάμενον αὐτῶν 

282 ἢ ὁμωρόφιον γενόμενον οὐ καθαρὸν ἡγεῖται. καὶ 
μὴν κἂν θεραπευθῇ τὸ νόσημα καὶ τὴν αὑτοῦ 
φύσιν ἀπολάβῃ, προείρηκέν τινας ἁγνείας, καθαρ- 

Aa / 
μοὺς πηγαίων ὑδάτων λουτροῖς καὶ ξυρήσεις 
πάσης τῆς τριχός, πολλάς τε κελεύει καὶ παν- 
> a 
τοίας ἐπιτελέσαντα θυσίας τότε παρελθεῖν εἰς τὴν 

283 ἱερὰν πόλιν. καίτοι " τοὐναντίον εἰκὸς ἣν προνοίᾳ 
τινὶ καὶ φιλανθρωπίᾳ χρήσασθαι τὸν ἐν τῇ συμ- 
φορᾷ ταύτῃ γεγονότα πρὸς τοὺς ὁμοίως * αὐτῷ 
δυστυχήσαντας. οὐ μόνον δὲ περὶ τῶν λεπρῶν 

“ > Ψ' 3 3 0" a \ A 4, 
οὕτως ἐνομοθέτησεν, ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲ τοῖς καὶ τὸ βραχύ- 

A CG ~ 
τατόν TL τοῦ σώματος ἠκρωτηριασμένοις ἱερᾶσθαι 
4 > > > \ 4 ε / 
284 συγκεχώρηκεν, ἀλλ᾽ εἰ Kal μεταξύ τις ἱερώμενος 
14 καὶ Lat., Reinach. 2 Hd. pr.: καὶ L. 
3 Hd. pr.: ὁμοίους L, Lat. 


It remains for me to reply to Manetho’s statements 
about Moses. The Egyptians regard him as a won- 
derful, even a divine being, but wish to claim him as 
their own by an incredible calumny, alleging that he 
belonged to Héliopolis and was dismissed from his 
priesthood there owing to leprosy. The records, 
however, show that he lived 518 years } earlier, and 
led our forefathers up out of Egypt to the land which 
we inhabit at the present time. And that he suffered 
from no such physical affliction is clear from his own 
words. He has, in fact, forbidden lepers 2 either to 
stay in a town or to make their abode in a village ; 
they must go about in solitude, with their garments 
rent. Anyone who touches them or lives under the 
same roof with them he considers unclean. More- 
over, even if the malady is cured and the leper re- 
sumes normal health, Moses has prescribed certain 
rites of purification—to cleanse himself in a bath of 
spring-water and to shave off all his hair,—and en- 
joins the performance of a number of different sacri- 
fices before entrance into the holy city. Yet it would 
have been natural, on the contrary, for a victim of 
this scourge to show some consideration and kindly 
feeling for those who shared the same misfortune. It 
was not only about lepers that he framed such laws : 
those who had even the slightest mutilation of the 
body were disqualified for the priesthood ;* and if 
a priest in the course of his ministry met with an 

1518 years. See ἢ. on § 230. 

3 ἘῸΓ the laws of leprosy, here summarized, see 0.7’. 
Leviticus xiii. (especially 45 f.) and xiv. 

3 Cf. Leviticus xxi. 17-23 (exclusion from the priesthood 
of anyone “ that hath a blemish ’’). 



τοιαύτῃ χρήσαιτο συμφορᾷ, τὴν τιμὴν αὐτὸν 
286 ἀφείλετο. πῶς οὖν εἰκὸς ἐκεῖνον ταῦτα νομο- 
θετεῖν ἀνοήτως «ἢ τοὺς» ἀπὸ τοιούτων συμ- 
φορῶν συνειλεγμένους προσέσθαι 3 καθ᾽ ἑαυτῶν εἰς 
280 ὄνειδός τε καὶ βλάβην νόμους συντιθεμένους ; ἀλλὰ 
μὴν καὶ τοὔνομα λίαν ἀπιθάνως μετατέθεικεν " 
Ὄ. A 4 4 , > aA a ~ \ s 
σαρσὴφ yap, φησίν, ἐκαλεῖτο. τοῦτο μὲν οὖν 
» A / > > / \ > > \ 
εἰς τὴν μετάθεσιν οὐκ ἐναρμόζει, τὸ δ᾽ ἀληθὲς 
» λ - \ > a 7 θέ M ~ 5 
ὄνομα δηλοῖ τὸν ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος σωθέντα [Mwojr]- 
τὸ γὰρ ὕδωρ οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι wai καλοῦσιν. 
εἶ ~ s 4 / {ὃ δ 6 σ 
287 Kav@s οὖν γεγονέναι νομίζω KatadndAov® ὅτι 
Μανεθώς, ἕως μὲν ἠκολούθει ταῖς ἀρχαίαις ἀνα- 
γραφαῖς, οὐ πολὺ τῆς ἀληθείας διημάρτανεν, ἐπὶ 
δὲ τοὺς ἀδεσπότους μύθους τραπόμενος ἢ συνέθη- 
κεν αὐτοὺς ἀπιθάνως ἤ τισι τῶν πρὸς ἀπέχθειαν 
εἰρηκότων ἐπίστευσεν. 

1 ἢ ᾽κεῖνον Niese. 2. Add. Niese. 

8 Niese: προέσθαι L. 4 Ed. pr.: ᾿Οαρσὴφ L. 
5 Bracketed as a gloss (Niese). 

® Bekker: καὶ δῆλον δ᾽ 1, (δ᾽ om. ed. pr.). 

1 The same etymology (with the necessary addition that 
ὑσῆς means “‘ saved ᾽᾽) recurs in Josephus, Antig. ii. 228: 
cf. Philo, De Vita Moysis, i. 4, § 17. There is a word in 
Ancient Egyptian, mw, meaning “ water,’’ but the con- 
nexion with the name Moses is hypothetical. Similar 
forms appear as personal names in Pharaonic times, e.g. 



accident of this nature, he was deprived of his office. 
How improbable, then, that Moses should be so 
foolish as to frame these laws, or that men brought 
together by such misfortunes should approve of legis- 
lation against themselves, to their own shame and 
injury! But, further, the name, too, has been trans- 
formed in an extremely improbable way. According 
to Manetho, Moses was called Osarséph. These 
names, however, are not interchangeable: the true 
name means “one saved out of the water,” for 
water is called ““ mo-y ” by the Egyptians. 

It is now, therefore, sufficiently obvious, I think, 
that, so long as Manetho followed the ancient records, 
he did not stray far from the truth; but when he 
turned to unauthorized legends, he either combined 
them in an improbable form or else gave credence to 
certain prejudiced informants. 

Ms.i from the Old Kingdom, Ms (very common) from the 
New Kingdom. In Ezodus ii. 10 “ Moses’”’ is ‘‘ drawn 
out’ (Hebr. mashah) of the water—a derivation “ hardly 
meant to be taken seriously ’’ (T. H. Robinson, in Oesterley 
and Robinson, History of Israel, I. p. 81). 

See further Alan H. Gardiner, “‘ The Egyptian Origin 
of some English Personal Names,’’ in Journ. of Amer. 
Orient. Soc. 56 (1936), pp. 192-4. Gardiner points out 
(p. 195, n. 28) that ὑσῆς (mentioned above) is clearly 
a perversion of aouns [or ἑσιῆς, = Egyptian hsy, “ praised,” 
1,539], the Greek equivalent of the Coptic hasie, ‘‘ favoured’’; 
but an Egyptian became “favoured ’’ by the fact of being 
drowned, not by being saved from drowning. 



Fr. 55. Syncellus, p. 134. KATA A®PIKANON. 

᾿Εννεακαιδεκάτη δυναστεία βασιλέων ζ΄ ' Ζιοσ- 

a’ Σέθως, ἔτη να΄. 

B’ Ραψάκης, ἔτη ξα΄ .3 

γ Ἀμμενέφθης, ἔτη κ΄. 

ὃ' Ῥαμεσσῆς, é ἔτη Ee 

Ἡμμενεμνῆς, ἔ ἔτη ε΄. 

Θούωρις, ὁ παρ᾽ Ὁμήρῳ καλούμενος Πό- 
λυβος, ᾿ἀλκάνδρας ἀνήρ, ἐφ᾽ 054 τὸ ἤϊλιον 
ἑάλω, ἔτη ζ΄. 

Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη of’. 

1MSS.: s’ Miller, who explains the error as due to 
someone who thought that ᾿Αλκάνδρας ἀνήρ denoted a 
seventh king. 

2 és’ Miller. 3 Odyssey, iv. 126. 

4m.: ζ΄ ᾿Αλκάνδρος ἀνήρ, ἐφ᾽ οὗ MSS. 

1 Dynasty XIX.: c. 1310-1200 B.c. The lists given by 
Africanus and Eusebius for Dynasty XIX. are in very bad 
confusion. Armais (Haremhab) should begin the line, 
which Meyer gives as follows :— 

Haremhab: Ramessés 1. : Sethés I.: Ramessés II. 
(the Louis Quatorze of Egyptian history: 67 years, see 
Breasted, Anc. Rec. iv. §471; C.A.H. ii. pp. 139 ff.): 
le SABIE Sac Amenmesés: Merneptah II. Siptah: Sethés 
11. : Ramessés Siptah : <Arsu the Syrian>. 

W. Struve (Die Ara ἀπὸ Μενόφρεως und die XIX. Dynastie 
Manethos, in Zeitschr. fiir ag. Sprache, Bd. 63 (1928), pp. 
45-50) gives a revised sequence with additional identifica- 
tions: (1) Harmais (Haremhab), (2) Ramessés I., (3) 
Amen6éphath (Seti I. Merneptah), (4) Sesés (Struve’s 
emendation for Sethés), also called Ramessés Miamoun 


Dynasty XIX. 
Fr. 55 (from Syncellus). ACCORDING TO AFRICANUS. 

The Nineteenth Dynasty ! consisted of seven (six) 
kings of Diospolis. 

1, Sethés, for 51 years. 

2. Rapsacés, for 61 (66) years. 

3. Ammenephthés, for 20 years. 

4, Ramessés, for 60 years. 

5. Ammenemnés, for 5 years. 

6. Thuéris, who in Homer is called Polybus, 
husband of Alcandra, and in whose time 
Troy was taken,’ reigned for 7 years. 

Total, 209 years. 

(Ramessés II. Seso), (5) Amenephthés (Merneptah), (6) 
[Amenophthés or Menophthés, emended from the form 
Menophrés in Theon of Alexandria], (Seti II. Merneptah), 
(7) Ramessés III. Siptah, (8) Ammenemes (Amenmeses), 
(9) Thuéris or Thuésris, also called Siphthas. Cf. Petrie, 
History of Egypt, iii. pp. 120 ff. Struve points also to a 
new Séthis date, 1318 B.c., in the reign of Seti I. (according 
to Petrie’s chronology, 1326-1300 B.c.). 

? The Fall of Troy was traditionally dated 1183 B.o.: 
cf. p. 107 n. 3. 

In Homer, Odyssey, iv. 126, a golden distaff and a silver 
work-basket with wheels beneath and golden rims,— 
treasures in the palace of Menelaus at Sparta,—are de- 
scribed as gifts to Helen from ‘‘ Aleandré, the wife of 
Polybus who dwelt in Egyptian Thebes where the amplest 
store of wealth is laid up in men’s houses’’; while to 
Menelaus himself Polybus had given two silver baths, 
two tripods, and ten talentsof gold. See W.H. Ὁ. Rouse, 
The Story of Odysseus, 1937, p. 56: ‘‘ Polybos was a great 
nobleman in the Egyptian Thebes, with a palace full of 


Fr. 55, 56 MANETHO 

᾿Επὶ τὸ αὐτὸ δευτέρου τόμου Μανεθῶ βασιλεῖς 
Ls’, ἔτη βρκα΄. 

Fr. 56 (a). Syncellus, p. 136. KATA ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ 

᾿Εννεακαιδεκάτη δυναστεία βασιλέων ε΄ Διοσ- 
a’ Σέθως, ἔτη νε΄. 
β' Ραμψής, ἔτη és". 
γ΄ Appevedbis, ἔτη p’. 
ὃ΄ Appevéuns, ἔτη ks’. 
ε΄ Θούωρις, ὁ παρ᾽ ‘Ounpw καλούμενος Πό- 
λυβος, ᾿ἀλκάνδρας ἀνήρ, ἐφ᾽ οὗ τὸ ἤΐλιον 
ἑάλω, ἔτη ζ΄. 
“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη ρηδ΄. 
᾿Επὶ τὸ αὐτὸ B’ τόμου Μανεθῶ βασιλέων 48’ 
ἔτη καρκα΄." 

(0) Eusresrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p- 102. 

Nona decima dynastia Diospolitarum regum Y. 
Sethos, annis LV. 

Rampses, annis LXVI. 

Amenephthis, annis VIII. 

Ammenemes, annis XX VI. 

1 Boxa’ corr. Miller. 



Sum total in the Second Book of Manetho, ninety- 
six kings, for 2121 years.+ 

Fr. 56 (a) (from Syncellus). AccoRDING TO 

The Nineteenth Dynasty consisted of five kings of 


. Sethés, for 55 years. 

. Rampsés, for 66 years. 

. Ammenephthis, for 40 years. 

. Ammenemés, for 26 years. 

. Thuéris, who in Homer is called Polybus, 
husband of Alcandra, and in whose reign 
Troy was taken, reigned for 7 years. 

Total, 194 years. 
Sum total in the Second Book of Manetho, for 
ninety-two kings, 1121 (2121) years. 



The Nineteenth Dynasty consisted of five kings of 

1. Sethos, for 55 years. 

2. Rampses, for 66 years. 

3. Amenephthis, for 8 years. 

4, Ammenemes, for 26 years. 

1 For the corrected total of Book IT., see Fr. 4, n. 4 (246 
or 289 kings for 2221 years). The wide difference between 
the number of kings (96 or 92 as compared with 246 or 
289) is puzzling: Meyer conjectures that about 150 or 193 
of the larger numbers were ephemeral or co-regents. 


Fr. 56, 57 MANETHO 

Thuoris, ab Homero dictus Polybus, vir strenuus 
et fortissimus,! cuius aetate Ilium captum 
est, annis VII. 

Summa annorum CLXXXXIV. 
Manethonis libro secundo conflatur summa 

LXXXXII regum, annorum MMCXXI. 


Fr. 57 (a). Syncellus, p. 137. 

Tpitov τόμου Μιανεθῶ. 

Εἰκοστὴ δυναστεία βασιλέων Διοσπολιτῶν ιβ΄, οἵ 
> , ” , 
ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη pre’. 

(0) Syncellus, p. 139. KATA ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

Τρίτου τόμου Μανεθῶ. 
Εἰκοστὴ δυναστεία βασιλέων Διοσπολιτῶν ιβ’, 
ot ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη pon’. 

1.1.6. ἀνὴρ ᾿Αλκάνδρας Miller. 

1 Dynasty XX. c. 1200-1090 B.c. 
Setnakht : Ramessés III. c. 1200-1168: Ramessés IV.- 
ΧΙ. c. 1168-1090. Manetho’s 12 kings probably included 



5. Thuoris, by Homer called the active and 
gallant Polybus, in whose time Troy was 
taken, reigned for 7 years. 

Total, 194 years. 

In the Second Book of Manetho there is a total of 

ninety-two kings, reigning for 2121 years. 


Dynasty XX. 

Fr. 57 (a) (from Syncellus). AccorpdiNG TO 

From the Third Book of Manetho. 
The Twentieth Dynasty | consisted of twelve kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 135 years. 

(b) AccorpiInc To EvsEBIvs. 

From the Third Book of Manetho. 
The Twentieth Dynasty consisted of twelve kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 178 years. 

Ramessés XII. and Herihor. The Great Papyrus Harris 

(time of Ramessés III.) describes the anarchy between 

Dynasties XIX. and XX.: see Breasted, Anc. Rec. iv. 

; A revised list of Dynasty XX. is given by Newberry in 

Elliot Smith and Warren Dawson, Egyptian Mummies, 

1924: see also T. E. Peet in J. of Hg. Arch. xiv. (1928), 

pp. 52 1. 

Fr. 57, 58 MANETHO 

(c) Eusesrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p-. 103. 

FE, Manethonis tertio libro. 
Vicesima dynastia Diospolitanorum regum XII, 
qui imperaverunt annis CLXXII. 

Fr. 58. Syncellus, p. 137. KATA A®PIKANON. 

Πρώτη Kai εἰκοστὴ δυναστεία βασιλέων Τανιτῶν 
a’ Σμενδῆς, ἔτη Ks". 
B’ Ψουσέννης,, ἔτη ps’. 
γ΄ Νεφερχερής," ἔτη δ΄. 
δ΄ Ἡμενωφθίς, ἔτη θ'. 
ε' Οσοχώρ, ἔτη τ. 
ς΄ Ψιναχῆς, ἔτη θ΄. 
ζ΄ Ψουσέννης," ἔτη ιδ'. 
Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη pr’. 

1 Ψουσένης A. * Νεφελχερής MSS. 8 Σουσέννης A. 

1 Dynasty XXI., resident at Tanis, c. 1090-c. 950 B.c. 
(a dark period in Egyptian history). For identifications 
with monumental and other evidencesee Meyer, Geschichte 2, 
ii. 2, p. 20n. This Tanite Dynasty overlapped with the 
Theban Dynasty XX.: see the Report of Wenamon, 
Breasted, Anc. Rec. iv. §§ 557-591; C.A.H. ii. pp. 192 ff. 




From the Third Book of Manetho. 
The Twentieth Dynasty consisted of twelve kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 172 years. 

Dynasty XXI. 

Fr. 58 (from Syncellus). AccoRDING TO AFRICANUS. 

The Twenty-first Dynasty ! consisted of seven kings 
of Tanis. 

. Smendés,? for 26 years. 
. Psusen(n)és [I.],° for 46 years. 
. Nephercherés (Nephelcherés), for 4 years, 
. Amendéphthis, for 9 years. 
. Osochér, for 6 years. 
. Psinachés, for 9 years. 
. Psusennés [II.] (Susennés), for 14 years. 

Total, 130 years. 


For Smendés or Nesbenebded, a loca! noble of Tanis, 
who seized the whole Delta and made himself king of 
Lower Egypt, see C.A.H. ii. p. 191; iii. pp. 253 £. 

3In Egyptian, Psusennés is Psukhe‘mné, “the star 
appearing in Thebes”’. In 1939-40 tombs of certain kings 
of Dynasties XXI. and XXII. were excavated by P. 
Montet at Tanis, the most valuable being the intact tomb 
of Psusennés I., with its rich funerary equipment: in 
several chambers sarcophagi, vases of many kinds, and 
jewels were found, including the funerary outfit of Amen6é- 
phthis (Amon-em-apt, son of Psusennés I.) and the silver 
sarcophagus of a certain Sesonchésis (not the first king of 
Dynasty XXII.), (Ann. Serv. Antiq., tt. xxxix. f., 1939-40). 

‘ Actual total of items, 114 years. Eusebius is prob- 
ably correct with 41 years for 2nd king and 35 years for 
7th (Meyer). 



Fr. 59 (a). Syncellus, p. 139. KATA EYZEBION. 

Εἰκοστὴ πρώτη δυναστεία βασιλέων Τανιτῶν 

a’ Σμένδις, ἔτη xs’. 

' Ψουσέννης, ἔτη μα΄. 
γ΄ Νεφερχερής, ἔτη δ΄. 
δ΄ Ἀμενωφθίς, ἔτη θ'. 
ε΄ ᾽Οσοχώρ, ἔτη ς΄. 
ς΄ Ψιναχῆς, ἔτη θ΄. 

ζ΄ Ψουσέννης, ἔτη λε΄. 

Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη pd’. 

(0) Εὐβεβιῦβ, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 103. 

Vicesima prima dynastia Tanitarum regum VII. 

Smendis, annis XX VI. 
Psusennes, annis ΧΙ]. 
Nephercheres, annis IV. 
Amenophthis, annis IX. 
Osochor, annis VI. 
Psinnaches, annis IX. 
Psusennes, annis XX XV. 

Summa annorum est CXXX. 



Fr. 59 (a) (from Syncellus). AccoRDING TO 

The Twenty-first Dynasty consisted of seven kings 
of Tanis. 

ANP Ο 9 κα 

. Smendis, for 26 years. 
. Psusennés, for 41 years. 

Nephercherés, for 4 years. 

. Amendphthis, for 9 years. 
. Osochér, for 6 years. 

. Psinachés, for 9 years. 

. Psusennés, for 35 years. 

Total, 130 years. 


The Twenty-first Dynasty consisted οἱ seven kings 
of Tanis. 


AID ὦ bo 

Smendis, for 26 years. 

. Psusennés, for 41 years. 

. Nephercherés, for 4 years. 
. Amendphthis, for 9 years. 
. Osochér, for 6 years. 

. Psinnaches, for 9 years. 
. Psusennes, for 35 years, 

Total, 130 years. 


Fr. 60, 61 MANETHO 

Fr. 60. Syncellus, p. 137. KATA A@PIKANON 

Εἰκοστὴ δευτέρα δυναστεία Βουβαστιτῶν βα- 
σιλέων θ'. 

a’ Σέσωγχις,; ἔτη κα΄. 
B’ ᾿Οσορθών," ἔτη ιε΄. 
γ΄ δ΄ ε΄ Ἄλλοι τρεῖς, ἔτη xe’ ὃ 
Τακέλωθις, ἔτη ιγ΄. 
n θ’ "άλλοι τρεῖς, ἔτη μβ΄. 


Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη pk’. 


Fr. 61 (4). Syncellus, p. 139. ΚΑΤΑ ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 
Εἰκοστὴ δευτέρα δυναστεία Βουβαστιτῶν βα- 
σιλέων τριῶν. 
α΄ Leawyxwats,’ ἔτη κα΄. 
B’ ᾿Οσορθών, ἔτη ιε΄. 
γ΄ Τακέλωθις, ἔτη ιγ΄. 
Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη pO’. 

1B: Σέσογχις A. 2B: Ὀσωρθών A, 
ὃ κθ΄ Boeckh. 4 Σεσόγχωσις Α. 

1 Dynasty XXII. ο. 950-c. 730 B.c., kings of Libyan origin 
resident at Bubastis. For identifications with the monu- 
mental and other evidence see Meyer, Geschichte *, ii. 2, 



Dynasty XXII. 

Fr. 60 (from Syncellus). AccorDING TO AFRICANUS, 

The Twenty-second Dynasty! consisted of nine 
kings of Bubastus. 

1. Sesénchis, for 21 years. 

2. Osorthén,? for 15 years. 

3, 4, 5. Three other kings, for 25 [29] years. 
6. Takeléthis, for 13 years. 

7, 8, 9. Three other kings, for 42 years. 

Total, 120 years.® 

Fr. 61 (a) (from Syncellus). Accorpinc To Evsestvs. 

The Twenty-second Dynasty consisted of three 
kings of Bubastus. 

1. Sesénchésis, for 21 years. 
2. Osorth6n, for 15 years. 
3. Takeléthis, for 13 years. 

Total, 49 years. 

p.58. The first king, Sesonchésis (Shishak, 0.7. 1 Kings xiv. 
25, 2 Chron. xii.) overthrew the Tanites c. 940 B.c. About 
930 B.c. he captured Jerusalem and plundered the Temple 
of Solomon: see Peet, Hgypt and the Old Testament, 1922, 
pp. 158 ff. Albright (The Archaeology of Palestine and the 
Bible 3, 1932-3, p. 199), dates the conquest of Judah by 
Shishak between 924 and 917 B.c. 

2The name Osorthén is another form of Osorché 
(Dynasty XXIII. No. 2—Africanus), the Egyptian 

3 Actual total of items, 116 years. 


Fr. 61, 62 MANETHO 

(Ὁ) Eusrsius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p- 103. 

Vicesima secunda dynastia Bubastitarum regum 

Sesonchosis, annis X XI. 
Osorthon, annis XV. 
Tacelothis, annis XIII. 

Summa annorum XLIX. 

Fr. 62. Syncellus, p. 138. KATA A®PIKANON. 

Τρίτη καὶ εἰκοστὴ δυναστεία Τανιτῶν βασιλέων 

a’ Πετουβάτης, ἔτη μ', ἐφ᾽ οὗ ᾿Ολυμπιὰς 
ἤχθη πρώτη. : , 

B’ ᾽᾿Οσορχώ, ἔτη 7, ὃν Ἡρακλέα Αἰγύπτιοι 

y Ψαμμοῦς, ἔτη (. 

ὃ' Ζήτ, ἔτη Aa’ I 

“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη πθ΄. 

1 λδ΄ Β. 

1 Osorthés (Aucher, Karst). 

* Dynasty XXIII., resident at Tanis: the records of 
these kings (dated by Breasted 745-718 B.c.) are much 
confused. The name Petubatés (see Fr. 63 for the usual 
Grecized form Petubastis) represents the Egyptian 
Pedibaste. For King Osorcho (Osorkon III.) see the 
stele of Piankhi, king of Ethiopia, whose vassal Osorkon 
became (Breasted, Anc. Rec. iv. §§ 807, 811, 872, 878). 
Psammis has not been identified. 




The Twenty-second Dynasty consisted of three 
kings of Bubastus. 

1. Sesénchésis, for 21 years. 

2. Osorthén,! for 15 years. 

3. Taceléthis, for 13 years. 

Total, 49 years. 

Dynasty XXIII. 
Fr. 62 ( from Syncellus). ACCORDING TO AFRICANUS. 

The Twenty-third Dynasty? consisted of four 
kings of Tanis. 

1. Petubatés, for 40 years: in his reign the 
Olympic festival * was first celebrated. 

2. Osorché, for 8 years: the Egyptians call him 

3. Psammais, for 10 years. 

4. Zét,4 for 31 years (34). 

Total, 89 years. 

3 The date of the first Olympic festival was convention- 
ally fixed at 776-775 8.6. 

*See G. A. Wainwright, Sky-Religion, pp. 351. 

4The fact that the name Zét, occurring in Africanus 
alone, is wrapped in obscurity, has led Flinders Petrie to 
suggest (“The Mysterious Zét”’ in Ancient Egypt, 1914, 
p. 32) that the three Greek letters are a contraction for 
ζητεῖται or other word connected with ζητέω, meaning “‘ A 
question (remains),’’ or “ Query, about 31 years”: for 
31 years at this time no single ruler seemed to be pre- 
dominant, and further search was needed to settle who 
should be entered as the king of Egypt. “* Zét.’’ is found 
in wall-inseriptions at Pompeii: see Diehl, Pompeianische 
Wandinschriften, No. 682. The next inscription, No. 683, 
gives “ Zétéma’”’ in full: a riddle follows. 

ret 161 


Fr. 63 (a). Syncellus, p. 140. KATA EYZEBION. 

Εἰκοστὴ τρίτη δυναστεία Τανιτῶν βασιλέων 
a’ Πετουβάστις, ἔτη κε΄. 
B’ ᾽᾿Οσορθών, ἔτη θ', ὃν “Ηρακλέα Αἰγύπτιοι 
, Ww “- ” ’ 
y Pappods, ene’. 
Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη μδ΄. 

(0) Eusrsrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 103. 

Vicesima tertia dynastia Tanitarum regum III. 

Petubastis, annis X XV. 

Deinde Osorthon, quem Aegyptii Herculem nun- 
cupaverunt, annis [X.} 

Psammus,” annis X. 

Summa annorum XLIV. 

lannis IX. (Aucher). 
2? Phramus (Petermann): Psamus (Aucher, Karsv, 



Fr. 63 (a) (from Syncellus). AccORDING TO 

The Twenty-third Dynasty consisted of three kings 
of Tanis. 
1. Petubastis,! for 25 years. 
2. Osorthén, for 9 years: the Egyptians called 
him Héraclés. 
3. Psammis, for 10 years. 
Total, 44 years. 


The Twenty-third Dynasty consisted of three kings 
of Tanis. 

1. Petubastis, for 25 years. 

2. Osorthon, whom the Egyptians named Her- 
cules: for 9 years. 

3. Psammus, for 10 years. 

Total, 44 years. 

1 For a demotic romance of the time of Petubastis in 
one of the Rainer Papyri, see Krall in Vienna Oriental 
Journal, xvii. (1903), 1: it is also found in papyri of 
Paris and Strassburg. Parallels may be drawn between 
this romance and Manetho ; cf. Spiegelberg, Der Sagenkreis 
des Konigs Petubastis (Leipzig, 1910), pp. 8 f. 


Fr. 64, 65 MANETHO 

Fr. 64.  Syncellus, p. 138. KATA A@®PIKANON. 

Τετάρτη καὶ εἰκοστὴ δυναστεία. 
Βόχχωρις Σαΐτης, ἔτη ς΄, ἐφ᾽ οὗ ἀρνίον ἐφ- 
΄ Μ , 

θέγξατο . .. ἔτη DY’. 

Fr. 65 (a). Syncellus, p. 140. ΚΑΤΑ ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 

Εἰκοστὴ τετάρτη δυναστεία. 
Βόχχωρις Σαΐτης, ἔτη pd’, ἐφ᾽ οὗ ἀρνίον 
ἐφθέγξατο. ‘Opod, ἔτη pd’. 

1 Dynasty XXIV., ο. 720-c. 715 B.o. Before Bocchoris, 
his father Tefnachte of Sais (Tnephachthus in Diodorus 
Siculus, i. 45, 2) became the most powerful among the 
chiefs of the Delta (c. 730-720 B.c.). 

For King Bocchoris see Alexandre Moret, De Bocchori 
Rege, 1903. Cf. Diodorus Siculus, i. 65, 79, 1 (law of 
contract : Bocchoris legislated for commerce), and 94, 5. 
See Breasted, Anc. Rec. iv. § 884: the only extant monu- 
ments of King Bocchoris are a few Serapeum stelae and a 
wall inscription, which record the burial of an Apis in the 
sixth year of his reign. 

* See especially the demotic story (8 B.c.) οἱ the pro- 
phetic lamb, quoted by Krall in Festgaben fiir Biidinger, 
pp. 3-11 (Innsbruck, 1898): the lamb prophesied the con- 
quest and enslavement of Egypt by Assyria, and the 
removal of her gods to Nineveh. Cf. Aelian, De Nat. 
Anim. xii. 3,and Manetho, Fr. 54, §§ 232 ff. A reference to 
Manetho’s description of the oracular lamb is preserved in 
Pseudo-Plutarch, De proverbiis Alexandrinorum (Crusius, 
1887), No. 21, τὸ ἀρνίον σοι λελάληκεν. Αἰγύπτιοι τοῦτο 
ἀνέγραψαν ὡς ἀνθρωπείᾳ φωνῇ λαλῆσαν (or, as in Suidas, ἐν 
Αἰγύπτῳ, ὥς φασιν, ἀνθρωπείᾳ φωνῇ ἐλάλησεν). εὑρέθη δὲ ἔχον 



Dynasty XXIV. 
Fr. 64 (from Syncellus). ACCORDING TO AFRICANUS. 

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty.! 
Bochchéris of Sais, for 6 years: in his reign a 
lamb ? spoke? . . . 990 years. 

Fr. 65 (a) (from Syncellus). AccoRDING TO 

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty. 

Bochchoris of Sais, for 44 years: in his reign a 
lamb spoke. Total, 44 years.4 

βασίλειον δράκοντα ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ mrepwrov, (Suidas 
adds, ἔχοντα μῆκος πήχεων δ΄), καὶ τῶν βασιλέων τινὶ λελάληκε 
τὰ μέλλοντα. (‘The lamb has spoken to you. Egyptians 
have recorded a lamb speaking with a human voice 
for, in Egypt, they say, a lamb spoke with a human 
voice]. It was found to have upon its head a royal 
winged serpent [4 cubits in length]; and it foretold the 
future to one of the kings.’?) See Meyer, Hin newes 
Bruchstiick Manethos iiber das Lamm des Bokchoris in 
Zeitschr. fiir Agypt. Sprache, xlvi. (1910), pp. 135 f.: he 
points out the Egyptian character of the description—the 
royal uraeus, four cubits long, with ostrich feathers on both 
sides. Cf. Weill, La fin du moyen empire égyptien, pp. 
116, 622. 

3 Here some essential words have been omitted from the 

4 Contrast the “6. years’’ assigned to Bocchoris by 
Africanus (Fr. 64): it is suspicious that Eusebius should 
give 44 years for each of Dynasties XXIII., XXIV., and 


Fr. 65, 66, 67 MANETHO 

(0) Evusrsius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p- 104. 
Vicesima quarta dynastia. 

Bocchoris Saites, annis XLIV, sub quo agnus 
locutus est. 

Fr. 66. Syncellus, p. 138. KATA A@®PIKANON. 

Πέμπτη καὶ εἰκοστὴ δυναστεία Αἰθιόπων Ba- 
σιλέων τριῶν. 
α' Σαβάκων, ὃς αἰχμάλωτον Βόχχωριν ἑλὼν 
ἔκαυσε ζῶντα, καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη η΄. 
B’ Σεβιχὼς υἱός, ἔτη ιδ΄, 
γ' Τάρκος, ἔτη ιη΄. 
“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη μ΄’. 

Fr. 67 (a). Syncellus, p. 140. ΚΑΤΑ ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 
Εἰκοστὴ πέμπτη δυναστεία Αἰθιόπων βασιλέων 
α' Σαβάκων, ὃς αἰχμάλωτον Βόχχωριν ἑλὼν 
ἔκαυσε ζῶντα, καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη ιβ΄. 
B’ Σεβιχὼς υἱός, ern up’. 
γ΄ Tapakdés, ἔτη κ΄. 

“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη μδ΄. 

1Dynasty XXV. (Ethiopian), c. 715-663 B.c.: the 
three kings are Shabaka, Shabataka, and Taharka. 

2 Cf. Herodotus, ii. 137 (Sabacés). 

Shabaka had a great reputation for mildness and kind 
rule: Petrie (Religious Life, 1924, pp. 193 f.) explains that 




The Twenty-fourth Dynasty. 
Bocchoris of Sais, for 44 years: in his reign a lamb 

Dynasty XXV. 
Fr. 66 (from Syncellus). AccoRDING To AFRICANUS. 

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty! consisted of three 
Ethiopian kings. 
1. Sabacén,? who, taking Bochchéris captive, 
burned him alive, and reigned for 8 years. 
2. Sebichés, his son, for 14 years. 
3. Tarcus, for 18 years. 

Total, 40 years. 

Fr. 67 (a) (from Syncellus), AccoRDING TO 

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty consisted of three 
Ethiopian kings. 
1. Sabacén, who, taking Bochchéris captive, 
burned him alive, and reigned for 12 years. 
2. Sebichés. his son, for 12 years. 
3. Taracus, for 20 years. 

Total, 44 years. 

Bochchoris was treated like a mock king in the ancient 
festival, the burning ceremonially destroying his kingly 
character. See Wainwright, Sky-Religion, pp. 38 ff. 

*Taharka: in O.T. 2 Kings xix. 9, Tirhakah, King of 
Ethiopia. See Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament, 1922, 
pp. 176 ff. 


Fr. 67, 68 MANETHO 

(0) Eusresius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
Ρ. 104. 

Vicesima quinta dynastia Aethiopum regum III. 

Sabacon, qui captum Bocchorim vivum combussit, 
regnavitque annis XII. 

Sebichos eius filius, annis XII. 

Saracus,! annis XX. 

Summa annorum XLIV. 

Fr. 68. Syncellus, p. 141. KATA A@PIKANON. 

ἽὝἝκτη καὶ εἰκοστὴ δυναστεία Σαϊτῶν βασιλέων 
a’ Στεφινάτης, ἔτη ζ΄. 
B’ Νεχεψώς, ἔτη ς΄. 
/ ” / 
γ΄ Νεχαώ, ἔτη η΄. 
δ΄ Ψαμμήτιχος, ἔτη νδ΄. 
ε΄ Νεχαὼ δεύτερος, ἔτη ς΄. οὗτος εἷλε τὴν 
« / ‘ 3 / ‘ / 
]ερουσαλήμ, καὶ “Iwdyal τὸν βασιλέα 
αἰχμάλωτον εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀπήγαγε. 
, / ν ” a 
ς΄ Ψάμμουθις ἕτερος, ἔτη ἕξ. 

1Taracus, Aucher, m.: Tarakos, Karst. 

1 Dynasty XXVI., 663-525 B.c. 

Sais (see p. 91 n. 4), now grown in power, with foreign 
aid asserts independence, and rules over Egypt. Hero- 
dotus, ii. 151 ff., supports the version of Africanus 
but differs in (5) Necés 16 years (Ch. 159), and (7) Apries 
25 years (Ch. 161) (22 years in Diod. Sic. i. 68). Eusebius 
(Fr. 69) has preserved the Ethiopian Ammeris (2.e. 
Tanutamin) at the beginning of Dynasty XXVI.: so in 
the Book of Sothis (App. IV.), No. 78, Amaés, 38 years. 




The Twenty-fifth Dynasty consisted of three 
Ethiopian kings. 
1. Sabacon, who, taking Bocchoris captive, 
burned him alive, and reigned for 12 years. 
2. Sebichos, his son, for 12 years. 
3. Saracus (Taracus), for 20 years. 

Total, 44 years. 

Dynasty XXVI. 
Fr. 68 (from Syncellus). ACCORDING TO AFRICANUS. 

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty! consisted οἱ nine 
kings of Sais. 

. Stephinatés, for 7 years. 

. Nechepsés, for 6 years. 

. Nechaé, for 8 years. 

. Psammétichus,” for 54 years. 

Nechaé 5 the Second, for 6 years: he took 
Jerusalem, and led King Iéachaz captive 
into Egypt. 

6. Psammuthis the Second, for 6 years. 

OP whe 

2 Psammétichus I. (Psametik) = Psammétk, “ man, or 
vendor, of mixed wine,” ef. Herodotus, ii. 151 (Griffith in 
Catalogue of Demotic Papyri in the Rylands Library, iii. 
pp. 44, 201). See Diod. Sic. i. 66, 67. 

’Nechaé is an old name, an Egyptian plural form, 
“belonging to the kas”’ or bulls (Apis and Mnevis), 
O.T. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 2-4. Battle of Megiddo, 609 B.c.: 
defeat and death of King Josiah by Necho (2 Kings xxiii. 
29, xxiv. 1, xxv. 26). Johoahaz, son of Josiah, was led 
captive into Egypt. For these events, see Peet, Egypt and 
the Old Testament, 1922, p. 181 ff. 


Fr. 68, 69 MANETHO 

ζ Οὔαφρις, ἔτη ιθ΄, & προσέφυγον ἁλούσης 
ὑπὸ Ἀσσυρίων ᾿]ερουσαλὴμ οἱ τῶν Ιουδαίων 

η΄ Ἄμωσις, ἔτη pd’. 

θ΄ Ψαμμεχερίτης, μῆνας ς΄. 

Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη pv’ καὶ μῆνας ς΄. 

Fr. 69 (a). Syncellus, p. 143. KATA EYZEBION. 

"Extn καὶ εἰκοστὴ δυναστεία Σαϊτῶν βασιλέων θ'. 

a’ Apupéprs Αἰθίοψ, ἔτη ιβ΄. 

B’ Στεφινάθις, ἔτη ζ΄. 

γ΄ Νεχεψῴώς, ἔτη ς΄. 

δ΄ Νεχαώ, ἔτη η΄. 

Ψαμμήτιχος, ἔτη pe’ 

ς΄ Νεχαὼ δεύτερος, ἔτη ς΄. οὗτος εἷλε τὴν 
“Ιερουσαλήμ, καὶ ᾿Ιωάχαζ τὸν βασιλέα 
αἰχμάλωτον εἰς Αἴγυπτον ἀπήγαγε. 

C’ Ψάμμουθις ἕτερος, ὁ καὶ Ψαμμήτιχος, ἔτη 

1 48’ Miller. 

1 Uaphris or Apries, in Egyptian Wahibpré‘, the Hophra 
of the 0.7. Capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, 
king of Babylon, 587 B.c. See Peet, op. cit. pp. 1865 ff. 



1. Uaphris,! for 19 years: the remnant of the 
Jews fled to him, when Jerusalem was 
captured by the Assyrians. 

8. Amésis,” for 44 years. 

9. Psammecherités,* for 6 months. 

Total, 150 years 6 months. 

Fr. 69 (a) (from Syncellus). AccoRDING TO 

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty consisted of nine kings 
of Sais. 

1. Ammeris the Ethiopian, for 12 years. 

2. Stephinathis, for 7 years. 

3. Nechepsos, for 6 years. 

4. Necha6, for 8 years. 

5. Psammétichus, for 45 [44] years. 

6. Nechaé the Second, for 6 years: he took 
Jerusalem, and led King Iéachaz captive 
into Egypt. 

7. Psammuthis the Second, also called Psam- 
métichus, for 17 years. 

2 Amésis should be Amasis (Ia‘hmase), the general of 
Uaphris or Apries: Amasis was first made co-regent with 
Apries (569 B.c.), then two years later, after a battle, he 
became sole monarch. 

On the character of Amasis, “‘ the darling of the people 
and of popular legend,”’ see the demotic papyrus translated 
by Spiegelberg, The Credibility of Herodotus’ Account of 
Egypt (trans. Blackman), pp. 29 f. 

8 Psammétichus III., defeated by Cambysés the Persian, 
525 B.c. The three Psametiks are differentiated as 
Psammétichus, Psammuthis, and Psammecherités (cf. 
ir, 20; n. 1). 



η΄ Ovadpts, ἔτη κε΄, & προσέφυγον ἁλούσης 
« \ > / ~ «ς \ « ~ 
ὑπὸ Ἀσσυρίων τῆς ‘lIepovoadAnp ot τῶν 
᾿Ιουδαίων ὑπόλοιποι. 

θ΄ Ἄμωσις, ἔτη pp’. 
“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη ρέγ΄. 

(0) Eusrsrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p- 104 

Vicesima sexta dynastia Saitarum regum IX. 

Ameres Aethiops, annis XVIII. 

Stephinathes, annis VII. 

Nechepsos, annis VI. 

Nechao, annis VIII. 

Psametichus, annis XLIV. 

Nechao alter, annis VI. Ab hoc Hierosolyma 
capta sunt, Iochasusque rex in Aegyptum 
captivus abductus. 

Psamuthes alter, qui et Psammetichus, annis 

Uaphres, annis X XV, ad quem reliquiae Iudae- 
orum, Hierosolymis in Assyriorum potestatem 
redactis, confugerunt. 

Amosis, annis XLII. 

Summa annorum CLXVII. 



8. Uaphris, for 25 years: the remnant of the 
Jews fled to him, when Jerusalem was 
captured by the Assyrians. 

9. Amésis, for 42 years. 

Total, 163 years.! 


The Twenty-sixth Dynasty consisted of nine kings 
of Sais. 

. Ameres the Ethiopian, for 18 years, 

. Stephinathes, for 7 years. 

. Nechepsos, for 6 years. 

. Nechao, for 8 years. 

. Psametichus, for 44 years. 

. Nechao the Second, for 6 years: he took 
Jerusalem, and led King loachaz captive 
into Egypt. 

7. Psamuthes the Second, also called Psam- 

metichus, for 17 years. 

8. Uaphres, for 25 years: the remnant of the 
Jews took refuge with him, when Jerusalem 
was subjugated by the Assyrians. 

9. Amosis, for 42 years. 

Total, 167 years. 

A Me καὶ 

1 Tf 44 years are assigned to (5) Psammétichus, the actual 
total is 167, as in the Armenian Version. 



Fr. 70. Syncellus, p. 141. KATA A®PIKANON. 

“Εβδόμη καὶ εἰκοστὴ δυναστεία Περσῶν βασιλέων 
ἢ . 



Καμβύσης ἔτει ε΄ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ βασιλείας 
Περσῶν ἐβασίλευσεν Αἰγύπτου ἔτη ς΄. 

B’ Δαρεῖος Ὑστάσπου, ἔτη ds’. 

γ΄ Ξέρξης 6 μέγας, ἔτη κα΄. 

δ΄ Ἀρτάβανος, μῆνας ζ΄. 

᾿Αρταξέρξης, ἔτη μα΄. 

Ξέρξης, μῆνας δύο. 

ζ' Σογδιανός, μῆνας ζ΄. 

η΄ Δαρεῖος Ξέρξου, ἔτη 6’. 

“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη pkd’, μῆνες δ΄. 

1 Persian Domination, 525-332 B.c. 

Dynasty XXVII., 525-404 B.c. After conquering 
Egypt, Cambysés reigned three years, 525/4-523/2 B.c. 
See Cambridge Ancient History, vi. pp. 137 ff. 

An interesting papyrus fragment (P. Baden 4 No. 59: 
v. | A.D.—see the facsimile in Plate III) contains this 
Dynasty in a form which differs in some respects from 
the versions given by Africanus and Eusebius. Like 
Eusebius the papyrus inserts the Magi, and calls Artaxerxés 
“the Long-handed’’ and his successor Xerxés “ the 
Second ’’: asin Africanus, Darius is “ son of Hysta[spés] ”’ 
and Xerxés is “the Great’’. To Cambysés the papyrus 



Dynasty XXVII. 

Fr. 70 (from Syncellus). ACCORDING TO AFRICANUS. 

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty! consisted of eight 
Persian kings. 

1. Cambysés in the fifth year of his kingship over 
the Persians became king of Egypt, and 
ruled for 6 years. 

Darius, son of Hystaspés, for 36 years, 

. Xerxés the Great, for 21 years, 

Artabanus,? for 7 months. 

. Artaxerxés,® for 4] years. 

. Xerxés,4 for 2 months. 

. Sogdianus, for 7 months. 

. Darius, son of Xerxés, for 19 years. 

Total, 124 years 4 months. 

gives 6} years: to the Magi, 7} months. The conquest 
of Egypt is assigned to the fourth year of Cambysés’ 
reign, and it was in that year that the campaign began. 
Artaxerxés is described as “‘ the son”’ (i.e. of Xerxés); 
while Darius II. is correctly named “‘ the Illegitimate’’. 
See Bilabel’s note on the papyrus (l.c.). 

? Artabanus, vizier, and murderer of XerxésI., 465 B.o. 

8 Artaxerxés L., ts Long-hand”’ (‘‘ whether from a 
physical peculiarity or political capacity is uncertain,” 
C.A.H. vi. p. 2), 465-424 B.c. 

4 Xerxés II. was murdered by his half-brother Sogdianus, 
who was in turn defeated and put to death in 423 B.o. 
by another half-brother Ochus (Darius II., nicknamed 
Nothos, “the Illegitimate,’), not ‘“‘son of Xerxés’’. 
Darius 11. died in 404 B.o. 



Fr. 71 (a). Syncellus, p. 143. KATA EYZEBION. 
Εἰκοστὴ ἑβδόμη δυναστεία Π]ερσῶν βασιλέων η΄. 

α' Καμβύσης ἔτει πέμπτῳ τῆς αὐτοῦ βα- 
σιλείας ἐβασίλευσεν Αἰγύπτου ἔτη γ΄. 

Μάγοι, μῆνας ζ΄. 

Δαρεῖος͵ ἔτη As’. 

Ξέρξης ὁ Δαρείου, ἔτη xa’. 

Ἀρταξέρξης ὁ μακρόχειρ, ἔτη μ΄. 

Ξέρξης ὁ δεύτερος, μῆνας β΄. 

Σογδιανός, μῆνας ζ΄. 

Δαρεῖος ὁ Ξέρξου, ἔτη ιθ΄. 



Ομοῦ, ἔτη px’ καὶ μῆνες δ΄. 

(0) Εὐβεβιῦβ, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
Ρ. 105. 

Vicesima septima dynastia Persarum regum VIII. 

Cambyses, qui regni sui quinto' anno Aegyptiorum 
potitus est, annis III. 

Magi, mensibus septem. 

Darius, annis XX XVI. 

Xerxes Darii, annis X XI. 

Artaxerxes, annis XL. 

Xerxes alter, mensibus II. 

Sogdianus, mensibus VII. 

Darius Xerxis, annis XIX. 

Summa annorum CXX, mensiumque IV. 

1Aucher: XV. MSS. 


Fr. 71 (a) (from Syncellus). AccORDING TO 

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty consisted of eight 
Persian kings. 
1. Cambysés in the fifth year of his kingship 
became king of Egypt, and ruled for 3 years. 
. Magi, for 7 months. 
. Darius, for 36 years. 
. Xerxés, son of Darius, for 21 years. 
Artaxerxés of the long hand, for 40 years. 
. Xerxés the Second, for 2 months. 
. Sogdianus, for 7 months. 
. Darius, son of Xerxés, for 19 years. 

Total, 120 years 4 months. 

OADM wh 


The Twenty-seventh Dynasty consisted of eight 
Persian kings. 

1. Cambyses in the fifth! year of his kingship 
became king of Egypt, and ruled for 3 

. Magi, for 7 months. 

. Darius, for 36 years. 

. Xerxes, son of Darius, for 21 years. 
. Artaxerxés, for 40 years. 

. Xerxés the Second, for 2 months. 

. Sogdianus, for 7 months. 

. Darius, son of Xerxes, for 19 years. 

Total, 120 years 4 months. 


1The Armenian text has “‘ 15th’, 

Fr. 72, 73 MANETHO 

Fr. 72 (a). Syncellus, p. 142. KATA A®PIKANON. 
Εἰκοστὴ ὀγδόη δυναστεία. ᾿Ἀμύρτεος Σαΐτης, 
ἔτη «ς΄. 
(b) Syncellus, p. 144. KATA ΕὙΣΕΒΙΟΝ. 
Εἰκοστὴ ὀγδόη δυναστεία. Apuptaios Σαΐτης, 
ἔτη τ: 
(c) Eusesius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 105. 

Vicesima octava dynastia. Amyrtes Saites, 
annis! YI. 

Fr. 73 (a). Syncellus, p. 142. ΚΑΤΑ A®PIKANON. 

᾿Ενάτη καὶ εἰκοστὴ Suvacteia. Μενδήσιοι 
βασιλεῖς δ΄. 

a’ Νεφερίτης, ἔτη ς΄. 

B’ Ἄχωρις, ἔτη ιγ΄. 

γ΄ Ψάμμουθις, ἔτος a’, 

δ' Νεφερίτης, μῆνας 8. 

“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη κ΄, μῆνες δ΄. 

1 Aucher, m.: mensibus MSS., according to Miiller. 

1Dynasty XXVIII.-XXX., Egyptian kings: 404-341 
B.c.—a brief period of independence. 

Dynasty XXVIII., Amyrtaeus of Sais, 404-399 8.σ. : 
no Egyptian king of this name is known on the monuments. 
See Werner Schur in Klio, xx. 1926, pp. 273 ff. 



Dynasty XXVIII. 

Fr. 72 (a) (from Syncellus). AccorDING TO 

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty.! Amyrteos of Sais, 
for 6 years. 

(b) AccorpInc To EvsEBivs. 

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty. Amyrtaeus of Sais, 
for 6 years. 


The Twenty-eighth Dynasty. Amyrtes of Sais, 
for 6 years.? 

Dynasty XXIX. 

Fr. 73 (a) (from Syncellus). ACCORDING TO 

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty:* tour kings of 

1. Nepherités, for 6 years. 

2. Achéris, for 13 years. 

3. Psammuthis, for 1 year. 

4. Nepherités [II.], for 4 months. 

Total, 20 years 4 months. 

26 years (Aucher, Karst): 6 months (Miller). The 
Armenian words for ‘‘ month ’”’ and “ year’”’ are so similar 
that corruption is likely (Margoliouth). 

’ Dynasty XXIX., resident at Mendés in E. Delta 
(Baedeker ὅ, p. 183), 398-381 B.c. On the sequence of 
these rulers see H. R. Hall in C.A.H. vi. p. 145 and n. 



(b) Syncellus. p. 144. KATA EYSEBION. 

Εἰκοστὴ ἐνάτη δυναστεία. Μενδήσιοι Ba- 
σιλεῖς δ΄. 

a’ Νεφερίτης, ἔτη ς΄. 

β’ Ἄχωρις, ἔτη ιγ΄. 

γ΄ Ψάμμουθις, ἔτος a’. 

δ΄ Νεφερίτης, μῆνας 0’. 


ε΄ Μοῦθις, ἔτος a’. 

μοῦ, ἔτη κα’ καὶ μῆνες δ΄. 

(6) Eusresrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p- 106. 

Vicesima nona dynastia Mendesiorum regum 

Nepherites, annis VI. 
Achoris, annis XIII. 
Psamuthes, anno I. 
Muthes, anno I. 
Nepherites mensibus IV. 

Summa annorum XXI, mensiumque IV. 



(b) Accorpine To EvusEBIUs. 

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty: four kings! of 

1. Nepherités, for 6 years. 

2. Achéris, for 13 years. 

3. Psammuthis, for 1 year. 

4. Nepherités [II.], for 4 months. 
5. Muthis, for 1 year. 

Total, 21 years 4 months. 


The Twenty-ninth Dynasty consisted of four kings 
of Mendes. 

1. Nepherites, for 6 years. 

2. Achoris, for 13 years. 

3. Psamuthes, for 1 year. 

4, Muthes, for 1 year. 

5. Nepherites [II.], for 4 months. 

Total, 21 years and 4 months. 

1 Muthis or Muthés was a usurper, hence the number of 
kings is given as four. He is unknown to the Monuments. 
Aucher suggests that the name Muthis may be merely a 
repetition, curtailed, of the name Psammuthis. 



Fr. 74 (a). Syncellus, p. 144. KATA A@PIKANON. 

Τριακοστὴ δυναστεία Σεβεννυτῶν βασιλέων 

α΄ Νεκτανέβης, ἔτη ιη΄. 

B’ Teds, ἔτη β΄. 

γ΄ Νεκτανεβός, ἔτη ιη΄. 

μοῦ, ἔτη λη΄. 

(b) Syncellus, p. 115 ΚΑΤΑ ΕὙΣΕΒΙ͂ΟΝ. 

Τριακοστὴ δυναστεία Σ᾽ εβεννυτῶν βασιλέων 

a’ Νεκτανέβης, ἔτη (΄. 

B’ Teas, ἔτη β΄. 

y’ Νεκτανεβός, ἔτη η΄. 

“Ὁμοῦ, ἔτη x’. 

1 Dynasty XXX., resident at Sebennytus (see Intro. 
p- xiii), 380-343 B.c.: Nectanebés I. (Nekhtenébef), 380-363, 
Teds or Tachés (Zedhér), 362-361, Nectanebus II. (Nekht- 
horehbe), 360-343. See E. Meyer, Zur Geschichte der 30. 
Dynastie in Zeitschrift fiir Agyptische Sprache, Bd. 67, 
pp. 68-70. 

It is certain that Manetho knew only 30 dynasties and 
ended with the conquest of Egypt by Ochus: see Unger, 



Dynasty XXX. 

Fr. 74 (a) (from Syncellus). ACCORDING TO 

The Thirtieth Dynasty ' consisted of three kings 
of Sebennytus. 

1. Nectanebés, for 18 years. 
2. Teds, for 2 years. 
3. Nectanebus,? for 18 years. 

Total, 38 years. 

(b) AccorpDING To EvsEBtus. 

The Thirtieth Dynasty consisted of three kings of 

1. Nectanebés, for 10 years, 
2. Teds, for 2 years. 
3. Nectanebus, for 8 years. 

Total, 20 years. 

Chronol. des Manetho, pp. 334 f. Under Olymp. 107 (i.e. 
352-348 3B.c.) Jerome (Chronicle, p. 203 Fotheringham, 
p- 121 Helm) notes: Ochus Aegyptum tenuit, Nectanebo in 
Aethiopiam pulso, in quo Aegyptiorum regnum destructum 
est. Huc usque Manethos. (‘‘ Ochus possessed Egypt, 
when he had driven Nectanebé into Ethiopia: thereby 
the kingship of the Egyptians was destroyed. So far 
Manetho [or, Here ends the History of Manetho]’’). 

For the later renown of this king as magician in 
popular legend, see the Dream of Nectonabés, in Wilcken, 
Urkunden der Ptolemaerzeit, i. pp. 369 ff. 


Fr. 74, 7 MANETHO 

(c) Eusrsrus, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p- 106. 

Tricesima dynastia Sebennytarum regum III. 
Nectanebis, annis X. 

Teos, annis II. 

Nectanebus, annis VIII. 

Summa annorum XX. 

Fr. 75 (a). Syncellus, p. 145. KATA A®PIKANON. 

Πρώτη Kat τριακοστὴ δυναστεία “Περσῶν Ba- 
σιλέων τριῶν. 
a’ Ὦυγχος" εἰκοστῷ ἔτει τῆς ἑαυτοῦ βασιλείας 
Περσῶν ἐβασίλευσεν Αἰγύπτου ἔτη β΄ .3 
β' ᾿Δρσῆς, ἔτη γ'. 
γ΄ Δαρεῖος, ἔτη δ΄. 

Ὃ "3 
μοῦ, ἔτη τρίτου τόμου ,av’. 

Μέχρι τῶνδε Μανεθῶ. 

1 Syncellus (p. 486) thus describes the scope of Manetho’s 
History, wrongly putting λα΄ for λ΄ : ἕως “Qyov καὶ Νεκτανεβὼ 
ὁ Μανεθῶ τὰς λα΄ δυναστείας eae περιέγραψε. 

2 This f’ (instead of 957) is probably due to confusion 
with the β΄ at the beginning of the next line (Aucher). 

3 wv’ Boeckh, Unger. 

1 Dynasty XXXI. is not due to Manetho, but was added 
later to preserve the continuity,—perhaps with the use of 
material furnished by Manetho himself. No total is given 
by Africanus and Eusebius,—a further proof that the whole 
Dynasty is additional. In another passage (p. 486) 
Syncellus states: ‘‘ Manetho wrote an account of the 31 




The Thirtieth Dynasty consisted of 3 kings of 

1. Nectanebis, for 10 years. 
2. Teos, for 2 years. 
3. Nectanebus, for 8 years. 

Total, 20 years. 

Dynasty XXXI. 

Fr. 75 (a) (from Syncellus). AccorpINce TO 

The Thirty-first Dynasty! consisted of three 
Persian kings. 

1. Ochus in the twentieth year 2 of his kingship 
over the Persians became king of Egypt, 
and ruled for 2 years. 

2. Arsés, for 3 years. 

3. Darius, for 4 years. 

Total of years in Book III., 1050 years? [850]. 
Here ends the History of Manetho. 

(an error for 30) Dynasties of Egypt down to the time of 
Ochus and Nectanebé ” : although mistaken about the 
number of the Dynasties, Syncellus is jn the main correct. 

? The 20th year of the kingship of Ochus was 343 B.c. : 
the phrase is parallel to that used in Fr. 70, 1, and appears 
therefore to be Manetho’s expression. 

3 The totals given by Africanus in Book ITI. are 135, 130, 
120, 89, 6, 40, 150+, 124+, 6, 20+, 38, 1.6. 858+ years. 
To reduce to 850, assign 116 years to Dynasty SRL, 
(as the items add), and 120 to Dynasty XXVII. (Meyer). 



(b) Syncellus, p. 146. KATA EYZEBION. 

Τριακοστὴ πρώτη δυναστεία Ilepadyv βασιλέων 

α΄ Ὦχος εἰκοστῷ ἔτει τῆς αὑτοῦ Περσῶν βα- 
σιλείας κρατεῖ τῆς Αἰγύπτου ἔτη ς΄. 

B’ Me? ὃν Δ ρσῆς "ὥχου, ἔτη δ΄. 

γ΄ Μεθ’ ὃν Δαρεῖος, ἔτη ἕξ: ὃν ᾿Αλέξανδρος 6 
Μακεδὼν καθεῖλε. 

Ταῦτα τοῦ τρίτου «τόμου» Mavebd. 

Μέχρι τῶνδε Μανεθῶ. 

(c) Εὐβεβιῦβ, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
Pp. 101. 

Tricesima prima dynastia Persarum. 

Ochus vicesimo iam anno Persis imperitans 
Aegyptum occupavit tenuitque annis VI. 

Postea Arses Ochi, annis IV. 

Tum Darius, annis VI, quem Macedo Alexander 
interfecit. Atque haec e Manethonis tertio! 

' Aucher, m.: secundo MSS., according to Miiller. 

1 Third Book (Aucher, Karst): Second Book (Miiller). 
The Armenian words for “‘second’’ and ‘“ third”’ have 
similar forms; hence the corruption (Margoliouth). 



(b) AccorpInc To EvsEBIvs. 

The Thirty-first Dynasty consisted of three Persian 


1. Ochus in the twentieth year of his kingship 
over the Persians conquered Egypt, and 
ruled for 6 years. 

2. His successor was Arsés, son of Ochus, who 
reigned for 4 years. 

3. Next, Darius reigned for 6 years: he was put 
to death by Alexander of Macedon. 

These are the contents of the Third Book of 
Here ends the History of Manetho. 


The Thirty-first Dynasty consisted of Persian 


1. Ochus in the twentieth year of his kingship 
over the Persians seized Egypt and held it 
for 6 years. 

2. His successor was Arsés, son of Ochus, who 
reigned for 4 years. 

3. Next, Darius reigned for 6 years: he was put 
to death by Alexander of Macedon. 

These are the contents of the Third Book! of 


FRO, 17,118 MANETHO 


Fr 76. Euvsrsrus, Praeparatio Evangelica, 
II Prooem., p. 44 C (Gifford). 

Πᾶσαν μὲν οὖν τὴν Αἰγυπτιακὴν ἱστορίαν εἰς 
πλάτος τῇ “Ἑλλήνων μετείληφε φωνῇ ἰδίως τε τὰ 
περὶ τῆς κατ᾽ αὐτοὺς θεολογίας Μανεθὼς ὁ 
Αἰγύπτιος, ἔν τε ἣ ἔγραψεν ἱΙερᾷ βίβλῳ καὶ 

ἐν ἑτέροις αὐτοῦ συγγράμμασι. 

Cf. Theodoretus, Curatio, II, p. 61 (Rader): 

Μανεθὼς δὲ τὰ περὶ ἤΪσιδος καὶ ᾿Οσίριδος καὶ 
Ἄπιδος καὶ Σαράπιδος καὶ τῶν ἄλλων θεῶν τῶν 
Αἰγυπτίων ἐμυθολόγησε. 

Fr. 77. Puiutarcu, De Is. et Osir., 9. 

Ἔτι δὲ τῶν πολλῶν νομιζόντων ἴδιον παρ᾽ 
Αἰγυπτίοις ὄνομα τοῦ Διὸς εἶναι τὸν Ἀμοῦν (ὃ 
παράγοντες ἡμεῖς Ἄμμωνα λέγομεν), Μανεθὼς 
μὲν ὁ Σεβεννύτης τὸ κεκρυμμένον οἴεται καὶ τὴν 
κρύψιν ὑπὸ ταύτης δηλοῦσθαι τῆς φωνῆς... 

Fr. 78. Piurarcu, De Is. οἱ Osir., 49. 

BéBwva δὲ τινὲς μὲν ἕνα τῶν τοῦ Τυφῶνος 
« ,ὕ / / A > > \ 
ἑταίρων γεγονέναι λέγουσιν, Μανεθὼς δ᾽ αὐτὸν 

1Manetho’s interpretation is from imn, ‘“ hidden, 
secret’: see Sethe, Abhandl. Berl. Akad., 1929, p. 78, 
§ 153. Herodotus, ii. 42, 3, tells a story which is probably 
related to this meaning of Amin. 


THE SACRED BOOK FR. 76, 77, 78 


Fr. 76 (from EvsEBIUs). 

Now the whole history of Egypt and especially 
the details of Egyptian religion are expounded at 
length in Greek by Manetho the Egyptian, both in 
his Sacred Book and in other writings of his. 


Manetho rehearsed the stories of Isis, Osiris, Apis, 
Serapis, and the other gods of Egypt. 

Fr. 77 (from Piutarcn, Is. and Osir., ch. 9). 

Further, the general belief is that the name Amin,! 
which we transform into Ammon, is an Egyptian 
proper noun, the title of Zeus?; but Manetho of 
Sebennytus is of opinion that this name has a mean- 
ing—* that which is concealed ” and ** concealment.” 

Fr. 78 (from Piutarcn, Is. and Osir., ch. 49). 

Some say that Bebén ? was one of the comrades of 

Typhon; but Manetho states that Typhén himself 

* The title Zeus Ammén was already known to Pindar in 
the first half of the fifth century B.c. (Pythians, iv. 16, 
Fr. 36; see Pausanias, ix. 16, 1). 

* The name “‘ Bebén,”’ given to Typhén, does not mean 
“ prevention,’’ but is the Egyptian b)by, an epithet of Séth. 
In Greek, besides the form BéBwv, BaBus was used (Hel- 
lanicus in Athenaeus, xv. 25, p. 680a). Typh6n, an un- 
popular deity, came into favour in Dynasty XIX., two 
kings of which were Sethés I. and II. 


Fr. 78, 79 MANETHO 

tov Τυφῶνα καὶ Βέβωνα καλεῖσθαι: σημαίνει δὲ 
τοὔνομα κάθεξιν ἢ κώλυσιν, ὡς τοῖς πράγμασιν 
ὁδῷ βαδίζουσι καὶ πρὸς ὃ χρὴ φερομένοις ἐν- 
ισταμένης τῆς τοῦ Τυφῶνος δυνάμεως. 

Fr. 19. Pxiutarcnu, De Is. οἱ Osir., 62. 

“1 By \ ΄ \ \ > 4 ‘ ‘ 
ouxe δὲ τούτοις Kal τὰ Αἰγύπτια. τὴν μὲν 
‘ ay f / ~ ~ > ~ > / ~ 
yap “low πολλάκις τῷ τῆς ᾿Αθηνᾶς ὀνόματι καλοῦσι 
φράζοντι τοιοῦτον λόγον “ἦλθον ἀπ᾽ ἐμαυτῆς, 
- > A > / ~ / ¢ \ 
ὅπερ ἐστὶν αὐτοκινήτου φορᾶς SyAwtiKdv: ὁ δὲ 
Τυφών, ὥσπερ εἴρηται, Σὴθ καὶ Βέβων καὶ Σμὺ 
ὀνομάζεται, βίαιόν τινα καὶ κωλυτικὴν ἐπίσχεσιν 
«ἡ Tw >! ὑπεναντίωσιν ἢ ἀναστροφὴν ἐμφαίνειν 
βουλομένων τῶν ὀνομάτων. ἔτι τὴν σιδηρῖτιν 

/ > / ν ~ \ A / 
λίθον, ὀστέον “Qpov, Τυφῶνος δὲ τὸν σίδηρον, 
ε ε a / ~ σ A ε 
ὡς ἱστορεῖ Μανεθώς, καλοῦσι. ὥσπερ γὰρ ὃ 
σίδηρος πολλάκις μὲν ἑλκομένῳ καὶ ἑπομένῳ πρὸς 
A δ᾽ Ld ti > / > > ‘ 

τὴν λίθον ὅμοιός ἐστι, πολλάκις δ᾽ ἀποστρέφεται 
καὶ ἀποκρούεται πρὸς τοὐναντίον, οὕτως ἡ σωτήριος 

1 (ἢ τιν Pohlenz. 

1 Explanation is difficult. The name of the goddess 
Neith with whom Athena is often identified has been 
interpreted ‘“‘ that which is, »r exists’’ (Mallet, Le Culte 
de Neit a Sais, p. 189). As a genuine etymology of the 
name, this is impossible; but it may be that in the late 
period a connexion was imagined between Nt, “ Neith,”’ 
and nt(t), ‘‘ that which is’’ (B.G.). It is suggestive that 
the Coptic word meaning “‘come’”’ is na (A. Rusch, 
Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, R.-H#. xvi. 2 (1935), col. 2190). 



was also called Bebén. The name means “ check- 
ing’ or “prevention,” and implies that, when 
actions are proceeding in due course and tending to 
their required end, the power of Typhén obstructs 

Fr. 79 (from Piutarca, Is. and Osir., ch. 62). 

The usage of the Egyptians is also similar. They 
often call Isis by the name of Athena, which expresses 
some such meaning as “ I came from Myself,””! and is 
indicative of self-originated movement. But Typhén, 
as I have already mentioned, is called Séth, Beb6n, 
and Smy,” these names implying a certain violent 
and obstructive force, or a certain opposition or over- 
throw. Further, as Manetho records, they call the 
loadstone “ the bone of Horus,” but iron “ the bone 
of Typhén.”* Just as iron is often like to be at- 
tracted and led after the stone, but often again turns 
away and is repelled in the opposite direction. so the 

*Smy is not a name of Typhén, but may mean “ con- 
federate’’ in Egyptian (from sm), to unite). In religious 
texts the phrase Séth and his sm)yt, i.e. “* Séth and his con- 
federates,’’ often occurs. See Kees on Séth in Pauly- 
Wissowa-Kroll, R.-#. ii. A. 2 (1923), cols. 1896 ff. 

3 Interesting confirmation of the correctness of Plutarch 
and Manetho is given by G. A. Wainwright in his article 
“Tron in Egypt” (J. Hg. Arch. xviii. 1932, p. 14). He 
compares Pyramid Tezts, ὃ 14, ‘the bi) which came forth 
out of Setesh,” and refers to Petrie’s discovery at Kaw (an 
important centre of Séth worship) of great quantities of 
gigantic bones, collected in piles: they were chiefly of 
hippopotami,—mineralized, heavy, black bones, of metallic 
lustre and appearance. It is clear that they were con- 
sidered sacred to Séth, as they were wrapped in linen and 
were found here and there in tombs at Kaw. 


Fr. 79, 80 MANETHO 

καὶ ἀγαθὴ καὶ λόγον ἔχουσα τοῦ κόσμου κίνησις 
ἐπιστρέφεταί τε καὶ προσάγεται καὶ μαλακωτέραν 
ποιεῖ, πείθουσα τὴν σκληρὰν ἐκείνην καὶ τυφώνειον, 
εἶτ᾽ αὖθις ἀνασχεθεῖσα εἰς ἑαυτὴν ἀνέστρεψε καὶ 
κατέδυσεν εἰς τὴν ἀπορίαν. 

Fr. 80. ΡηῦΤΑΒΟΗ, De Is. οἱ Osir., 28. 

Πτολεμαῖος δὲ ὁ Σωτὴρ ὄναρ εἶδε τὸν ev Σινώπῃ 
τοῦ ΠΙλούτωνος κολοσσόν, οὐκ ἐπιστάμενος οὐδὲ 
ἑωρακὼς πρότερον οἷος «ἦν» τὴν μορφήν, κελεύοντα 
κομίσαι τὴν ταχίστην αὐτὸν εἰς Ἀλεξάνδρειαν. 
ἀγνοοῦντι δ᾽ αὐτῷ καὶ ἀποροῦντι, ποῦ καθίδρυται, 

1 The story of the transport of the colossus of Serapis to 
Alexandria is told with variants by Tacitus, Hist. iv. 83, 
84, Clement of Alexandria, Protrep. iv. p. 37, Stahlin, and 
Cyrillus in Jul. p. 13, Spanh.: cf. also Plutarch, De 
sollert. anim. 36, Eustathius on Dionys. Perieg. 254 
(Miller, Geogr. gr. min. ii. p. 262). Both Tacitus and 
Plutarch agree in assigning the introduction of the statue 
to Ptolemy I.: Clement and Cyril attribute it to Ptolemy 
II. See Parthey, Uber Is. und Osir. pp. 213 ff. Tacitus 
gives (from Lysimachus) the more circumstantial account, 
adding the name of the King of Pontus, Seydrothemis ; 
but Plutarch mentions other names (e.g. Manetho) which 
Tacitus omits. The new cult of Serapis was intended to 
unite the Greek ruling class and their Egyptian subjects. 
(See Intro. p. xiv.) Georg Lippold (Festschrift Paul Arndt, 
1925, p. 126) holds the sculptor of the statue to be the 
famous Bryaxis of Athens, c. 350 B.c. ; and thus the image 
was worshipped at Sinépe for about 70 years before it was 
taken to Alexandria. The most trustworthy copy of the 
statue is that in the Museum at Alexandria: see Athen. 
Mitt. xxxi. (1906), Plates VI, VII (A. W. Lawrence in 



salutary, good, and rational movement of the world 
at one time attracts, conciliates, and by persuasion 
mollifies that harsh Typhonian power; then again, 
when the latter has recovered itself, it overthrows 
the other and reduces it to helplessness. 

Fr. 80 (from Piurarcn, Is. and Osir., ch. 28). 

Ptolemy Sétér dreamed that he saw the colossal 
statue! of Pluto at Sindpé,? although he did not 
know what manner of shape it had, having never 
previously seen it; and that it bade him convey it 
with all possible speed to Alexandria. The king was 
at a loss and did not know where the statue stood ; 
but as he was describing the vision to his friends, 

J. Hg. Arch. xi. (1925), p. 182). Only the Greek statue by 
Bryaxis was brought from Sinépe: the cult was organized 
in Egypt itself, and Serapis became the paramount deity 
of Alexandria with a magnificent temple in Rhakétis. 
If there were forty-two temples of Serapis in Egypt 
(Aristides, viii. 56, 1, p. 96 Dind.)—this number being 
one for each nome, the majority have left no trace: 
Parthey (op. cit. pp. 216 f.) identifies eleven. 

See Wilamowitz, Hell. Dichtung, i. p. 154, Wilcken, 
Urkunden der Ptolemderzeit, Intro. pp.77 ff. (a full discussion 
of the origin of the cult of Serapis). Cf. also Rostovtzeff in 
C.A.H. vii. pp. 145 f. 

For the dream as a vehicle of religious propaganda, ¢f. 
P. Cairo Zenon 34 (258-257 B.c.: see Deissmann, Light 
from the Ancient East, pp. 152 ff.), and Inscr. Gr. xi. 4, 1299 
(c. 200 B.C.). 

Τὴ the districts by the Black Sea, a great god of the 
underworld was worshipped ; and this deity, as Rostovtzeff 
holds, must be set in close connexion with the Alexandrine 
Serapis. See Julius Kaerst, Geschichte des Hellenismus?, ii. 
(1926), pp. 246 f., and cf. the late Roman coins of Sindépe 
with the Serapis-type (Plate IV, No. 3). 

H 193 

Fr. 80, 81 MANETHO 

καὶ διηγουμένῳ τοῖς φίλοις τὴν ὄψιν, εὑρέθη πολυ- 
πλανὴς ἄνθρωπος, ὄνομα Σωσίβιος, ἐν Σινώπῃ 
φάμενος ἑωρακέναι τοιοῦτον κολοσσόν, οἷον ὁ 
βασιλεὺς ἰδεῖν ἔδοξεν. ἔπεμψεν οὖν Σωτέλη καὶ 
Διονύσιον, ot χρόνῳ πολλῷ καὶ μόλις, οὐκ ἄνευ 
μέντοι θείας προνοίας, ἤγαγον ἐκκλέψαντες. ἐπεὶ 
δὲ κομισθεὶς ὥφθη, συμβαλόντες οἱ περὶ Τιμόθεον 
τὸν ἐξηγητὴν καὶ Μανέθωνα τὸν Σεβεννύτην ΠΙλού- 
τωνος ὃν ἄγαλμα, τῷ Κερβέρῳ τεκμαιρόμενοι καὶ 
τῷ δράκοντι, πείθουσι τὸν ΠΙ]τολεμαῖον, ὡς ἑτέρου 
θεῶν οὐδενὸς ἀλλὰ Σαράπιδός ἐστιν. οὐ γὰρ ἐκεῖ- 
θεν οὕτως ὀνομαζόμενος ἧκεν, ἀλλ᾽ εἰς ᾿ἐλεξάνδρειαν 
κομισθεὶς τὸ παρ᾽ Αἰγυπτίοις ὄνομα τοῦ Πλούτωνος 
ἐκτήσατο τὸν Σάραπιν. 

Fr. 8]. Αξιμαν, De Natura Animalium, X, 16 

Ἀκούω δὲ καὶ Μανέθωνα τὸν Αἰγύπτιον, σοφίας 
? ΝΜ ? / ” > - σ΄ / 
ἐς ἄκρον ἐληλακότα ἄνδρα, εἰπεῖν ὅτι γάλακτος 
ὑείου ὁ γευσάμενος ἀλφῶν ὑποπίμπλαται καὶ λέ- 
πρας " μισοῦσι δὲ ἄρα οἱ Ὡσιανοὶ πάντες τάδε τὰ 

,ὔ , \ > / A e \ iz , 
πάθη. πεπιστεύκασι δὲ Αἰγύπτιοι τὴν ὗν καὶ ἡλίῳ 
καὶ σελήνῃ ἐχθίστην εἶναι - ὅταν οὖν πανηγυρίζωσι 
τῇ σελήνῃ, θύουσιν αὐτῇ ἅπαξ τοῦ ἔτους ὗς, ἄλλοτε 
δὲ οὔτε ἐκείνῃ οὔτε ἄλλῳ τῳ τῶν θεῶν τόδε τὸ 
ζῷον ἐθέλουσι θύειν. 

1 Timotheus (of Eleusis), the Eumolpid, is believed to 
have introduced the Eleusinian Mysteries into Eleusis, 
the suburb of Alexandria. 


THE SACRED BOOK _ Fr. 80, 81 

there came forward a far-travelled man, by name 
Sésibius, who declared that at Sindpe he had seen 
just such a colossus as the king had dreamt he saw. 
He therefore despatched Sételés and Dionysius, who 
after a long time and with difficulty, though not un- 
aided by divine providence, stole away the statue. 
When it was brought to Egypt and exhibited there, 
Timotheus! the exégétés (expounder or interpreter), 
Manetho? of Sebennytus, and their colleagues, 
judging by the Cerberus and the serpent, came to the 
conclusion that it was a statue of Pluto; and they 
convinced Ptolemy that it represented no other god 
than Serapis. For it had not come bearing this 
name from its distant home, but after being conveyed 
to Alexandria, it acquired the Egyptian name for 
Pluto, namely Serapis. 

Fr. 81 (from AELIAN). 

I am told also that Manetho the Egyptian, who 
attained the acme of wisdom, declared that one who 
tastes sow’s milk is infected with leprosy or scall. 
All Asiatics, indeed, loathe these diseases. The 
Egyptians hold that the sow is abhorred by both 
Sun and Moon; so, when they celebrate the annual 
festival in honour of the Moon, they sacrifice swine 3 
to the goddess, whereas at any other time they refuse 
to sacrifice this animal to the Moon or to any other 

* Manetho’s connexion with the Serapis cult is vouched 
for by a bust in the Serapeum at Carthage, Corpus Inscr. 
Lat. viii. 1007 : see Intro. p. xv. 

* Cf. Herodotus, ii. 47, and see Newberry in J. Kg. 
Arch. xiv. p. 213. 


Fr. 82, 83 MANETHO 


Fr. 82. Diocenes LAertius, Prooem, ὃ 10 
(Hicks, L.C.L.). 

Θεοὺς δ᾽ εἶναι ἥλιον καὶ σελήνην" Tov μὲν Οσιριν, 

\ Ὄ ἦν / A / ΕἸ \ / 

τὴν δ᾽ Ἶσιν καλουμένην. αἰνίττεσθαί τε αὐτοὺς διά 

τε κανθάρου καὶ δράκοντος καὶ ἱέρακος καὶ ἄλλων, 
σ \ >? a ~ ~ > a 
ws φησι Μανεθὼς ἐν τῇ τῶν Φυσικῶν ᾿Επιτομῇ. 

Fr. 83. Eusresius, Praepar. Evang., 111, 2, 
p. 87 d (Gifford). 

\ > / \ \ » A @ \ A 
Τὴν Ἶϊσίν φασι καὶ τὸν Ὄσιριν τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν 
σελήνην εἶναι, καὶ Δία μὲν τὸ διὰ πάντων χωροῦν 
- Ὁ i \ A \ \ ~ / 
πνεῦμα, Πῴφαιστον δὲ τὸ πῦρ, τὴν δὲ γῆν Δήμητραν 
ἐπονομάσαι" ᾿Ὠκεανόν τε τὸ ὑγρὸν ὀνομάζεσθαι παρ᾽ 
Αἰγυπτίοις καὶ τὸν παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς ποταμὸν Νεῖλον, ᾧ 
καὶ τὰς τῶν θεῶν ἀναθεῖναι γενέσεις " τὸν δὲ ἀέρα 
φασὶν αὐτοὺς προσαγορεύειν ᾿ἀθηνᾶν. τούτους δὲ 
A / / \ > / / \ ιν. ᾽ὔ 
τοὺς πέντε θεούς, τὸν ἀέρα λέγω καὶ τὸ “YOwp τό 
~ \ a ~ \ a 
te Ilip καὶ τὴν [ἣν καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα, τὴν πᾶσαν 
> / >? "4 Μ Μ > \ 
οἰκουμένην ἐπιπορεύεσθαι, ἄλλοτε ἄλλως εἰς μορφὰς 
καὶ ἰδέας ἀνθρώπων τε καὶ παντοίων ζῴων σχημα- 
τιζομένους - καὶ τούτων ὁμωνύμους παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς 
> , , AY > ,, a 
Αἰγυπτίοις γεγονέναι θνητοὺς ἀνθρώπους, “Ηλιον 

1The Ancient Egyptian name Πα pi is applied both to the 
River Nile and to the god of the Nile. Cf. Diod. Sic. i. 
12, 6 (the same phrase, with zpos ᾧ for ᾧ, and ὑπάρξαι for 
ἀναθεῖναι : τὰς γενέσεις --[ἢ same plural in Diod. Sic. i. 9, 6, 




Fr. 82 (from DiocenEes LAERTIUS). 

The Egyptians hold the Sun and the Moon to be 
gods, the former being named Osiris, the latter Isis. 
They refer darkly to them under the symbols of 
beetle, serpent, hawk, and other creatures, as 
Manetho says in his Epitome of Physical Doctrines. 

Fr. 83 (from EvsEstus). 

The Egyptians say that Isis and Osiris are the 
Moon and the Sun ; that Zeus is the name which they 
gave to the all-pervading spirit, Hephaestus to fire, 
and Demeter to earth. Among the Egyptians the 
moist element is named Ocean and their own River 
Nile ; and to him they ascribed the origin of the 
Gods.! To Air, again, they give, it is said, the name 
of Athena. Now these five deities—I mean Air, 
Water, Fire, Earth, and Spirit,—traverse the whole 
world, transforming themselves at different times into 
different shapes and semblances of men and creatures 
of all kinds. In Egypt itself there have also been 
born mortal men of the same names as these deities : 

θεῶν γενέσεις ὑπάρξαι). See also Plutarch, Js. et Osir. 66, 

377 C. The name Νεῖλος appears first in Hesiod, 
Theogony 338, which may be dated to the eighth century 

In a Hymn to the Nile, engraved upon the rocks at Gebel 
Silsileh in Upper Egypt by command of Ramessés II., the 
river is described as “‘the living and beautiful Nile, ... 
father of all the gods’ (Wiedemann, Religion of the Ancient 
Egyptians, pp. 146 f.). 


Fr. 83, 84, 85 MANETHO 

καὶ Κρόνον καὶ ‘Péav, ἔτι δὲ Δία καὶ “Hpav καὶ 
Ἥφαιστον καὶ ‘Eoriav ἐπονομασθέντας. ἄφει 
μ γρ 
A \ \ δὴ ΄ 4, A e ’ 
δὲ καὶ τὰ περὶ τούτων πλατύτερον μὲν ὁ Μανεθώς, 
ἐπιτετμημένως δὲ ὁ Διόδωρος. 

Cf. Theodoretus, Curatio, III, p. 80 (Rader). 


Fr. 84. Joannes Lypus, De Mensibus, IV, 87 

> i ‘ ¢ e / >? ~ ‘ ¢ ~ 

Ἰστέον δέ, ws ὁ Μανέθων ἐν τῷ περὶ ἑορτῶν 
λέγει τὴν ἡλιακὴν ἔκλειψιν πονηρὰν ἐπίρροιαν ἀν- 

bor > , ’ Ἁ \ ‘ ‘ 
θρώποις ἐπιφέρειν περί τε τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ τὸν 


Fr. 85. Porpuyrius, De Abstinentia, II, 55 

Κατέλυσε δὲ καὶ ἐν ᾿Ηλίου πόλει τῆς Αἰγύπτου 
τὸν τῆς ἀνθρωποκτονίας νόμον Ἄμωσις, ὡς μαρ- 

1 Εἰλειθυίας πόλει conj. Fruin. 

1 Τῇ the reference is not to a separate treatise, but to a 
passage in the Sacred Book, translate: ‘in his account of 

2 On human sacrifice in Egypt, see Meyer, Geschichte 5, 
I. ii. pp. 98 f. Herodotus, ii. 45, denies that men were 
sacrificed in Egypt in his time; but Seleucus, under 



they were called Hélios, Cronos, Rhea, as well as 
Zeus, Héra, Héphaestus, and Hestia. Manetho 
writes on this subject at considerable length, while 
Diodorus gives a concise account. . . . 

Fr. 84 (from Joannes Lypwus). 

It must be understood that Manetho in his book 
On Festivals! states that a solar eclipse exerts a 
baneful influence upon men in their head and 

Fr. 85 (from PorpHyRivs). 

The rite of human sacrifice 5 at Héliopolis (Eilei- 
thyiaspolis) 3 in Egypt was suppressed by Amésis,* 

Tiberius, wrote an account of human sacrifice in Egypt 
(Athen. iv. p. 172d), and there is evidence for the sacrifice 
of captives in Dynasties XVIII. and XIX. See Diod. 
Sic. i. 88, 5, and cf. Frazer, Golden Bough, ii. pp. 254 ff. 

Some writers have suggested that the contracted human 
figure (the tekenw), wrapped in a skin and drawn on a 
sledge, who is a regular feature of funeral processions in 
the New Kingdom, may have been a remnant of human 
sacrifice. This, however, is very doubtful: cf. N. de G. 
Davies, Five Theban Tombs, pp. 9, 14. See further 
G. A. Wainwright, Sky-Religion, pp. 33 f. 

>See Fr. 86. The mention of Héra (see infra) makes 
it very probable that “ἢ Eileithyiaspolis’’ is the correct 
reading here. 

4 AmoOsis, c. 1570 B.c. 


Fr. 85, 86 MANETHO 

- A > ~ δ᾽ “9 “ ~ A > / 

tupet Μανεθὼς ἐν τῷ περὶ ἀρχαϊσμοῦ καὶ εὐσεβείας. 
> , \ a ‘ > δ᾽ / ε 
ἐθύοντο δὲ τῇ Ἥρᾳ, καὶ ἐδοκιμάζοντο καθάπερ ot 
ζητούμενοι καθαροὶ μόσχοι καὶ συσφραγιζόμενοι" 
ἐθύοντο δὲ τῆς ἡμέρας τρεῖς, ἀνθ᾽ ὧν κηρίνους 
> / εν 4 ” >? / 

ἐκέλευσεν ὁ ᾿Ἄμωσις τοὺς ἴσους ἐπιτίθεσθαι. 

See also Eusebius, Praepar. Evang., ΤΥ, 16. p. 155d 
(Gifford) : Theodoretus, Curatio, VII, p. 192 (Rader). 

Fr. 86. Puutarcu, De Is. et Osir., 73. 

Πολλῶν δὲ λεγόντων εἰς ταῦτα τὰ ζῷα τὴν 
Τυφῶνος. αὐτοῦ διῃρῆσθαι" ψυχήν, αἰνίττεσθαι 
δόξειεν ἂν ὁ μῦθος, ὅτι πᾶσα φύσις ἄλογος καὶ 
θηριώδης τῆς τοῦ κακοῦ δαίμονος γέγονε μοίρας, 
κἀκεῖνον ἐκμειλισσόμενοι καὶ παρηγοροῦντες περι- 
έπουσι ταῦτα καὶ θεραπεύουσιν: ἂν δὲ πολὺς ἐμ- 
πίπτῃ καὶ χαλεπὸς αὐχμὸς ἐπάγων ὑπερβαλλόντως 
ἢ νόσους ὀλεθρίους ἢ συμφορὰς ἄλλας παραλόγους 
καὶ ἀλλοκότους, ἔνια τῶν τιμωμένων οἱ ἱερεῖς 
ἀπάγοντες ὑπὸ σκότῳ μετὰ σιωπῆς καὶ ἡσυχίας 

'Wyttenbach: διάρασθαι MSS. 

lor“... . in discussing ancient ritual and religion. 

? Drought is said to be a particular manifestation of 
Typhén; see Plutarch, Is. et Osir., 45, 51 fim. In re- 
ference to Egypt, drought naturally means, not absence of 
rain, but insufficient inundation. 

3 For this striking trait in Egyptian religion see Erman- 
Ranke, Agypten, 1923, p. 184 n. 2, with the reference to 
Lacau, Recueil de travaux, 26 (1904), p. 72 (sarcophagi of 
Dynasty XII.); and cf. Alan H. Gardiner, Hieratic 
Papyri in the British Museum, iii. (1935), No. V. C (a spell 
of c. 1200 B.c. in which the reciter threatens the gods that 
he will cut off the head of a cow taken from the forecourt 



as Manetho testifies in his book On Ancient Ritual and 
Religion.1 Men were sacrificed to Héra: they were 
examined, like the pure calves which are sought out 
and marked with a seal. Three men used to be 
sacrificed each day; but in their stead Amésis 
ordered that the same number of waxen images 

should be offered. 

Fr. 86 (from Piutarcn#, Is. and Osir., ch. 73). 

Now many say that the soul of Typhén himself is 
diffused among these animals ; and this fable would 
seem to hint that every irrational and bestial nature 
is partaker of the evil spirit, and that, while seeking 
to conciliate and appease him, men tend and worship 
these animals. Should a long and severe drought ? 
occur, bringing with it an excess of deadly diseases 
or other strange and unaccountable calamities, the 
priests lead off some of the sacred animals quietly and 
in silence under cover of darkness, threatening them 
at first and trying to frighten 3 them; but, should 

of the temple of Hathor, and will cause the sky to split in 
the middle), No. VIII. B (the Book of Banishing an Enemy, 
also dated c. 1200 B.c., containing threats to tear out the 
soul and annihilate the corpse of Osiris, and set fire to 
every tomb of his), and The Attitude of the Ancient 
Egyptians to Death and the Dead, 1935, pp. 12, 16 f., 39, 
note 17. 

Threats to the gods also appear later in the Greek papyri : 
see L.C.L., Select Papyri, i. (Hunt and Edgar), pp. 309, 345, 
Th. Hopfner, Griechisch-Agyptischer Offenbarungszauber 
(= Stud. zur Pal. und Pap., Wessely, xxiii. 1924), §§ 187, 210 
et al., and cf. Porphyrius, Epistula ad Anebonem, 27, who 
remarks that this is peculiarly Egyptian. See Wilcken, 
Chrestomathie, i. 1, pp. 124 f. (“perhaps a remnant of 
ancient fetishism ᾽᾽). 


Fr. 86, 87 MANETHO 

> ~ ‘ , A ~ a“ > > ΄ 
ἀπειλοῦσι καὶ δεδίττονται τὸ πρῶτον, ἂν δ᾽ ἐπιμένῃ, 
καθιερεύουσι καὶ σφάττουσιν͵ ὡς δή τινα κολασμὸν 
ὄντα τοῦ δαίμονος τοῦτον ἢ καθαρμὸν ἄλλως μέγαν 
Ὧν» ἢ / \ A > > / / ~ 

ἐπὶ μεγίστοις " Kat yap ev Εἰλειθυίας πόλει ζῶντας 

ἀνθρώπους κατεπίμπρασαν, ὡς Μανεθὼς ἱστόρηκε, 
Τυφωνείους καλοῦντες, καὶ τὴν τέφραν αὐτῶν λικ- 
~ b] , ‘ /, > ‘ ~ A 
μῶντες ἠφάνιζον καὶ διέσπειρον. ἀλλὰ τοῦτο μὲν 
ἐδρᾶτο φανερῶς καὶ καθ᾽ ἕνα καιρὸν ἐν ταῖς κυνάσιν 
e ~ 
ἡμέραις " al δὲ τῶν τιμωμένων ζῴων καθιερεύσεις 
ἀπόρρητοι καὶ χρόνοις ἀτάκτοις πρὸς τὰ συμπίπ- 
τοντα γινόμεναι, τοὺς πολλοὺς λανθάνουσι, πλὴν 
¢ "4 1 i Tie Rn. ὖν 3 
ὅταν «Ἄπιδος '> ταφὰς EXWOL, και τῶν ἄλλων ἀνα- 
δεικνύντες ἔνια πάντων παρόντων συνεμβάλλωσιν, 
’ ~ ~ > A 
οἰόμενοι τοῦ Τυφῶνος ἀντιλυπεῖν καὶ κολούειν τὸ 


Fr. 87. ῬΙΌΤΑΒΟΗ, De Is. et Osir., 80. 

~ a A ~ 
To δὲ κῦφι μῖγμα μὲν ἑκκαίδεκα μερῶν συν- 
τιθεμένων ἐστί, μέλιτος καὶ οἴνου καὶ σταφίδος καὶ 

1 <"Amdos> add. Xylander. 

1E] Kab on the right bank of the Nile, 53 miles 5. of 
Luxor (Baedeker ὃ, p. 365 ff.), the seat of Nekhebyt, the 
goddess of childbirth, and in prehistoric times the capital 
of the southern kingdom. 

2Kyphi (Anc. Egyptian k)pt, from kp, to burn) is 
mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus (Wreszinski, 98, 12 f.), 
where ten ingredients (without honey and wine) are given, 



the visitation continue, they consecrate the animals 
and slaughter them, intending thus to inflict a kind 
of chastisement upon the spirit, or at least to offer 
a great atonement for heinous offences. Moreover, 
in Eileithyiaspolis,’ as Manetho has related, they used 
to burn men alive, calling them “ Typhén’s fol- 
lowers”’; and their ashes they would winnow and 
scatter broadcast until they were seen no more. 
But this was done openly and at a set time, namely 
in the dog-days ; whereas the consecrations of sacred 
animals are secret ceremonies, taking place at ir- 
regular intervals as occasion demands. unknown to 
the common people except when the priests cele- 
brate a funeral of Apis, and, displaying some of the 
animals, cast them together into the tomb in the 
presence of all, deeming that thus they are vexing 
Typhé6n in return and curtailing his delight. 

Fr. 87 (from Priurarcn, Is. and Osir., ch. 80). 

Kyphi? is a mixture of sixteen ingredients—honey, 
wine, raisins, cyperus [? galingale], resin, myrrh, 

Recipes of a similar nature have been found at Edfu (two) 
and at Philae (one): they were inscribed in hieroglyphs 
on temple-walls. Kyphi had a double use—as incense and 
as medicine. See further Ganszyniec in Pauly-Wissowa- 
Kroll, R.-E. (1924). Parthey (Isis und Osiris, pp. 277 ff.) 
describes the results of experiments with the recipes of 
Plutarch, of Galen (also sixteen ingredients), and of Dios- 
corides (ten ingredients) : he gives first place to the kyphi 
prepared according to the prescription of Dioscorides. 


Fr. 87, 88 MANETHO 

/ e , \ 4 ‘ > ,ὔ 
κυπέρου, ῥητίνης τε καὶ σμύρνης καὶ ἀσπαλάθου 
\ / ” \ ’ ‘ > 4 A 
καὶ σεσέλεως, ἔτι δὲ σχίνου τε Kal ἀσφάλτου καὶ 
θρύου καὶ λαπάθου, πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ἀρκευθίδων 
ἀμφοῖν (ὧν τὴν μὲν μείζονα, τὴν δ᾽ ἐλάττονα 
καλοῦσι) καὶ καρδαμώμου καὶ καλάμου. 


Fr. 88.1 Etymologicum Magnum (Gaisford), s.v. 

Τὸ δὲ λέων παρὰ τὸ Adw, τὸ θεωρῶ ὀξυδερ- 
, A A / σ / > ~ 
κέστατον yap τὸ θηρίον, ὥς φησι Μανέθων ev τῷ 
πρὸς ᾿Ηρόδοτον, ὅτι οὐδέποτε καθεύδει ὁ λέων, 

τοῦτο δὲ ἀπίθανον. .. 

1 ΟἹ. also Fr. from Choeroboscus, Orthogr., in Cramer, 
Anecd. Graeca Ox., ii. 235, 32 (= Htym. genuinum): ... ana 
τούτου Tod λάω γέγονε λέων ὀξυδερκέστατον γὰρ τὸ θηρίον" φασὶ 

‘ o > , uA « , “- A ΄ 
γὰρ ὅτι οὐδέποτε καθεύδει ὁ λέων. τοῦτο δὲ ἀπίθανον... See 
Aelian, De Nat. Anim., v. 39: Αἰγυπτίους ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ κομπάζειν 
φασὶ λέγοντας ὅτι κρείττων ὕπνου λέων ἐστὶν ἀγρυπνῶν ἀεί. 

1 Aspalathus = Calycotome villosa. 

2Cardamom = Elettaria cardamomum. See L.C.L., 
Theophrastus, ix. 7, 3 (Hort). 

3 Manetho’s note may refer to such passages in Herodotus 

as il. 65 ff. and ii. 108. 
(Footnote continued on opposite page. 



aspalathus,! seselis [hartwort]; mastic, bitumen, 
thryon [a kind of reed or rush], dock [monk’s rhu- 
barb], as well as of both junipers (arceuthids—one 
called the greater, the other the less), cardamom,” 
and reed [orris-root, or root of sweet flag]. 


Fr. 88% (from the Etymologicum Magnum). 

The word λέων (“lion”) comes from Adw, “1 

see’: the animal has indeed the keenest of sight, 
as Manetho says in his Criticism of Herodotus that 
the lion never sleeps. But this is hard to believe. 

Choeroboscus, in his work On Orthography (iv./v. A.D.), 
gives the derivation of λέων according to Orus or Hérus 
in almost the same words as those quoted above from the 
Etymologicum Magnum; but he omits the clause ‘‘as 
Manetho says in his Criticism of Herodotus’’ (Cramer, 
Anecdota Graeca e codd. manuscriptis bibliothecarum 
Oxoniensium, ii. p. 235, Il. 32 ff. = Htymologicum 

Cf. Aelian, On the Nature of Animals, v. 39: ‘the 
Egyptians, they say, boast about this, adding that the 
lion is superior to sleep, being always awake.’’ Aelian 
quotes from Apion (see p. 19 n. 3), who may well have 
taken his statement from Manetho. 

4 By a curious coincidence, in Egyptian also the words 
for “ lion”’ (m)i) and ‘‘ to see’ (m))) are very similar, and 
the word for “lion”’ is sometimes written as though it 
came from the verb “to see’’. Manetho possibly had 
this fact in mind when he stated that the lion never sleeps 
(Battiscombe Gunn), 


Eustathius on Homer, Iliad, XI, 480: 

(Τινὲς λέγουσιν) ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ Adw, τὸ βλέπω, 
4 σ ε ͵ a A ε , A A 
γίνεται ὥσπερ ὁ λέων, οὕτω καὶ ὁ Ais, κατὰ TOV 
\ τ ε > a \ - σ 
γραμματικὸν “Qpov, ὡς ὀξυδερκῆς, καὶ ὅτι, ὥς 
φησι Μανέθων ἐν τοῖς πρὸς ᾿Ηρόδοτον, οὐ καθεύδει 
« , a > 4 
ὁ λέων ὅπερ ἀπίθανον. .. 



(From EvsTaTHIUs.) 

(Some say) that from Adw, “1 see,” comes not only 
λέων, but also Ais (a lion), according to Orus the 
grammarian,’ because of its keen sight; and they 
add, as Manetho states in his Criticisms of Herodotus, 
that the lion never sleeps. This is hard to believe. 

1 Orus or Horus (v. A.D.) was, according to Suidas, an 
Alexandrian grammarian who taught at Constantinople: 
none of his numerous works is extant. 



Syncellus, p. 72. 

Πρόκειται δὲ λοιπὸν καὶ περὶ τῆς τῶν Αἰγυπτίων 
δυναστείας μικρὰ διαλαβεῖν ἐκ τῶν Mavebd τοῦ 
Σεβεννύτου, ὃς ἐπὶ ΠΙτολεμαίου τοῦ Φιλαδέλφου 

4 ἀρχιερεὺς τῶν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ εἰδωλείων χρηματίσας 
ἐκ τῶν ἐν τῇ Σηριαδικῇ γῇ κειμένων στηλῶν ἱερᾷ, 
φησι, διαλέκτῳ καὶ ἱερογραφικοῖς γράμμασι κε- 
χαρακτηρισμένων ὑπὸ Θὼθ τοῦ πρώτου Ἑρμοῦ, καὶ 
ἑρμηνευθεισῶν μετὰ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν [ἐκ τῆς ἱερᾶς 
διαλέκτου εἰς τὴν “Ελληνίδα φωνὴν) : γράμμασιν 
ἱερογλυφικοῖς͵ καὶ ἀποτεθέντων " ἐν βίβλοις ὑ ὑπὸ τοῦ 
Ayabodaipovos, υἱοῦ τοῦ δευτέρου “Ἑρμοῦ, πατρὸς 

126€ τοῦ Τάτ, ἐν τοῖς ἀδύτοις τῶν ἱερῶν Αἰγύπτου, 
προσεφώνησε τῷ αὐτῷ DiraddAdw βασιλεῖ δευτέρῳ 
Πτολεμαίῳ ἐν τῇ Βίβλῳ τῆς Σώθεος γράφων 
ἐπὶ λέξεως οὕτως" 

1 The words bracketed are probably a later interpolation, 
2 ἀποτεθεισῶν conj. Scaliger, Miiller. 

1 Sériadic land, z.e. Egypt, cf. Josephus, Ant. i. 71. In 
an inscription the home of Isis is Σειριὰς γῆ, and Isis herself 
is Νειλῶτις or Lecpias, the Nile is Σείριος : see Reitzenstein, 
Poimandres, p. 183. 

2 For the god Thoth inscribing records, see p. xiv ἢ. 1. 


(From SyNCELLUS). 

It remains now to make brief extracts concerning 
the dynasties of Egypt from the works of Manetho 
of Sebennytus. In the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus 
he was styled high-priest of the pagan temples of 
Egypt, and wrote from inscriptions in the Sériadic 
land,' traced, he says, in sacred language and holy 
characters by Thoth,” the first Hermés, and trans- 
lated after the Flood ... in hieroglyphic char- 
acters. When the work had been arranged in 
books by Agathodaemé6n, son of the second Hermés ὃ 
and father of Tat, in the temple-shrines of Egypt, 
Manetho dedicated it to the above King Ptolemy 
II. Philadelphus in his Book of Sothis, using the 
following words : 

3 The second Hermés is Hermés Trismegistus, the teacher. 

For a discussion of the whole passage, see W. Scott, 
Hermetica, iii. pp. 492 f. He pointed out manifest breaches 
of continuity after χρηματίσας (end of 1.4) and after 
Αἰγύπτου (end of 1.12). If the intervening 8 lines are cut 
out (ἐκ τῶν... Αἰγύπτου), the sentence runs smoothly ; 
and Scott suggested that these 8 lines originally stood in 
Manetho’s letter after ἃ ἔμαθον. Even with this insertion 
there still remains a gap before ἱερὰ βιβλία, but apart from 
that lacuna, the whole becomes intelligible. 



᾿Επιστολὴ Μανεθῶ τοῦ Σεβεννύτου πρὸς 

Ἐπ το τὸν Φιλάδελφον. 

“ Βασιλεῖ μεγάλῳ Πτολεμαίῳ Φιλαδέλφῳ σε- 
βαστῷ Μανεθῶ “ἀρχιερεὺς καὶ γραμματεὺς τῶν 
κατ᾽ Αἴγυπτον ἱερῶν ἀδύτων, γένει Σεβεννύτης 
ὑπάρχων ᾿Ηλιουπολίτης, τῷ δεσπότῃ μου Π΄τολε- 
μαίῳ χαίρειν. 

“Huds δεῖ λογίζεσθαι, μέγιστε βασιλεῦ, περὶ 
πάντων ὧν ἐὰν βούλῃ ἡμᾶς ἐξετάσαι πραγμάτων. 
ἐπιζητοῦντι οὖν. σοι περὶ τῶν μελλόντων τῷ κόσμῳ 
γίγνεσθαι, καθὼς ἐκέλευσάς μοι, παραφανήσεταί 
σοι ἃ ἔμαθον ἱερὰ βιβλία γραφέντα ὑπὸ τοῦ προ- 
πάτορος, τρισμεγίστου “Ἑρμοῦ. ἔρρωσό μοι, δέ- 
σποτά μου βασιλεῦ. 

Ταῦτα περὶ τῆς ἑρμηνείας τῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ δευτέρου 
Ἑρμοῦ γραφέντων βιβλίων λέγει. μετὰ δὲ 
ταῦτα καὶ περὶ ἐθνῶν Αἰγυπτιακῶν πέντε ἐν 
τριάκοντα δυναστείαις ἱστορεῖ 2 . .. 

'‘ οὖν add. Boeckh. 
*For the continuation of this, see Fr. 2, p. 10. 

1 Augustus, a title of the Roman emperor, was not used 
in Ptolemaic times. 

? For a curious juxtaposition of Manetho and Hermés 
Trismegistus, see Wellmann in Hermes, xxxv. p. 367. 



Letter of Manetho of Sebennytus to Ptolemy 

“To the great King Ptolemy Philadelphus 
Augustus.! Greeting to my lord Ptolemy from 
Manetho, high-priest and scribe of the sacred shrines 
of Egypt, born at Sebennytus and dwelling at 
Héliopolis. It is my duty, almighty king, to reflect 
upon all such matters as you may desire me to 
investigate. So, as you are making researches con- 
cerning the future of the universe,in obedience to your 
command I shall place before you the Sacred Books 
which I have studied, written by your forefather, 
Hermés Trismegistus.? Farewell, I pray, my lord 

Such is his account of the translation of the books 
written by the second Hermés. Thereafter Manetho 
tells also of five Egyptian tribes which formed 
thirty dynasties . . . 

(Fr. 2, p. 11, follows directly after this.) 

A MS. ot Celsus gives a list of medical writers, Egyptian 
or Greek and Latin: they include (col. 1, ll. 9-13) Hermés 
Trismegistus, Manetho (MS. emmanetos), Nechepsé, 
Cleopatra regina. Here Manetho is followed by Nechepsé, 
to whom, along with Petosiris (perhaps another name of 
Necheps6), works on astrology were attributed in the 
Second Century B.c.: see W. Kroll and M. Pieper in 
&.-H. xvi. 2 (1935), s.v. Necheps6. 

Se 211 


Fr. 7 (a). Syncellus, p. 171. 

Θηβαίων βασιλεῖς. 

᾿Απολλόδωρος χρονικὸς ἄλλην Αἰγυπτίων τῶν 
Θηβαίων λεγομένων βασιλείαν ἀνεγράψατο βα- 
σιλέων λη΄, ἐτῶν 20S. TLS ἤρξατο μὲν τῷ 
‘Bm’ ἔτει τοῦ κόσμου, ἔληξε δὲ εἰς τὸ γμε εξ 
ἔτος τοῦ κόσμου, ὧν τὴν γνῶσιν, φησὶν, ὁ 
᾿Ερατοσθένης λαβὼν Αἰγυπτιακοῖς ὑπομνήμασι 

ρ νὴ γυ μνήμ 

\ 2 τὴ A / \ a ¢ 
Kal ὀνόμασι κατὰ πρόσταξιν βασιλικὴν τῇ ᾿Ελ- 
λάδι φωνῇ παρέφρασεν οὕτως " 

/ / ~ \ , ” ~ 

Θηβαίων βασιλέων τῶν μετὰ ,apKd’ ἔτη τῆς 

διασπορᾶς An’ βασιλειῶν, 

1 γΖιος m. 

1This list of kings was said to have been taken by 
Apollodorus (ii. B.c.) from Eratosthenes of Cyrene (iii. 
B.c.) whom Apollodorus often followed as an authority ; 
but according to Jacoby (Apollodors Chronik, pp. 399 ff., 
Fr. 117—Pseudo-Apollodorus) the list of ‘ Theban”’ 
kings owes nothing either to Apollodorus or to Eratos- 
thenes, but is the work of one who sought to recommend 
his compilation under two distinguished names. The list, 


ERATOSTHENES (?) (From Syneellus). 
Fr. 7 (a). 

Kings of Thebes.! 

Apollodorus, the chronographer, recorded another 
dynasty of Egyptian kings,—the Thebans, as they 
are called,—thirty-eight kings ruling for 1076 years. 
This dynasty began in Anno Mundi 2900, and came 
to an end in Anno Mundi 3045 [3976]. The know- 
ledge of these kings, he says, Eratosthenes took from 
Egyptian records and lists, and at the king’s com- 
mand he translated them into the Greek language, 
as follows: 

Of the Theban kings in thirty-eight dynasties ruling 
1124 years after the Dispersion, 

containing thirty-eight kings, who ruled for 1076 years, is 
of Theban origin, derived from a Royal List such as that 
of Karnak : the explanations of the names are interesting, 
and the variations in Nos. 11 and 15 may be due to the 
priests themselves. Historically the list is of no great 
worth : several of the names are not proper names, but 
Throne-names, such as are found in the Royal Lists and 
the Turin Papyrus (Meyer, Aeg. Chron. pp. 99 ff.). 

Kings 1-5 correspond to Dynasty I., 13-17 to Dynasty 
IV., 18-22 to Dynasty VI. 



a’ <mp@tos>! ἐβασίλευσε Μήνης Θηβαῖος, ὃ 
ἑρμηνεύεται αἰώνιος 5: ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη EB’. 
τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος Bm’. 

β΄ Θηβαίων δεύτερος ἐβασίλευσεν Abwéns, 
υἱὸς Μήνεως, € ἔτη νθ΄. οὗτος ἑρμηνεύεται 
“Ἑρμογένης. ἔτος τοῦ κόσμου βπιξβ'. 

γ΄ Θηβαίων Αἰγυπτίων τρίτος ἐβασίλευσεν 
AddOns ὁμώνυμος, ἔτη λβ΄. τοῦ δὲ 
κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γκα΄. 

Syncellus, p. 180. 

wy Θηβαίων ἐβασίλευσε δ΄ Μιαβαῆς," υἱὸς 
Adwbews, ἔτη ιθ΄. οὗτος ἑρμηνεύεται 
φιλόταυρος τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος 


Θηβαίων ἐβασίλευσε ε΄ Πεμῴφῶς," υἱὸς 
᾿Αθώθους, 6 ἐστιν ᾿Ηρακλείδης, ἔτη ιη΄. 

a \ , S550 
TOU δὲ κοσμοῦ ἢν ετος yop . 

Fr. 13. Syncellus, p. 180. 

ς΄ Θηβαίων Αἰγυπτίων ἐβασίλευσεν ς΄ Μομ- 
χειρὶ Μεμφίτης, ἔτη οθ΄. οὗτος ἐρ- 

1 πρῶτος add. Goar. 
ἃ τλΊβαιος conj. Meyer: θηνίτης B: Θηβινίτης Θηβαῖος Din- 
3 αἰώνιος corr. Jablonski: διώνιος B, Διόνιος A. 
4 Διαβιῆς B. 
δ φιλόταυρος Bunsen: φιλέτεοος codd.: φιλέταιρος Sealiger. 
6 Σεμψῶς Bunsen. 



1. The first was Ménés of Thebes, whose name, 
being interpreted, means “ everlasting ”’.1 
He reigned for 62 years. Anno mundi 2900. 

2. The second king of Thebes was Athdéthés, son 
of Ménés, for 59 years. His name, being 
interpreted, means “Born of Hermés”’.? 
Anno mundi 2962. 

3. The third king of Thebes in Egypt was 
Athéthés II., for 32 years. Anno mundi 

4. The fourth king of Thebes was Miabaés, son 
of Athéthis, for 19 years. His name, being 
interpreted, means “ Bull-lover”.? Anno 
mundi 3053. 

5. The fifth king of Thebes was Pemphés 
(? Sempsés, Semempsés), son of Athdéthis. 
His name is “ descendant of Héraclés,”” and 
he reigned for 18 years. Anno mundi 3072. 

Fr. 13. 

6. The sixth king of Thebes in Egypt was 
Momcheiri of Memphis, reigning for 79 
years. His name, being interpreted, means 

1The Egyptian form of the name Ménés may quite 
well be interpreted as ‘‘the abiding one,’’ from mn, 
““to endure ’’. 

*This etymology obviously assumes the presence of 
the divine name Théth in the name Athdéthés. 

3 The first element of the name Miabaés is clearly some 
form of the verb mr, “ὁ to love’’, 



μηνεύεται nynoavdpos!: περισσομελής, 
[τοιγὰρ ἄμαχος]. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν γη΄. 
ζ΄ Θηβαίων Αἰγυπτίων ἐβασίλευσεν C’ Σ τοῖχος, 
υἱὸς αὐτοῦ- ὅ ἐστιν Ἄρης ἀναίσθητος, ἔτη 

, ~ δ / 2 ΝΜ 7, 

ς΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γρξθ'. 

n Θηβαίων Αἰγυπτίων ἐβασίλευσεν Gees To- 
σορμίης, ὅ ἐστιν αἰτησιπαντός ὃ ἔτη. λ΄. 
τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἣν ἔτος γροε΄. 

8 Θηβαίων Αἰγυπτίων ἐβασίλευσεν θ΄ Μάρης, 

e\ > ~ Ld > € / » ’ 
υἱὸς αὐτοῦ, ὅ ἐστιν ᾿Ηλιόδωρος, ἔτη Ks’. 
τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γσε΄. 

Syncellus, p. 190. 

ι Θηβαίων Αἰγυπτίων ' ἐβασίλευσεν Avwi- 
φίς, ὅ ἐστιν ἐπίκωμος, ἔτη κ΄. τοῦ δὲ 
κόσμου ἦν ἔτος YAS 

Lo, Θηβαίων Αἰγυπτίων ta’ ἐβασίλευσε Σίριος, 
ὅ ἐστιν υἱὸς κόρης, ὡς δὲ ἕτεροι ἀβάσκαν- 
τος, ἔτη ιη΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γσνα΄. 

ιβ΄’ Θηβαίων Αἰγυπτίων. ιβ΄ ἐβασίλευσε. Χνοῦβος 

ἢ Γνεῦρος, ὅ ἔστι Χρυσὸς ἢ Xpvoaods 

!Conj. Bunsen: τῆς ἀνδρὸς codd.: ἔτης ἀνδρὸς Gutschmid. 
2 A gloss, which the codd. have before Mopyecpi. 

3 ἐτησιπαντός A: ἔτης παντος Gutschmid. 

4B: ἐπίκομος A. 

1 With this interpretation of the name Marés (which 
may correctly explain the second element as Ré, “the 
Sun ”’), of. ἥλιος εὐφεγγής, “δι brilliant Sun,” in Hymn IV., 



“leader of men”. He had _ exceeding 
large limbs (and was therefore irresistible). 
Anno mundi 3090. 

7. The seventh king of Thebes in Egypt was his 
son, Stoichos. The name means “ unfeeling 
Arés”. He reigned for 6 years. Anno 
mundi 3169. 

8. The eighth king of Thebes in Egypt was 
Gosormiés, whose name means “ all-demand- 
ing”. He reigned for 30 years. Anno 
mundi 3175. 

9. The ninth king of Thebes in Egypt was his 
son, Marés, whose name means “ gift of the 
Sun”’.! He reigned for 26 years. Anno 
mundi 3205. 

10. The tenth king of Thebes in Egypt was 
Andéyphis, whose name means “ revelling ”’.? 
He reigned for 20 years. Anno mundi 

11, The eleventh king of Thebes in Egypt was 
Sirius, whose name means “ son of the iris of 
the eye,” 5 or, as others say, “ unharmed by 
the evil eye”. He reigned for 18 years. 
Anno mundi 3251. 

12. The twelfth king of Thebes in Egypt was 

Chnubos or Gneuros, which means “ gold ” 4 

line 32, A. Vogliano, Madinet Madi, Primo Rapporto (1936): 
see note on No. 35 infra, p. 224. 

2 Possibly this explanation is based upon the Egyptian 
word undéf, “ to rejoice ’’ (B.G.). 

3In Egyptian si-iri means “‘ son of the eye”’. 

4 Nib is Egyptian for “ gold”’. 








υἱός, ἔτη κβ΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος 

Θηβαίων Αἰγυπτίων uy’ ἐβασίλευσε ‘Pav- 
wots, ὅ ἐστιν ἀρχικράτωρ, ἔτη ιγ΄. τοῦ 
δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος yore J 

Θηβαίων Αἰγυπτίων ιδ' ἐβασίλευσε Βιὕρης, 
ἔτη ι΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἣν ἔτος γτδ'. 

Fr. 17. Syncellus, p. 190. 

Θηβαίων Αἰγυπτίων ιε΄ ἐβασίλευσε Σ addus, 
κωμαστής͵ κατὰ δὲ ἐνίους Αἰωνατι τῆς, 
ἔτη κθ΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γτι 

Syncellus, p. 195. 
Θηβαίων is ᾿ ἐβασίλευσε a adpus B’, ἔτη Kl’. 

τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γτμγ΄. 

΄ Θηβαίων rf’ ἐβασίλευσε Mo σχερ qs, ἡ ἡλιό- 

δοτος, ἔτη λα΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος 

΄ Θηβαίων un’ ἐβασίλευσε Μοσθῆς," ἔτη λγ΄. 

τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γυα΄. 
Θηβαίων ιθ’ ἐβασίλευσε Παμμῆς, apxoedys,* 
ἔτη λε΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γυλδ' 

‘Corr. Bunsen: Χνοῦβος Γνευρός, 6 ἐστι Χρύσης Χρύσου υἱός 


2 Μεγχερῆς conj. Bunsen. 
3 Μεγχερῆς β΄ conj. Bunsen. 
4Conj. Gutschmid: ἀρχονδής codd. 



or “golden son” (or his son). He reigned 
for 22 years. Anno mundi 3269. 

13. The thirteenth king of Thebes in Egypt was 
Rayésis, which means “the arch-master- 
[1.1 He reigned for 13 years Anno 
mundi 3291. 

14. The fourteenth king of Thebes in Egypt was 
Biyrés, who reigned for 10 years. Anno 
mundi 3304. 

Εν. 11. 
15. The fifteenth king of Thebes in Egypt was 

Sadéphis, “ reveller,”’ or, according to some, 
““ money-getter, trafficker”’. He reigned for 
29 years. Anno mundi 3314. 

16. The sixteenth king of Thebes was Sadéphis II , 
who reigned for 27 years. Anno mundi 

17. The seventeenth king of Thebes was Moscherés 
(? Mencherés), “gift of the Sun,” who 
reigned for 31 years. Anno mundi 3370. 

18. The eighteenth king of Thebes was Mosthés 
(? Mencherés II.), who reigned for 33 years. 
Anno mundi 3401. 

19. The nineteenth king of Thebes was Pammés, 
“ leader-like,”” who reigned for 35 years. 
Anno mundi 3434. 

1 Possibly, according to this explanation, Ra- (or Rha-) 
is the Egyptian hry, ‘‘ master,” and the rest of the name 
*wdse(r), “᾿ powerful’’ (B.G.). 


Fr. 22. Syncellus, p. 195. 

Kk’ Θηβαίων x’ ἐβασίλευσεν Andmmous, μέγι- 
στος. οὗτος, ὥς φασι, παρὰ ὥραν μίαν 
ἐβασίλευσεν ἔτη ρ΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν 
ἔτος γυξθ'. 

ka’ Θηβαίων κα’ ἐβασίλευσεν ᾿Εχεσκοσοκά- 
ρας, ἔτος α΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος 

Kp’ Θηβαίων Kp’ ἐβασίλευσε Νίτωκρις, γυνὴ 
ἀντὶ ἀνδρός, ὅ ἐστιν Abnva νικηφόρος, 
ἔτη s’. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γῴφο΄. 

Fr. 33. Syncellus, p. 196. 

Ky’ Θηβαίων xy’ ἐβασίλευσε Μυρταῖος" Ap- 
μωνόδοτος, ἔτη κβ΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν 
ἔτος ,ypos’ .3 

Syncellus, p. 204. 

KS’ Θηβαίων κδ΄ ἐβασίλευσεν Οὐωσιμάρης," 
κραταιός ἐστινδ ἥλιος, ἔτη ιβ΄. τοῦ δὲ 
κόσμου ἢν ἔτος γῴφπη΄. 

Θηβαίων κε’ ἐβασίλευσε Σεθίνιλος, 6 
ἐστιν αὐξήσας τὸ πάτριον κράτος, ἔτη η΄. 
τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἣν ἔτος γχι΄. 

1B: ἐχεσκὸς ὁκάρας A 3 Conj. ᾿Αμυρταῖος. 

δγη.: bon’ codd. 4“ Jablonski: Θυωσιμάρης B. 

5 Bunsen: 6 ἐστιν codd. 
8B: Θίέριλλος A: Θίνιλλος Dindort. 



Fr, 22. 

20. The twentieth king of Thebes was Apappis 
(Pepi), “the very great’. He, they say, 
ruled for 100 years all but one hour. Anno 
mundi 3469. 

21. The twenty-first king of Thebes was 
Echeskosokaras, for 1 year. Anno mundi 

22. The twenty-second ruler of Thebes was 
Nitécris,? a queen, not a king. Her name 
means “‘ Athéna the victorious,’ and she 
reigned for 6 years. Anno mundi 3570. 


23. The twenty-third king of Thebes was Myrtaeus 
(Amyrtaeus), “ gift of Ammén,”* for 22 
years. Anno mundi 3576. 

24. The twenty-fourth king of Thebes was 
Udsimarés, “‘ Mighty is the Sun,”’4 for 12 
years. Anno mundi 3598. 

25. The twenty-fifth king of Thebes was 
Sethinilus (Thirillus), which means ‘‘ having 
increased his ancestral power,” for 8 years. 

Anno mundi 3610. 

' Apappas is the Phidéps of Fr. 20. 4, with a curious mis- 
understanding of his reign of 94 years. 

2 See p. 54n. 2,and Wainwright, Sky-Religion, pp. 41, 45. 

3 This interpretation is based upon the common Egyptian 
name Amenerdais, ‘‘ Amin has given him ᾿᾿. 

‘The Egyptian Wése-mi-Ré means ‘‘ Mighty like the 
Sun ’”’: Udésimarés may however be intended for the first 
half of the praenomen of Ramessés II., Wese-mé-Ré, but 
this means “ Ré is mighty in justice ”’ (B.G.). 



Ks’ Θηβαίων Ks’ ἐβασίλευσε Σεμφρουκράτης, 
ὅ ἐστιν Ἡρακλῆς “ρποκράτης, ἔτη ιη΄. 
τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γχιη΄. 

κζ' Θηβαίων κζ΄ ἐβασίλευσε Χουθήρ, ταῦρος 
τύραννος, ἔτη ζ΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος 

κη΄ Θηβαίων κη΄ ἐβασίλευσε Mevprs,' φίλος 

/ 2 Μ , ~ δὲ ΄ ΗΝ Μ 
κόρης, ἔτη ιβ΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος 


KO’ Θηβαίων x6’ ἐβασίλευσε Χωμαεφθάρ κόσ- 
μος φιλήφαιστος, ἔ ἔτη ια΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου 
ἦν ἔτος γχνε΄. 

rN’ Θηβαίων λ’ ἐβασίλευσε Σοικούνιος * ὀχοτύραν- 
5 ” , ~ A / Ss ΝΜ , 
vos,® ἔτη ξ΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἣν ἔτος γχξε". 

Syncellus, p. 233. 

da’ Θηβαίων λα’ ἐβασίλευσε Πετεαθυρῆς, ἔτη 
ις΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γψκς΄. 

Fr. 37. 

AB’ Θηβαίων AB’ ἐβασίλευσε <Lrappeveuns a’,® 
ἔτη Ks’. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γῴμβ'. 

1Conj. Μιειρής. ?Gutschmid: φιλόσκορος codd. 
3 Τωμαεφθά Bunsen. 4 Σοικοῦνις Bunsen. 

5 ὡς Ὦχος τύραννος Bunsen: Σοῦχος τύραννος Gutschmid. 

5° Aupevéeuns Bunsen. A lacuna here in codd. 

1 The first syllable of the name Chuthér may represent 
the Egyptian ko, “‘ bull”’ 
2 In Egyptian, “‘ loving the eye’ is mai-iri. 









The twenty-sixth king of Thebes was 
Semphrucratés, which means “ Heraclés 
Harpocratés.”’ for 18 years. Anno mundi 

The twenty-seventh king of Thebes was 
Chuthér, “ bull-lord,”! for 7 years. Anno 
mundi 3636. 

The twenty-eighth king of Thebes was Meurés 
(Mieirés), “loving the iris of the eye,” ? 
for 12 years. Anno mundi 3643. 

The twenty-ninth king of Thebes was Ché- 
maephtha (Témaephtha), “ world, loving 
Héphaestus,”® for 11 years. Anno mundi 

The thirtieth king of Thebes was Soicunius 
(or Soicunis), + hochotyrannos, +4 (or 
Soicuniosochus the lord), for 60 years. 
Anno mundi 3666. 

The thirty-first king of Thebes was Pete- 
athyrés,° for 16 years. Anno mundi 3726. 

Fr. 37. 

32. The thirty-second king of Thebes’ was 

<Stammenemés I. (Ammenemés 1.), for 26 
years. Anno mundi 3742. 

%As to the latter part of the name, “loving 
Héphaestus”’ is in Egyptian mai-Piah: the emended 
T6- represents the Egyptian t0, “‘ world’”’ (B.G.). 

‘Bunsen emends this vox nihili to mean “a tyrant 
like Ochus’’?: Gutschmid, to mean ‘ Suchus the lord ”’. 
The latter description may refer to one of the Sebekhotpes. 

5 Peteathyrés, a well-formed name Pede-hathor, which 
does not occur as a king’s name. 



λγ΄ Θηβαίων Ay’ ἐβασίλευσε Σταμμενέμης P’, 
ἔτη κγ΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἣν ἔτος γψξη΄. 

λδ' Θηβαίων λδ' ce Σι στο σιχερμῆ cS 
᾿Ηρακλῆς κραταιός,' ἔτη νε΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου 
ἣν ἔτος γψῆα΄. 

de’ Θηβαίων de’ ἐβασίλευσε Μάρης, ἔτη μγ΄. 

τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γωμς΄. 

Fr. 40. 
As’ Θηβαίων λε΄ ἐβασίλευσε Σιφθὰς" ὁ καὶ 

Ἑρμῆς, υἱὸς “Ηφαίστου, ἔτη ε΄. τοῦ δὲ 
κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γωπθ'. 

Syncellus, p. 278. 
AC’ Θηβαίων λζ΄ ἐβασίλευσε Φρουορῶ 3 ἤτοι 

Νεῖλος, ἔτη ε΄. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος 
yd’ ὃ 
λη΄ Θηβαίων λη΄ ἐβασίλευσε ‘Apovbapraios, ἔτη 
Ey’. τοῦ δὲ κόσμου ἦν ἔτος γπιγ΄. 
1 Σεσόρτωσις, ᾿Ερμῆς ἢ ᾿Ηρακλῆς κραταιός conj. Bunsen. 

2 Bunsen: Σιφόας codd. 8 Φουορῶ Bunsen. 
4’ corr. Miller. 5 yw’ codd. 

1 Besides Marés and derived forms (Marrés, Aelian, 
De Nat. Anim. vi. 7; Marros and Mendés, Diod. Sie. i. 
61, 1; Imandés, Strabo, 17. 1. 37, 42), there are two types 
of variants on the name of Amenemhét III.—(1) Lamarés 
(Fr. 34), Lamaris (Fr. 35), Labarés, Labaris; and (2) 
Pramarrés, Premanrés (Pr- = Pharaoh): cf. Poremanrés, 
P. Mich. Zen. 84, lines 18, 21, Porramanrés in A. Vogliano, 
Madinet Madi, Primo Rapporto (1936), Hymn IV., line 
34, where the first two syllables must be eliminated if 



33. The thirty-third king of Thebes was> Stam- 
menemés IT. (Ammenemés II.), for 23 years. 
Anno mundi 3768. 

34, The thirty-fourth king of Thebes was Sis- 
tosichermés, “* valiant Héraclés ”’ (Sistosis or 
Sesortésis, “‘ valiant Hermés or Héraclés’’), 
for 55 years. Anno mundi 3791. 

35. The thirty-fifth king of Thebes was Marés,' for 
43 years. Anno mundi 3846. 

Fr. 40. 

36. The thirty-sixth king of Thebes was Siphthas,? 
also called Hermés, “son of Héphaestus.” 
for 5 years. Anno mundi 3889. 

37. The thirty-seventh king of Thebes was 
Phruoré * (Phuoré) or “the Nile,” for 5 
(?19) years. Anno mundi 3894. 

38. The thirty-eighth king of Thebes was Amu- 
thartaeus, for 63 years. Anno mundi 3913. 

[Syncellus then adds (p. 279) in much the same 
phrase as that quoted at the beginning of Appendix 
II.: “These names Eratosthenes took from the 
sacred scribes at Diospolis and translated from 
Egyptian into the Greek language.”’] 

the pentameteristoscan. [See noteonp.50. The temple 
at the vestibule of which the Hymn was inscribed is 
dated 95 B.c.] 

2 Siphthas is King Siptah (“son of Ptah’’), probably 
Thuéris (Thuédsris), of Dynasty XIX. 

’The Egyptian name for the River Nile is p-yeor-o. 
For comparisons of the King of Egypt with the River 
Nile, see Grapow, Die Bildlichen Ausdruckedes Aegyptischen, 
p- 62. 

I 225 



Syncellus, p. 95. 

Φέρεται yap map’ Αἰγυπτίοις παλαιόν τι ypovo- 
γραφεῖον, ἐξ οὗ καὶ τὸν Μανεθῶ πεπλανῆσθαι νομίζω, 
περιέχον λ΄ δυναστειῶν ἐν γενεαῖς πάλιν pry’ χρόνον 
ἄπειρον [καὶ οὐ τὸν αὐτὸν τοῦ! Μανεθῶ)] ἐν μυριάσι 
τρισὶ καὶ ςφκε΄, πρῶτον μὲν τῶν ‘Aepitav,” δεύτερον 
δὲ τῶν Μεστραίων, τρίτον δὲ Αἰγυπτίων, οὕτω πως 
ἐπὶ λέξεως ἔχον. 

Θεῶν βασιλεία κατὰ τὸ Παλα:ιὸν Χρονικόν. 

‘Hd 4 / > μὲ ὃ A A A A 
αἴστου χρόνος οὐκ ἔστι διὰ TO νυκτὸς καὶ 
ἡμέρας αὐτὸν φαίνειν. 

1Hopfner: τὸν A: ὃν Boeckh, Bunsen. 
3 Αὐριτῶν codd. 

1The Old Chronicle is dated by Gutschmid to the end 
of the second century after Christ. Gelzer would refer its 
statements to another source than Manetho, perhaps 
Ptolemy of Mendés; while Meyer regards it as the work of 
Panodérus, c. A.D. 400 (cf. Fr. 2). 

2By the name Manetho Syncellus refers, as always, to 
the Book of Séthis (App. IV.). 

3 The actual total of years from the items given, if 6 years 
be assigned to Dynasty XXVIIL., is 36,347, 7.e. 178 years 



(From Syncellus). 

Now, among the Egyptians there is current an old 
chronography,! by which indeed. I believe, Manetho 2 
has been led into error. 

In 30 dynasties with 113 generations, it comprises 
an immense period of time [not the same as Manetho 
gives] in 36,525 years,* dealing first with the Aeritae,* 
next with the Mestraei, and thirdly with the 
Egyptians. Its contents are somewhat as follows :— 

Dynasties of the Gods according to the Old Chronicle. 

Héphaestus has no period assigned, because he 
shines night and day. Hélios [the Sun], son of 

less than the total given in the text. The number of 
generations, 113, is obtained by counting 1 for Dynasty 
XXVIII. and 7 for XXIX. This vast world-period of 
36,525 years is 25 times the Séthic period of 1461 calendar 
years (or 1460 Séthic years): see infra, and for the Séthic 
period, Intro. pp. xxix f. 

4 Aeritae and Mestraei are really the same as the third 
race, the Egyptians, the three names apparently referring 
to Egypt at three different dates. Aeria is an old name 
of Egypt (Euseb., Chron. in Syncellus, p. 293, Armenian 
Version (Schéne, p. 30), Aegyptus quae prius Aeria dice- 
batur... ). Mestraei (Josephus, Antig. 1. 6. 2)—from 
Mestraim (p. 7 n. 2). 



Ἥλιος ‘Hdaiorov ἐβασίλευσεν ἐτῶν μυριάδας 

Ἔπειτα Κρόνος, φησί, καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ πάντες 
θεοὶ δώδεκα ἐβασίλευσαν ἔτη ,γπνπδ΄. 

Ὁ} 7}. 

Ἔπειτα ἡμίθεοι βασιλεῖς ὀκτὼ ἔτη σιζ'. 

Καὶ μετ᾽ αὐτοὺς γενεαὶ ιε΄ Κυνικοῦ κύκλου 
ἀνεγράφησαν ἐν ἔτεσιν υμγ΄. 

Εἶτα Τανιτῶν ts’ δυναστεία, γενεῶν η΄, ἐτῶν 

Πρὸς οἷς ιζ΄ δυναστεία Μεμῴφιτῶν, γενεῶν 8’, 
ἐτῶν ργ΄. 

Μεθ᾿ ods τη’ δυναστεία Μεμφιτῶν, γενεῶν ιδ', 
ἐτῶν τμη΄. 

"Ἔπειτα ιθ΄ δυναστεία Διοσπολιτῶν, γενεῶν 
ε΄, ἐτῶν ρηδ΄. 

Εἶτα x’ δυναστεία Διοσπολιτῶν, γενεῶν η΄, 
ἐτῶν σκη΄. 

"Ἔπειτα xa’ δυναστεία Τανιτῶν, γενεῶν ς", 
ἐτῶν ρκα΄. 

Εἶτα κβ΄ δυναστεία Τανιτῶν, γενεῶν γ΄, ἐτῶν 



"Ἔπειτα κγ΄ δυναστεία Διοσπολιτῶν, γενεῶν 
β΄, ἐτῶν ιθ΄. 

Εἶτα κδ΄ δυναστεία Σαϊτῶν, γενεῶν γ΄, ἐτῶν 

Πρὸς ots κε’ δυναστεία Αἰθιόπων, γενεῶν y’, 
ἐτῶν μδ΄. 

Μεθ᾿ ods xs’ δυναστεία Μεμῴφιτῶν, γενεῶν ζ΄, 
ἐτῶν pot’. 



Héphaestus, ruled for 30,000 years. Then Cronos 
(it says) and the remaining gods, 12 in number, 
reigned altogether for 3984 years. Next, the eight 
demi-gods were kings for 217 years; and after them 
15 generations of the Séthic Cycle are recorded with 
443 years.} 

Then follow : 

The Sixteenth Dynasty of Kings of Tanis, in 
8 generations, for 190 years. 

The Seventeenth Dynasty of Kings of Memphis, in 
4 generations, for 103 years. 

The Eighteenth Dynasty of Kings of Memphis, in 
14 generations, for 348 years. 

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Kings of Diospolis, in 
5 generations, for 194 years. 

The Twentieth Dynasty of Kings of Diospolis, in 
8 generations, for 228 years. 

The Twenty-first Dynasty of Kings of Tanis, in 
6 generations, for 12] years. 

The Twenty-second Dynasty of Kings of Tanis, in 
3 generations, for 48 years. 

The Twenty-third Dynasty of Kings of Diospolis, 
in 2 generations, for 19 years. 

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Kings of Sais, in 
3 generations, for 44 years. 

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Ethiopian Kings, in 
3 generations, for 44 years. 

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Kings of Memphis, 
in 7 generations, for 177 years. 

1 This total comes, not from the Book of Séthis which 
gives 395 for the first 15, but from Eratosthenes (App. II.). 
A smaller total than Manetho’s 3357 years was desired in 
order to shorten the duration of the historical age of Egypt. 



Ki \ > > A , ὃ , ] π᾿ ~ ~ 
αἱ μετ᾽ αὐτοὺς κζ΄ δυναστεία ερσῶν, γενεῶν 
͵’ὔ ~ 
ε΄, ἐτῶν ρκδ΄. 
. . . se . s . 

Ἔπειτα x0’ δυναστεία Τανιτῶν γενεῶν «ζ΄» 

ἐτῶν λθ'. 

Καὶ ἐπὶ πάσαις A’ δυναστεία Τανίτου ἑνός, ἔτη 

Τὰ πάντα ὁμοῦ τῶν A’ δυναστειῶν ἔτη My’ 
καὶ «φκε΄. 

Ταῦτα ἀναλυόμενα, εἴτουν μεριζόμενα, παρὰ τὰ 
ΚΕ ” Γ᾿ \ > > , 
javéa’ ἔτη εἴκοσι πεντάκις, τὴν παρ Αἰγυπτίοις καὶ 
νσ > ~ ~ 
Ἕλλησιν ἀποκατάστασιν τοῦ ζῳδιακοῦ μυθολογου- 
μένην δηλοῖ, τοῦτ᾽ ἔστι τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου 
ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ σημεῖον, ὅ ἐστι πρῶτον λεπτὸν τῆς 
πρώτης μοίρας τοῦ ἰσημερινοῦ ζῳδίου, κριοῦ λεγο- 
ἔνου πα αὐτοῖς, ὥσπερ καὶ ἐν τοῖς Γ ενικοῖς 
τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ καὶ ἐν Κυραννίσι βί ίβλοις εἴρηται. 
Ἐντεῦθεν δὲ οἶμαι καὶ Πτολεμαῖον τὸν Κλαύδιον 
τοὺς προχείρους κανόνας τῆς ἀστρονομίας διὰ Ke’ 
ἐτηρίδων ψηφίζεσθαι θεσπίσαι. .. 
> ~ [Pas ) ‘ 59 uA ~ 4 
Ἐντεῦθεν δέ ἐστι καὶ τὸ ἀσύμφωνον τῶν τοιούτων 
ἐκδόσεων πρός τε τὰς θείας ἡμῶν γραφὰς καὶ πρὸς 
ἄλληλα ἐπιγνῶναι, ὅτι αὕτη μὲν ἡ παλαιοτέρα νομι- 
/ > / re, / A »” 
ζομένη Αἰγυπτίων συγγραφὴ ᾿ Ηφαίστου μὲν ἄπειρον 
εἰσάγει χρόνον, τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν KO’ δυναστειῶν ἔτη 
/ = / / ~ *Hi ,ὔ dA A 
τρισμύρια. SPKE » καίτοι τοῦ “ἢ φαίστου πολλοῖς 
ἔτεσι μετὰ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν καὶ τὴν πυργοποιῖΐαν 

1 Scaliger: codd. μετὰ τὰς κζ΄ δυναστείας, omit. γενεῶν. 



The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Persian Kings, in 
5 generations, for 124 years. 

[The Twenty-eighth Dynasty is here omitted— 

one king of Sais reigning for 6 years.] 

Then comes the Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Kings 
of Tanis in <7> generations for 39 years ; and finally 
the Thirtieth Dynasty consists of one King of Tanis 
for 18 years. The sum total of all the 30 Dynasties 
comprises 36,525 years. 

If this total is broken up, or divided, 25 times into 
periods of 1461 years, it reveals the periodic return 
of the Zodiac which is commonly referred to in 
Egyptian and Greek books, that is, its revolution 
from one point back to that same point again, 
namely, the first minute of the first degree of the 
equinoctial sign of the Zodiac, the Ram as it is 
called by them, according to the account given in 
The General Discourses of Hermés and in the 

Hence it was, I suppose, that Claudius Ptolemaeus ! 
announced that the ready astronomical tables should 
be calculated in periods of 25 years .. . 

Hence, too, the lack of harmony between such 
systems and our Holy Scriptures, as well as between 
one system and another, may be explained by the 
fact that this Egyptian record, which is held to 
be of great antiquity, assigns an immense period 
to Héphaestus, and to the remaining 29 ? Dynasties 
36,525 years, although Héphaestus ruled over Egypt 

1Claudius Ptolemaeus, the famous mathematician, 
astronomer, and geographer, c. A.D. 100-178: for his Ready 
Tables see p. 5 in the other section of this volume. 

2 An obviously incorrect summary of the enumeration 
of Dynasties given above. 


τῆς Αἰγύπτου βασιλεύσαντος, ὡς δειχθήσεται ἐν τῷ 
δέοντι τόπῳ. 
> , > / ~ 
Ὃ δὲ παρ᾽ Αἰγυπτίοις ἐπισημότατος Mavebd 
~ ~ , ~ 
περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν λ΄ δυναστειῶν γράψας, ἐκ τούτων 
δηλαδὴ λαβὼν τὰς ἀφορμάς, κατὰ πολὺ διαφωνεῖ 
περὶ τοὺς χρόνους πρὸς ταῦτα, καθὼς ἔστι καὶ ἐκ 
τῶν προειρημένων ἡμῖν ἀνωτέρω μαθεῖν καὶ ἐκ τῶν 
ἑξῆς λεχθησομένων. τῶν γὰρ ἐν τοῖς τρισὶ τόμοις 
A , 
pry’ γενεῶν ἐν δυναστείαις A’ ἀναγεγραμμένων, 
αὐτῷ" ὁ χρόνος τὰ πάντα συνῆξεν ἔτη γῴφνε΄, 
5 / ~ om ~ / \ / 
ἀρξάμενα τῷ ,abms’ ἔτει τοῦ κόσμου Kal λήξαντα 
> \ / 2 A ” ” \ ~ "Ar 4 ὃ 
εἰς τὸ ερμζ΄ ? κοσμικὸν ἔτος, ἤτοι πρὸ τῆς AAcEdvd- 
ρου τοῦ Μακεδόνος κοσμοκρατορίας ἔτη ποῦ ιε΄. 
Ἔκ τούτων οὖν ἀφελών τις τὰ πρὸ τοῦ κατα- 
κλυσμοῦ χνς΄ πρὸς ἀναπλήρωσιν τῶν Bopp ἐξ 
Adam ἕως τοῦ “κατακλυσμοῦ͵ ὡς ψευδῆ καὶ ἀνύ- 
παρκτα, καὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τοῦ κατακλυσμοῦ ἕως τῆς 
πυργοποιΐας καὶ συγχύσεως τῶν γλωσσῶν. Kal 
~ ~ > ~ , - ~ A > A 
διασπορᾶς τῶν ἐθνῶν φλδ΄, ἕξει σαφῶς τὴν ἀρχὴν 
τῆς Αἰγυπτιακῆς βασιλείας ἐκ τοῦ πρώτου βα- 
σιλεύσαντος τῆς Αἰγύπτου Μεστραΐμ, τοῦ καὶ 
Μήνεος λεγομένου παρὰ τῷ Mavebd, ἀπὸ τοῦ 
μβψος" ἔτους τοῦ ἐξ ᾿δὰμ ἕως Νεκταναβῶ τοῦ 
ἐσχάτου βασιλέως Αἰγύπτου, ὡς εἶναι τὰ πάντα 
> \ a. a - > ~ ~ ” 
ἀπὸ Μεστραΐῖμ ἕως tod αὐτοῦ Νεκταναβῶ ἔτη 
, Δ ” θ e με, > ‘ 
,Brée’, ἃ καὶ ἔφθασεν, ὡς προείρηται, εἰς TO κοσ- 
A / 3 » ‘ ~ “AX / ὃ “- / 
μικὸν ερμζ' ὃ ἔτος πρὸ τῆς Ἀλεξάνδρου τοῦ κτίστου 
ἀρχῆς ἔτεσι ιε΄ ἐγγύς. 

' Boeckh: αὐτῶν codd., probably corrupt. 



many years after the Flood and the Building of the 
Tower, as will be shown in the appropriate place. 

The illustrious Egyptian Manetho, writing of 
these same 30 Dynasties, and obviously taking this 
as his starting-point, is widely divergent thereafter 
in the dates he gives, as one may learn both from 
what I have already said above, and from the re- 
marks that will follow immediately. For in his 
three books, 113 generations are recorded in 30 
Dynasties, and the time which he assigns amounts 
in all to 3555 years, beginning with Anno mundi 
1586 and ending with 5147 [5141], or some 15 years 
before the-conquest of the world by Alexander of 

If therefore one subtracts from this total the 656 
years before the Flood in order to make up [with 
1586] the 2242 years from Adam to the Flood,— 
these 656 years being regarded as falsely assigned or 
non-existent,—and the 534 years from the Flood to 
the Building of the Tower, the Confusion of Tongues, 
and the Dispersion of the Peoples, one will clearly 
find the rise of the kingdom of Egypt under the first 
Egyptian king, Mestraim, who is by Manetho called 
Ménés, which began in the year 2776, the year of 
Adam, and continued down to Nectanabé, the last 
king of Egypt. Thus the sum total from Mestraim 
down to this Nectanabé is 2365 years, which takes 
us, as has already been stated, to Anno mundi 5147 
[5141], approximately 15 years before the rule of 
Alexander the Founder. 

21. ερμα΄. 3 ερμα΄, marginal note in Goar. 


Syncellus, p. 170. 

Αἰγύπτου τῆς πάλαι Meorpaias βασιλέων 


Meorpaip ὃ καὶ Μήνης, ἔτη re’. 
Κουρώδης, ἔτη Ey’. 

Ἀρίσταρχος, ἔτη Xd’. 

Σπάνιος, ἔτη As’. 

καὶ ς΄, βασιλέων δυοῖν ἀνεπιγράφων ἔτη of’. 
᾿Ωσιροπίς,, ἔτη Ky’. 

Σεσόγχωσις, ἔτη pb’. 

ἈΜμενέμης, ἔτη KO’. 



Syncellus, p. 179. 

ι΄ Ἄμασις, ἔτη β'. 

ια΄ ᾿ἀκεσέφθρης, ἔτη ty’. 
iB’ ᾿ἀγχορεύς, ἔτη θ'. 
ιγ΄ Appriogs, ἔτη δ'. 

1Cod. Β : ὁ Σάραπις Goar, Dindorf. 

1The Book of Séthis which Syncellus believed to be the 
genuine Manetho, but which in its original form was based 
upon Eusebius and Josephus, is dated by Gutschmid to the 


Tue Boox or Soruis! or Tue SOruHic CyYc.e. 

(From Syncellus.) 
The years of the kings of Egypt, called Mestraea of 


1. Mestraim, also called Ménés, 35 years. 
2. Kourédés, 63 years. 
3. Aristarchus, 34 years. 
4. Spanius, 36 years. 
5 and 6. Two kings, unrecorded, 72 years. 
7. Osiropis, 23 years. 
8. Sesonchésis, 49 years. 
9. Amenemés, 29 years. 
10. Amasis, 2 years. 
11. Acesephthrés, 13. 
12. Anchoreus, 9 years. 
13. Armiysés, 4 years. 

third century after Christ. It is not possible to divide 
the kings of this ‘* Cycle ’’ into dynasties, for their sequence 
is unchronological: e.g. 18-24 belong to Dynasties XIX. 
and XX., 26-29, 32 to the Hyksés period, 33-48 to Dynasty 
XVIII., 49, 58 to Dynasty XIX., 50, 51 to Dynasty 
XXVI., 59-61 to Dynasty I., 63-67 to Dynasty XXI., 
68-70 to Dynasty XXIII., 74 to Dynasty XXIV., 75-77 
to Dynasty XXV., and 79-86 to Dynasty XXVI. 

The Book of Séthis includes names taken from another 
source than Manetho, 



ὃ Xapots, érn ip" 
ιε΄ Μιαμούς, ἔτη ιδ΄. 
is’ Ἡμεσῆσις, ἔτη ξε΄. 
ιζ΄ Οὔσης, ἔτη v’. 

un’ ‘Papeons, ἔτη κθ΄. 

Syncellus, p. 189, 

ιθ' Ῥαμεσομενής" ἔτη ιε΄. 
K Οὐσιμάρη," ἔτη Aa’. 

κα΄ Ῥαμεσσήσεως, ἔτη κγ΄. 
KB’ Ῥαμεσσαμένω, ἔτη ιθ'. 

Οὗτος πρῶτος Φαραὼ ἐν τῇ θείᾳ γραφῇ 
μνημονεύεται. ἐπὶ τούτου ὁ πατριάρχης 
᾿Αβραὰμ κατῆλθεν εἰς Αἴγυπτον. 

ky’ Ῥαμεσσῆ ᾿Ιουβασσῆ, ἔτη AO’. 

Syncellus, p. 193. 

κδ΄ Ῥαμεσσῆ Οὐάφρου, ἔτη x6’. 
κε΄ Κόγχαρις, ἔτη ε΄. 
Τούτῳ τῷ ε΄ ἔτει τοῦ Ke’ βασιλεύ- 
σαντος Koyydpews τῆς Αἰγύπτου ἐπὶ τῆς 

'B: ῬΡαμεσσομενής A. ΞΒ : Οὐσιμάρης A. 

1 ΤῊ 6 name Chamois is probably the Greek form of the 
name Khamuas: for Khamuas, the principal son of 
Ramessés II., see Griffith, Stories of the High Priests, 
De 2D. 2 



14. Chamois,! 12 years. 

15. Miamias, 14 years. 

16. Amesésis, 65 years. 

17. Usés, 50 years. 

18. Ramesés, 29 years. 

19. Rames(s)omenés, 15 years. 
20. Usimaré(s),” 31 years. 

21. Ramessésedés,° 23 years. 
22. Ramessamené, 19 years. 

He is the first Pharaoh mentioned in 
the Holy Scriptures. In his reign the 
patriarch Abraham went down _ into 

23. Ramessé Iubassé, 39 years. 
24. Ramessé, son of Uaphrés,°* 29 years. 
25. Concharis, 5 years. 

In this 5th year of Concharis, the 25th 

king of Egypt, during the Sixteenth 

2 The name Usimaré(s) is the first part of the praenomen 
of Ramessés II.: see p. 221 n. 4. 

Τὸ is tempting to see in this name the Egyptian 
Ramesese-o, “᾿ Ramessés the Great,’’ although this term, 
so commonly used in modern times, is not found in 
Egyptian records (B.G.). 

4On Abraham’s descent into Egypt, see Peet, Egypt and 
the Old Testament, 1922, pp. 47 ff. (Abraham went down into 
Egypt in the First Intermediate Period, during Dynasties 
VII.-X., and left Egypt before 2081 B.c.) Sir L. Woolley, 
on the other hand, is satisfied with the traditional date of 
the birth of Abraham at Ur, c. 2000 B.c.; but he believes 
that the patriarch was not a single man, but a composite 
character (Abram, Abraham)—see Abraham: Recent 
Discoveries and Hebrew Origins, 1936. 

δ This description “βοὴ of Uaphrés”’ is a remarkable 
anachronism: a king of Dynasty XIX. or XX. is said to 
be the son of a king of Dynasty XXVI. 






ts’ δυναστείας τοῦ Κυνικοῦ λεγο- 
/ ΄ A ~ ~ > A 
μένου κύκλου παρὰ τῷ Mavebd, ἀπὸ 
“-- , / ‘ > ~ 
τοῦ πρώτου βασιλέως καὶ οἰκιστοῦ Μεσ- 
τραΐμ τῆς Αἰγύπτου, πληροῦνται ἔτη ψ', 
βασιλέων κε΄, τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν ἀπὸ τοῦ καθολι- 
κοῦ κοσμικοῦ ,Bibos’ ἔτους, καθ᾽ ὃν χρόνον 
ἡ διασπορὰ γέγονεν, ἐν τῷ Ad’ ἔτει τῆς 
ἡγεμονίας ᾿Αρφαξαδ, ε' δὲ ἔτει τοῦ Φαλέκ. 
καὶ διεδέξαντο Τανῖται βασιλεῖς δ', 
« A > / > 4 poe | ~ , 
ot καὶ ἐβασίλευσαν Αἰγύπτου ἐπὶ τῆς ιζ 
δυναστείας ἔτη avd',! ὡς ἑξῆς ἐστοιχείωται. 

Syncellus, p. 195. 

Σιλίτης, ἔτη ιθ΄, πρῶτος τῶν ς΄ τῆς ιζ' 

δυναστείας παρὰ Mavebd. 

Syncellus, p. 204. 

Βαίων, ἔτη μδ΄. 
Ἀπαχνάς, ἔτη ds’. 
Ἄφωφις, ἔτη ξα΄. 

Τοῦτον λέγουσί τινες πρῶτον κληθῆναι 
Φαραώ, καὶ τῷ τετάρτῳ ἔτει τῆς βασιλείας 
αὐτοῦ τὸν ᾿Ιωσὴφ ἐλθεῖν εἰς Αἴγυπτον δοῦ- 
λον. οὗτος κατέστησε τὸν ᾿Ιωσὴφ κύριον 
Αἰγύπτου καὶ πάσης τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ 
τῷ iC’ ἔτει τῆς ἀρχῆς αὐτοῦ, ἡνίκα καὶ τὴν 
τῶν ὀνείρων διασάφησιν ἔμαθε παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ, 
καὶ τῆς θείας συνέσεως αὐτοῦ διὰ πείρας 

1 gv’ corr. Miller. 


Dynasty of the Séthic Cycle as it is called 
in Manetho, the total of years from the 
first king and founder of Egypt, Mestraim, 
is 700 belonging to 25 kings, i.e. from the 
general cosmic year 2776, in which the 
Dispersion took place in the 34th year of 
the rule of Arphaxad ! and the Sth year 
of Phalec.? Next in the succession were 
4 kings of Tanis, who ruled Egypt in the 
Seventeenth Dynasty for 254 [259] years, 
according to the following computation. 

26. Silités (the first of the 6 kings of the Seven- 

teenth Dynasty in Manetho), 19 years. 

27. Baién, 44 years. 
28. Apachnas, 36 years. 
29. Aphéphis, 61 years. 

Some say that this king was at first 
called Pharaoh, and that in the 4th year 
of his kingship Joseph came as a slave into 
Egypt.* He appointed Joseph lord of 
Egypt and all his kingdom in the 17th 
year of his rule, having learned from him 
the interpretation of the dreams and 
having thus proved his divine wisdom. 

1 Arphaxad, son of Shem: 0.7. Genesis x. 22. See p. 26 

2 Phalec or Peleg (= division): “for in his days was the 
earth divided ”’ (Genesis x. 25). Cf. the name of the town 
Phaliga on the Euphrates,—not that the patriarch Peleg 
is to be connected directly with this town (W. F. Albright, 
The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible *, 1932-3, p. 210). 

3 For the Sojourn in Egypt during the Hyksés period, 
see Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament, pp. 73 ff.; Albright, 
The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible*, pp. 143 f.; 
Garstang, The Heritage of Solomon, 1934, p. 147. 



γέγονεν. ἡ δὲ θεία γραφὴ καὶ τὸν ἐπὶ 
τοῦ “ABpaap βασιλέα Αἰγύπτου Φαραὼ 

Syncellus, p. 232. 
N’ Σέθως, ery ν΄ 
, / ” , \ ia th A \ 
Aa’ Κήρτως, ἔτη κθ΄, κατὰ ᾿Ιώσηππον, κατὰ δὲ 
τὸν Μανεθῶ, ἔτη pd’. 
λβ΄ Aan), ἔτη x’. 

Οὗτος προσέθηκε τῶν ἐνιαυτῶν τὰς ε΄ 
ἐπαγομένας, καὶ ἐπὶ αὐτοῦ, ὥς φασιν, 
ἐχρημάτισεν τξε΄ ἡμερῶν ὁ Αἰγυπτιακὸς 
ἐνιαυτός, τξ΄ μόνον ἡμερῶν πρὸ τούτου 
μετρούμενος. ἐπὶ αὐτοῦ 6 μόσχος θεο- 

\ > ? / 
ποιηθεὶς “Amis ἐκλήθη. 
λγ΄ Ἄμωσις 6 καὶ Τέθμωσις, ἔτη Ks’. 

Syncellus, p. 278. 
AS’ Χεβρών, ἔτη ιγ΄. 
Ae’ Apepudis,! ἔτη ιε΄. 
As’ ἈἈμενσῆς, ἔτη ια΄. 
AC’ Μισφραγμούθωσις, ἔτη ts". 
An’ Μισφρής, ἔτη κγ΄. 
λθ’ Τούθμωσις, ἔτη AO’. 

Syncellus, p. 286. 
bw’ Ἀμενῶφθις, ἔτη Ad’. 
Οὗτος ὁ Apevddbis ἐστιν ὁ Μέμνων 
εἶναι νομιζόμενος καὶ φθεγγόμενος λίθος " 





The Holy Scriptures, however, give the 
name of Pharaoh also to the king of Egypt 
in the time of Abraham. 
Sethés, 50 years. 
Cértés, according to Josephus, 29 years; 
according to Manetho, 44 years. 
Aséth, 20 years. 

This king added the 5 intercalary days 
to the year:! in his reign, they say, the 
Egyptian year became a year of 365 days, 
being previously reckoned as 360 days 
only. In his time the bull-calf was deified 
and called Apis. 

Amésis, also called Tethmésis, 26 years. 
Chebrén, 13 years. 

Amemphis, 15 years. 

Amensés, 1] years 

Misphragmuthdsis, 16 years. 

Misphrés, 23 years. 

Tuthmdsis, 39 years. 

Amen6phthis, 34 years. 

This is the king who was reputed to be 
Memnoén and a speaking statue. Many 

1 See p. 99 n. 3. 

1B: "᾿Αμεμφής A. 


App. IV 



ὃν λίθον χρόνοις ὕστερον Καμβύσης ὁ 

Περσῶν τέμνει, νομίζων εἶναι γοητείαν ἐν 

αὐτῷ, ὡς Πολύαινος ὁ ᾿Αθηναῖος ἱστορεῖ. 
Αἰθίοπες ἀπὸ ᾿Ινδοῦ ποταμοῦ ἀναστάντες 
πρὸς τῇ Αἰγύπτῳ ᾧκησαν. 

a’ Ὦρος, ἔτη μη΄. 

, Axevxepys, ἔτη Ke’. 
Aéwpis, ἔτη κθ΄. 

΄ Χενχερής, ἔτη κε΄. 

scaring ct Ρ. 293. 

Axeppys, ἔτη η΄ ἢ καὶ λ΄. 
Αρμαῖος, ὁ καὶ Δαναός, ἔτη θ'. 

"4 A 
ρμαῖος, 6 καὶ Aavads, φεύγων τὸν 
ἀδελφὸν ἹΡαμεσσῆν τὸν καὶ Αἴγυπτον" 
ἐκπίπτει τῆς κατ᾽ Αἴγυπτον βασιλείας 
αὐτοῦ, εἰς ᾿Ελλάδα τε ἀφικνεῖται. ‘Pa- 
~ \ e 19 A > ~ ἰς A ΝΜ 

μεσσῆς δὲ, ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ, ὁ καὶ Αἴγυπ- 
τος καλούμενος, ἐβασίλευσεν Αἰγύπτου ἔτη 
En’, μετονομάσας τὴν χώραν Αἴγυπτον τῷ 
ἰδίῳ ὀνόματι, ἥτις πρότερον Μεστραία, 
παρ᾽ Ἕλλησι δὲ Aepia ἐλέγετο. Δαναὸς 
δὲ, 6 καὶ Αρμαῖος, κρατήσας τοῦ Ἄργους 

Ἄν» > \ PK / τ p ή ΡΥ 
καὶ ἐκβαλὼν Σθένελον τὸν Κροτωποῦ ‘Ap- 
γείων ἐβασίλευσε. καὶ οἱ ἀπόγονοι αὐτοῦ 

> DEA oh 4, : οὖ > 
μετ᾽ αὐτὸν Δαναΐδαι καλούμενοι ἐπ᾿ Εὐ- 
ρυσθέα τὸν Σθενέλου τοῦ Περσέως. μεθ᾽ 
ovs ot Πελοπίδαι ἀπὸ [1]έλοπος παρα- 
λαβόντες τὴν ἀρχὴν, ὧν πρῶτος ᾿Ατρεύς. 

1 Αἰγύπτιον codd.: Αἴγυπτον Scaliger: καὶ add. Miller. 




years later Cambysés, the Persian king, 
cut this statue in two, deeming that there 
was sorcery in it, as Polyaenus of Athens? 

The Ethiopians, removing from the 
River Indus, settled near Egypt. 

Orus, 48 years. 

Achencherés, 25 years. 

Athoris, 29 years. 

Chencherés, 26 years. 

Acherrés, 8 or 30 years. 

Armaeus, also called Danaus, 9 years. 

This king, fleeing from his brother 
Ramessés, also called Aegyptus, was 
driven from his kingdom of Egypt and 
came to Greece. Ramessés, his brother, 
whose other name was Aegyptus, ruled 
Egypt for 68 years, changing the name of 
his country to Egypt after his own name. 
Its previous name was Mestraea, and 
among the Greeks Aeria. Now Danaus 
or Armaeus took possession of Argos and, 
driving out Sthenelus the son of Crotépus, 
ruled over the Argives. His descendants 
thereafter were called Danaidae down to 
Eurystheus son of Sthenelus, the son of 
Perseus. Next to these, after Pelops the 
Pelopidae succeeded to the kingdom: 
the first of these was Atreus. 

1 Polyaenus of Athens (? of Sardis or of Macedonia), a 
writer of history, lived in the time of Gaius (Caligula). 



Syncellus, p. 302. 

pl’ Ῥαμεσσῆς, 6 καὶ Αἴγυπτος, ἔτη ξη΄. 
μη΄ ᾿Αμένωφις, ἔτη η΄. 

pO’ Θούωρις, ἔτη ιζ'. 

v’ Νεχεψώς, ἔτη ιθ'. 

va’ Ψαμμουθίς, ἔτη ιγ΄. 

vp’ —, ἔτη δ΄. 

vy’ Κήρτως, ἔτη κ΄ 

vd’ 'Ῥάμψις, ἔτη με΄. 

ve’ Αμενσής, ὁ καὶ ᾿Δμμενέμης, ἔτη xs’. 

Syncellus, p. 319. 

vs’ ᾿Οχυράς, ἔτη ιδ΄. 
νζ΄ ᾿Αμενδής, ἔτη κζ΄. 
νη΄ Θούωρις, ἔτη ν΄. 

Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ παρ᾽ ‘Oujpw Πόλυβος, 
᾿Αλκάνδρας ἀνήρ, ἐν ᾿Οδυσσείᾳ φερόμενος, 
παρ᾽ ᾧ φησι τὸν Μενέλαον σὺν τῇ ᾿λένῃ 
μετὰ τὴν ἅλωσιν Τροίας κατῆχθαι πλανώ- 

νθ' Ἄθωθις, 6 καὶ Φουσανός, ἐφ᾽ οὗ σεισμοὶ 
κατὰ τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐγένοντο, μηδέπω γε- 
γονότες ἐν αὐτῇ πρὸ τούτου, ἔτη κη΄. 
ξ΄ Κενκένης, ἔτη λθ΄. 
fa’ Οὐέννεφις, ἔτη pp’? 
' Corr. Goar: us’ codd. 2 λβ΄ cod. B. 




. Ramessés, also called Aegyptus, 68 years. 
. Amendéphis, 8 years. 

. Thuéris, 17 years. 

. Nechepsés,! 19 years. 

. Psammuthis, 13 years. 

. —, 4 years. 

. Cértés,? 20 years. 

. Rampsis, 45 years. 

. Amensés, also called Ammenemés, 26 years. 
. Ochyras, 14 years. 

. Amendés, 27 years. 

. Thudris, 50 years. 

This is the Polybus of Homer, who ap- 
pears in the Odyssey as husband of Al- 
candra: the poet tells how Menelaus and 
Helen dwelt with him in their wanderings 
after the capture of Troy. 

Athéthis, also called Phusanus,* 28 years. 

In his reign earthquakes occurred in 
Egypt, although previously unknown 

Cencenés, 39 years. 
Uennephis, 42 years. 

1See p. 211 n. 2. Nechepsds appears again as 
Nechepsus, No. 80. 

2 53-58 may be the 6 kings of Dynasty XIX., some of 
them repeated. 53 Cért6és may be Sethés: 54 Rampsis 
= 47 Ramessés: 55 Amensés = Amenmesés: while 
Thuéris appears as 58 and 49. 

8 With Phusanus ¢f. Psusennés of Dynasty XX1. 



Syncellus, p. 332. 

&p’ Σουσακείμ, ἔτη Ad’. 

Σουσακεὶμ Λίβυας καὶ Αἰθίοπας Kat 
Τρωγλοδύτας παρέλαβε πρὸ τῆς ‘Iepov- 

ἔἕγ΄ Ψούενος, ἔτη κε΄. 

£8’ Αμμενῶφις, ἔτη 6. 

fe’ Νεφεχέρης, ἔτη ς΄. 

és’ Σαΐτης, ἔτη ιε΄. 

ξζ' Ψινάχης, ἔτη θ΄. 

En’ Πετουβάστης, ἔτη pd’. 
£0’ ᾿Οσώρθων, ἔτη θ'. 

o Wdappos, ery vw’. 

oa’ Koyxapts, ἔτη Ka’. 

Syncellus, p. 347. 

of’ ᾿Οσόρθων, ἔτη ιε΄. 
oy’ Τακαλῶφις, ἔτη ιγ΄. 
08’ Βόκχωρις, ἔτη μδ΄. 
Βόκχωρις Αἰγυπτίοις ἐνομοθέτει, ἐφ᾽ οὗ 
λόγος ἀρνίον φθέγξασθαι. 
οε΄ Σαβάκων Αἰθίοψ, ἔτη ιβ΄. 
Οὗτος, τὸν Βόκχωριν αἰχμάλωτον λαβών, 
ζῶντα ἔκαυσεν. 
os’ Σεβήχων, ἔτη of’. 


62. Susakeim,! 34 years. 
This king brought up Libyans, Ethio- 
pians, and Tréglodytes * before Jerusalem. 
63. Psuenus, 25 years. 
64. Ammen6phis, 9 years. 
65. Nephecherés, 6 years. 
66. Saités, 15 years. 
67. Psinachés, 9 years. 
68. Petubastés, 44 years, 
69. Osérthén, 9 years. 
70. Psammus, 10 years. 
71. Concharis, 21 years. 
72. Osdrth6n, 15 years. 
73. Tacaléphis, 13 years. 
74. Bocchoris, 44 years. 
This king made laws for the Egyptians: 
in his time report has it that alamb spoke.? 
75. Sabacén, an Ethiopian, 12 years. 
This king, taking Bocchéris captive, 
burned him alive. 

76. Sebéch6n, 12 years. 

1 Susakeim, apparently, is Shoshenk, or Sesonchésis, the 
first king of Dynasty XXII. (Fr. 60, 1): Josephus, Antiq., 
viii. § 210, has Susakos. 

2In O.T. 2 Chron. xii. 3 it is said that Shishak brought 
up, along with the Ethiopians, the Lubims (Libyans) 
and the Sukkiims : in the LXX the last are the Tréglodytes, 
i.e. the “ Cave-dwellers ’’ along the west shore of the Red 
Sea (see Strabo, xvi. 4. 17). G. W. Murray, Sons of 
Ishmael, 1935, p. 18, suspects that the Ethiopians were 
negro troops or perhaps Beja nomads (7.e. Bedouin). “‘ At 
any rate Shishak, like the great Mohammed Ali after him, 
realized the importance of Bedouin auxiliaries on a desert 

5 See p. 164 n, 2. *See p. 166 η. 2. 



Syncellus, p. 360. 
of’ Ταράκης, ἔτη κ΄. 
on’ ᾿Δμαῆς, ἔτη λη΄. 
of’ Στεφινάθης, ἔτη κζ΄. 
nm’ Νεχεψός, ἔτη ιγ΄. 

Syncellus, p. 396. 
πα’ Nexaw, ἔτη η΄. 
np’ Ψαμμήτιχος, ἔτη ιδ΄. 
πγ΄ Νεχαὼ β' Φαραώ, ἔτη θ'. 
πδ' Ψαμουθὴς ἕτερος, ὁ καὶ Ψαμμήτιχος, 
ἔτη ιζ΄. 
me’ Οὔαφρις,, ἔτη Ad’. 
ns’ Ἄμωσις," ἔτη ν΄. 

1 Οὐαφρής codd. Ξ"Αμασις codd. 




. Taracés, 20 years. 

. Amaés,! 38 years. 

. Stephinathés, 27 years. 

. Nechepsus, 13 years. 

. Nechaé, 8 years. 

. Psammétichus, 14 years. 

. Nechaé II. (Pharaoh), 9 years. 

. Psamuthés the Second, also called Psamméti- 

chus, 17 years. 
Uaphris, 34 years. 
Amésis, 50 years. 

1Amaés corresponds to Ammeris or Ameres_ the 
Ethiopian, Fr. 69, 1, 7.e. Tanutamtin, Dynasty XXVI. 


Bi Me ‘ 
πὰ = aM 


Apallonogpo ὶ 

Edward Stanford 1", 




Old Egyptian Annals of the Kings. Dimensions of 
fragment: c. 174 inches high by 10 inches wide. 


| | ΠῚ My ih 
: ' FAD ij τὰ iW Wie ἢ - 
| WH | 
rhactnere hee | : ΠΟΙ ΠῚ Ἢ 

“3 fi yet lene 

FACSIMILE OF P. Bapen 4. 59, 

Papyrus of an Epitome of Manetho, v./A.D. 



Abraham, 25, 27, 237, 241. 
Acenchérés I. (King), 103, 109, 

Ammanemés, 67, 71. 
Ammenemés, 63, 65, 69, 71; (1.), 

catia vl ah A 

Peete S%ial 4191 odd οὐ, tinge δὴ ἀ69, 151. 
Achen τὴν ἐς slood) nee 550 AP opphe. 
Achés, δῷ Ln seer curs ‘0 

Achéris, ag 181. 
Achthoés, 61. 
er ao 7, 11, 13, 25, 27 oe 

ΣῊΝ Li dA Spt. OM 1884 
Aeria, 243. 

Acritae, 227: ’ 

escu us, le 

Area drlwizseids iy 489 
senile, soldat) ὁ 

Air, 197,1 

Alcandra, ΤΌΝΟΝ 

Alcandin, hgh ? 

Alexandria, 193, 195. 

Amaes, 249. 

Amasis, 235. 

Amemphis, 241. 

Amendés, 245. 

Amenemés, 235. 

Amendph, Amenéphath, 113. 

Amendphis [., 101, 109, 115, 
? 245, 2247; 1. 101, 109; 
Iil., 103, 109, 113, 115, 4179 
AV, *103, 111, 113, 117, 119, 121) 
123° n. i. 127, 129, 131, 133, 137, 
139, 143. 

—. son of Hapu, 123, 125, 

Amendphthis, 111, 155, 157, 241. 
A (is), 111, 115, 241, 245. 
Amerés, 69, 1 

Amersis, Pad 

Amesésis, 237. 

Amessé, 109. 

Amessis, 101, 

ΟΣ TH 9484 

ΜΈΣ, ἐπ 08 }Η to 
mésis (Amosés, Amusis), 19, 113, 

id's ddiw a Yo far 2s 241, 

OF, iqs194 

33 8. 
ΝΣ ORR Tee pro, 221. 

Anchoreus, 235. 

ieee uit 

Reaches ΚΝ 

93, HOdo lb 1474189, 908, 

Pac TH 

Apollodorus, 213. 

pores (Aphobis, Aphdéphis), 83 
91, 97, 99, 239. 

Arabs, 85. 

Archaés, 99. 

Archlés, 91, 97. 

Arés, 17, 23, 217. 

Argives, 107, 117, 119, 243. 

Argos, 19, 107, 117, 119, 243. 

tarchus, 235. 

Armaeus, 243. 

Armais, 117, 119. 

Armesis, 115. 

Armlysés, 235. 

Arphaxad, 27, 239. 

Arsés, 185, 187. 

Arsinoite nome, 69, 71, 73. 

Artabanus, 175. 

Artaxerxés, 175, 177. 



Serapis seated, with Cerberus at his Hes (ibid., 
No. 872). 

(3) Serapis reclining, an eagle in his right hand, 
a sceptre in his left (Babelon et Rejpach, 
Recueil général des monnaies grecques, es 


Abraham, 25, 27, 237, 241. 

Acenchérés g 
119; II. (King), 103, 109. 

Acenchérés (Queen), 103, 109. 

Acesephthrés, 235. 

Achencherés, 243. 

Achenchersés, 115. 

Acherrés, 113, 117, 119, 243. 

Achés, 43. 

Achéris, 179, 181. 

Achthoés, 61. 

Adam, 7, 11, 13, 25, 27, 233. 

‘Aeguptiaca, 99. 

ee aie Cie Lip 12.110. 191 


Aeria, 243. 

Aeritae, 227. 

Aesculapius, 45. 

Africanus, 25, 27, 29, 37, 43, 47, 57, 

111, 113, 115, 117. 
Agathodaemdn, 15, 209. 
Air, 197. 
Alcandra, 149, 151, 245. 
Alexander the Great, 187, 233. 
Alexandria, 193, 195. 
Amaes, 249. 
Amasis, 235. 
Amemphis, 241. 
Amendeés, 245. 
Amenemés, 235. 
Amenéph, Amenéphath, 113. 

Amendphis I., 101, 109, 115, 
2245, 2247; II., 101, 100; 
ἘΠῚ... 103, 109, 113, 115, 117; 
TV., 103, 111, 113, 117, 119, 121, 
123 n. 1, 127, 129, 131, 133, 137, 

139, 143. 

Amendphis, son of Hapu, 123, 125, 

Amendphthis, 111, 155, 157, 241. 
Amenses (-is), 111, 115, 241, 245. 
Amerés, 69, 173. 
Amersis, 111. 
Amesésis, 237. 
Amessé, 109. 
Amessis, 101, 

I. (King), 103, 109, 

Ammanemeés, 67, 71. 

Ammenemés, 63, 65, 69, 71; (I.), 
223; (I1.), 225, 245. 

Ammenem(n)és, 149, 151. 

Am(m)enephthés(-is), 149, 151. 

Ammenéphis: see Amendphis. 

Ammeris, 171. 

Ammon, 17, 189, 221. 

Amophis, 117. 

Amés, 111, 113. 

Amésis (Amosés, Amusis), 19, 113, 
ass 117, 171, 173, 199, 201, 241, 


Amfin, 189. 

Amuthartaeus, 225. 

Amyrtaeus (-teos, -tes), 179, 221. 

Anchoreus, 235. 

Annianus, 11 ἢ. 2, 17 n. 8. 

Andy phis, 217. 

Anubis (-es), 17, 19. 

Apachnan (-as), 83, 239. 

Apappis, 221. 

pages 23. 

Api6n, 1 

seer came "37, 39, 129, 137, 189, 203, 

on, 97, 99, 239. 
Arabs, 85 
Archaés, 99. 
Archlés, 91, 97. 
Arés, 17, 23, 217. 
Argives, 107, 117, 119, 243. 
Argos, 19, 107, 117, 119, 243. 
Aristarchus, 235. 
Armaeus, 243. 
Armais, 117, 119. 
Armesis, 115. 
Armiysés, 235. 
Arphaxad, 27, 239. 
Arsés, 185, 187. 
Arsinoite nome, 69, 71, 73. 
Artabanus, 175. 
Artaxerxés, 175, 177. 



Asclepios, 41, 43. 

Aséth, 241. 

Asia, 67, 71, 73, 89. 

Asiaties, 195. 

Assis, 83. 

Assyrians, 81, 89, 103, 171, 173. 
Athena, 191, 197, 221. 

Athens, 243. 

Athoris, 115, 243. 

Athdéthes 1., 215; 11., 215. 
Athéthis, 29, 31, 33, 215, 245. 
Atreus, 243.:- 

Auaris. 81, 87, 125, 127, 129, 137 

Babylon, 15. 

Baion, 239. 

Bebon, 189, 191. 

BérOssos, 15. 

Bicheris, 47. 

Biénechés, 29. 

Bin6éthris, 37. 

Biophis, 39. 

Bites, 5. 

Biyrés, 219. 

Bnon, 83, 91, 97. 

Bocchoris, Bochchdris, 
169, 247: 

Béchos (-us), 21, 37. 39. 

Boéthos, 35. 

Bubastis (-us), 21, 35, 37, 39, 159, 

Bubastite eee 81: 
Bydis, 5 

Cainan, 27. 

Calendar, xxviii., 99 n. 3, 233, 241. 

Cambysés, 175, 177, 245. 
Cechous, 39 (see Kaiechds). 
Cencenés, 33 (see Kenkenés), 245. 
Cenchereés, 115. 

Cerberus, 195. 

Cert6s, 241, 245. 

Chairés, 37. 

Chaidea, 15. 

Cham (Ham), 7, 23. 

Chamois, 237. 

Chebrés, 113. 

Chebrén, 101, 109, 115, 117, 241 
Chebrés, 111. 

Chencherés, 243. 

Chenerés, 37. 

Cheops, 47, 49. 

Cherés, 51. 

Cherrés, 117, 119. 


165, 167. 

Chnubos, 217. 

Cho, 33 (see Kéch6mé). 
Chomaephtha, 223. 
Chéos, 37 (see Kaichéos). 
Chuthér, 223. 

Concharis, 237, 247. 

‘ Cronos, 3, 17, 23, 199, 229. 

Croté6pus, 243. 
Cyprus, 103. 

Danaidae, 2438. 

PAS 105, 107, 117, 119, 121, 
Darius) J., 175, Uwe 1|, 27o. alia. 

Darius, 3, 185, 187. 

Demeter. 197. 

Deucalion, 113. 

Diodorus, 199. 

Dionysius, 195. 

Diospolis (or Thebes}, 21, 63, 65, 
67, 69, ὙΠ 73, (an Goa S ΝΗΙ. 
115,; 117, 249), Ε151; 1 kon, 

25, 229. 
Dispersion, 213, 233, 239. 

Earth, 197. 

. Earthquakes, 35 ἢ. 3. 

Echeskosokaras, 221, 

Egregori, 11. 

Egypt, Θ; δ. 7. 15, 17. 10 ΘΕ, 
27, 29, 41, 48, 45, 47, 61, 63, 85, 
87, 89, 91, 95, 97, 101, 103, 105, 
107, Aas 115, 117, 119, 1204938; 
95: 127, 129, 133, 135, 137: 139, 
141, 143, 145, 169, 171, 173: 175, 
177, 185, 187, 189, 195, 197, 199, 
209, 211, 215, 217; 219; 231, 233, 
235, 237, 239, "241," 5.45. 260; 
Lower, 81; Upper, 81 

Egyptians, 121, 125, 129, 133, 139, 
141, 143, 145, 147, 161, 163, 191, 
195, 197, 227, 247. 

Hileithyiaspolis, 199, 203. 

Elephantine, 51, 53. 

Enoch, 11. 

Eratosthenes, 243, 220: 

Ethiopia, 9, 129, 131, 133, 137, 139, 

Ethiopian, 167, 169, 171, 173, 229, 
243, 247. 

Europe. 67, 71, 73. 

Eurystheus, 243. 

Eusebius, 11, 13, 25, 27, 29, 31, 39, 
43, 49, 57, 115, 117. 


Exodus, 19 n. 3, 107, 110 n. 2, 
115, 119. 

Fire, 197. 
Flood, 7, 13, 15, 25, 27; 31, 37, 47, 
49, 113, 209, 233. 

Gneuros, 217. 
Gosormiés, 217. ξ 
ἄγρθορ, 117, 119, 243. 
Greeks, 243. 

Ham, 7, 23. 

Harmais, 103, 105, 109. 

Harmess¢s Miamian, 103 

Harpocratés, 223. 

Hebrews, 119. 

Hecataeus of Abdera, xxiv., 131 
n. 2. 

Helen, 245. 

Héliopolis, 23, 35, 125, 131, 139, 
145, 199, 211. 

Hélios, 3, 15, 17, 23, 199, 227. 

Héphaestus, 3, 15, 17, 23, 197, 
199, 223, 227, 229, 231. 

Héra, 199, 201. 

Héracleopolis, 61, 63. 

Héraclés, Hercules, 17, 161, 163, 
215, 223, 2252 

Hermaeus, 121. 

Hermés, 23, 209, 215, 225. 

Hermés (Trismegistus), 209, 211. 

Hermupolis, 23. 

Herodotus, 31, 33, 47, 49, 79, 205, 

Hestia, 199. 

Homer, 149, 151, 153, 245. 

Horus, 23, 191. 

Hyks6s, 85. 

Hystaspés, 175. 

Tannas, 83. 

Imuthes, 41. 

Inachus, 19. 

Indus, River, 243. 
Iéachaz, 169, 171, 173. 
Isis, 5, 17, 189, 191, 197. 
Israel, 115. 

Jerusalem 88 n. 2, 89, 101, 119 
121, 127, 137, 141, 143, 169, 171, 
173, 247. 

Jews, 77, 107, 115. 121, 131, 171. 

Joseph. 26, 89, 97, 239 

Josephus, 77, 241. 
Judaea, 89, 119. 
Jupiter, 23. 

Kaiechés, Kaichéos, 35, 37. 
Kenkenés, 29, 31. 
Kerpherés, 43. 

Khian, 83 n. 2. 

Kings, co-existing, 8 n.1. 
Kéchémé, 29, 31. 
Kourédés, 235. 

Kyphi, 203. 

Labyrinth, 69, 71, 73. 

Lachares, Lamares (-is), Lampares, 
69, 71, 73. 

Lamb, prophetic, 164 n. 2. 

Libyans, 41, 43, 45, 247. 

Luke, 27. 

Macedon, 187. 

Magi, 177. 

Malalas, 23. 

Manetho, $,44, 25, ἘΠ: 21; 23,25, 
63, 65, 67, 69, 71, 77, 79, 85, 87, 
89) 99, 101, 107, 109, 119, 125, 
133, 135, 137, 139, 141, 143, 145, 
147, 151, 153, 155, 185, 187, 189, 
195, 197, 199, 201, 203, 205, 207, 
209, 211, 227, 233, 239, 241. 

Marés, 217, 225. 

Mars, 23. 

Medes, 105. 

Memnon, 113, 115, 117, 241. 

Memphis, 5, 9, 23, 29, 31, 33, 35, 
41, 43, 45, 49, 53, 57, 59, 81, 91, 
95, 97, 129, 215, 229. 

Memphreés, 117. 

Mempses, 35. 

Mencherés L., 1]., 47, 51, 219. 

Mendés, Mendesian, 35, 37. 39, 
179, 181. 

Menelaus, 245. 

Menes, Mén, Min, Mineus, 21, 29, 
31, 33, 215, 233, 235. 

Menthesuphis, 55. 

Méphram(m)uthdsis, 101, 109. 

Méphrés, 101, 109. 

Mercury, 23. 

Mes6chris, 43. 

Mestraea, 235, 243. 

Mestraei, 227. 

Mestraim, Mestrem, Mizraim, 7, 9, 
15, 25, 233, 235, 239. 

Methusuphis, 53. 



Meurés, 223. 

Miabaés, 215. 

Miamifs, 237. 

Miebis, 29. 

Mieirés, 223. 

Min, Mineus: see Menes. 

Miphrés, 115. 

Misaphris, 113. 

Mispharmuthosis, 117. ἢ 

MEP eemnine’, 87, 118, 115, 


Misphrés, 241. 

Mnevis, 35, 37, 39. 

Momcheiri, 215. 

Moon, 195, 197. 

Moscherés, 219. 

Moses, 25, 107, 111, 115, 119, 131, 
133, 139, 145, 147. 

Mosthés, 219. 

Muthes (-is), 181. 

Myrtaeus, 221. 

Narachéd, 23, 25. 

Nechao I., 169, 171, 173, 249; ΠΙ., 
169, 171, 173, 249. 

Nechepsds, 169, 171, 173, 245. 

Nechepsus, 249. 

Necherocheus, 21. 

Necheréchis, 43, 45. 

Necheréphés, 41. 

Nectanabé, 25, 233. 

Nectanebés (-is), 183, 185. 

Nectanebus, 183, 185. 

Nephecherés, 247. 

Nephelcherés, Nephercherés, 37, 

bl, 155) 157, 
Nepherités 1 701815 {ΠῚ 
179, 181. 

Niebais, 31, 35. 

Nile, 37, 39, 81, 125, 129, 197, 225. 

Nitécris, 55, 57, 221. 
Noah, 7, 23. 

Ocean, 197. 
Ochth6is, 61. 

dchus, 185, 187. 

Ochyras, 245. 

Odyssey, 2.45. 

Olympic festival, 161. 

Onnus, 51. 

Or, Orus, 5, 17, 19, 103, 109, 113, 
, 115, 117, 121, 243. 

Orus the grammarian, 207. 
Osarséph, 125, 131, 139, 147. 


Osiris, 5, 17, 19, 23, 69, 71, 73, 181, 
139, 189, 197. 

dsiropis, 235. 

Osochér, 155, 157. 

Osorchéd, 161. 

Osorth6n, 159, 161, 163, 247. 

Osérthén, 247. 

Othius, 53. 

Othoés, 51, 68. 

Othoi, 21. 

Paapis, 123, 129. 

Pachnan, 91. 

Palaephatus, 23. 

Pammeés, 219. 

Pamphilus, 11, 25. 

Panodérus, 11, 18, 

Pelopidae, 243. 

Pelops, 243. 

Pelusium, 105, 140 n., 143. 

Pemphés, 215. 

Pepi, 221. 

Perseus, 243. 

Persian Kings, 175, 177, 185, 187, 
231, 243 

Persians, 3, 175, 185, 187. 

Peteathyrés, 223. 

Petubastés (-is), 163, 247. 

Petubatés, 161. 

Phaeth6n, 23. 

Phalec, 239. 

Pharaoh, 23, 109, 237, 239, 241, 249. 

Phidps, 53, 55. 

Phius, 53. 

Phoenicia, 91, 95, 97, 99, 103. 

Phruoré (Phuord), 225. 

Phusanus, 245. 

Pluto, 193, 195. 

Polyaenus, 243 

Polybus, 149, +61, 158, 245. 

Potter’s oracle, viii. n. ΕΝ 128 n. 1. 

Psammecherités, 171. 

Psam(m)étichus I., 169, 171, 173, 
249; IT., 169, 171, 173, 249: ΠΙ., 

Psammus, 247. 

Psammiis, 161, 163. 

Psammuthis, Psamuthés, 169, 173, 
179, 181, 245, 249. 

Psin(n)achés, 155, 157, 247. 

Psuenus, 247. 

age en I., 155, 157; IT., 155, 

Peoleiaeual Claudius, 231. 


Ptolemy of Mendes, vili., x., 19 
n. 3, 226 n. 1. 

Ptolemy Philadelphus, 15, 209, 211. 

Ptolemy Sétér, 193, 195. 

Pyramid, the Great, 47, 49. 

Queens, 37 ἢ. 1, 54 ἢ. 2, 

Ram, 231. 

Ramessamend, 237. 

Ramessé, 237. 

Ramessé Iubassé, 237. 

Rames(s)és, 103, 109, 113, 117, 119, 
237, 243 (= Aegyptus), 245. 

Ramessés IT., 103, 149. 

Ramessés Miammfi(n), 109. 

Ramessése6s, 237. 

Rames(s)omenés, 237 

Rampsés (-is), 121, 133, 161, 245. 

Rapsacés, 149. 

Rapsés, 129. 

Rathés, 113. 

Rathdtis, 103, 109. 

Rathurés, 61. 

Ratoisés, 47. 

Rayésis, 219. 

Rhea, 199. 

Sabacén, 167, 169, 247. 

Sacrifice, human, 198 n. 2. 

Sais, 9, 91 n. 4, 99, 165, 167, 168 
n. 1, 169, 171, 173, 179, 229, 231. 

Saite nome, 81, 91, 95, 97, 99. 

Saités, 91, 95, 97, 99, 247. 

Saitic, 99. 

Salitis, 81, 83. 

Sadphis I., 219, 

Saracus, 169. 

Saturn(us), 2, 23. 

Scemiophris, 69. 

Scripture, Holy Scriptures, 13, 25, 
231, 237, 241. 

Sebéchon, 247. 

Sebennytus, xi. n. 1, 15, 23, 183, 
185, 189, 195, 209, 211. 

Sebercherés, 47. 

Sebichés, 167, 169. 

Semempsés, 29, 33, 215. 

Semphrucratés, 223. 

II., 219. 

Serapis, 189, 195. 
Sériadic, 209. 
Sesdchris, 87, 39, 41. 

Ses6nchis, 159. 

ne 67, 69, 71, 159, 161, 

Sesorthos, Sosorthus, 43, 45. 

Sesortésis, 225. 

Seséstris, 67, 71. 

Séth, 191. 

Sethenés, 37. 

Sethinilus, 221. 

Sethds (Ramessés), 103, 105, 111, 
121, 129, 149, 151, 241. 

Sethésis, 105. 

Sethroite nome, 80 n. 3, 81, 91, 
95, 97, 99. 

Shepherds, Shepherd Kings, 85, 87, 
89, 91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 101, 107, 
121, 125, 127, 131, 133, 137, 139. 

Silités, 239. 

Sindpé, 193, 195. 

Siphthas, 225. 

Sirius, 217. 

Sisirés, 51. 

Sistosichermés, 225. 

Sistosis, 225. 

Smendés (-is), 155, 157. 

Smy, 191. 

Sogdianus, 175, 177. 

Soicuniosochus, 223. 

paras (-ius), 223. 

Sol, 2, 

ἌΡ Δα 131. 

Séris, 47. 

Sésibius, 195. 

Sosinosiris, 19. 

Sésis, 3" ae, 23. 


Ἐὰν Ἢ G Sétadés), 23. 

Sotelés, 195. 

Sothic Cycle, xxvii. f., 229, 235, 239. 

Sothis, xxvii n., 235. 

Séy phis, 43. 

Spanius, 235. 

Spirit, 197. 

Staan, 91. 

Stammenemés I., 223; II., 225. 

Stephinatés (-thés, -this), 169, 171, 
173, 249. 

Sthenelus, 243. 

Stoichos, 217. 

Pau, ὃ, 15, 17, 195, 197, 217, 221, 

Suphis I., 47, 49; II., 47. 
Susakeim, 247. 

Susennés, 155. 

Syria, 89, 133, 139 143. 



Tacaléphis, 247. 

Tacelothis, Takeléthis, 159, 161. 

Tancheres, 51. 

Tanis, 23, 155 157. 161, 163, 229 
231, 239. 

Tanite nome, 80 η. 3. 

Taracés, 249. 

Taracus, Tarcus, 167, 169. 

Tat, 209. 

Temple (Solomon’s), 118 n., 119, 

159 n. 1. 
Tethmodsis, 101, 109 121, 127, 241 
Teds, 183, 185. 
Thamphthis, 47. 
Thebaid, 87. 
Thebans, 213. 

Thebes, 93, 95, 215, 217, 219, 221, 

223, 225: see Diospolis. 
Thirillus, 221. 
This, 5, 9, 29, 31, 33, 35. 
Thmésis, 101. 
Thdéth, 209. 
Thrace, 67, 71, 73. 
Threats to the gods, 200 n. 3. 
Thulis, 23. 
Thummésis, 87. 
Thudris, 149, 151, 153, 245. 
Timotheus, 195. 
Tithoés, 17. 
Tlas, 37. 
Témaephtha, 223. 
Tongues, Confusion of, 233, 
Tosertasis, 43. 
Tosorthros, 41. 
Tower (of Babel), 233. 


Tréglodytes, 247. 

Trojan war, 107. 

Troy, 149, 151, 153, 245. 

Cuthmdses (-is). 109 113. 115. 117 

Tutimaeus, 79. 

Typhon, 5, 17, 19, 125, 189, 191, 
201, 203. 

Typhonian, 193. 

Tyreis, Tyris, 43. 

Uaphrés (-is), 171, 173, 237, 249, 
Ubienthés, 33. 

Uenephés, 29, 31. 

Uennephis, 245. 

Udsimarés, 221. 

Usaphais, 29, 31, 35. 

Usercherés, 51. 

Usés, 237. 

Usimare(s), 237. 

Vavenephis (see Uenephés), 33. 
Venus, 23. 

Vibenthis, 35. 

Vuleanus, 2. 

Water, 197. 

Xerxes 1. (the Great), 175, 177, 
11... 275, 11 
Χοῖβ, 75. 

Zét, 161 
Zeus, a7 23, 133, 189, 197, 199. 
Zodiac, 13, 531, 











First PRINTED . 1940 
REPRINTED . 1948, 1956, 1964 

Printed in Great Britain at The University Press, Aberdeen 









Four ANGLES . . Ὶ ‘ 
Or SoLstTITIAL, EQurNoctiat, SOLID, AND 
Signs oF Equat PowER . Ἴ ἢ ἐ 
Or DissunctT SIGNS 2 F 

Or EXALTATIONS . : z ς : : 


OTHER POWERS 5 3 3 ‘ ᾿ 





. Or MonstERS ἔ 

. Or Leneta or LIFE 


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OF THE DEGREE OF THE Horoscoric Pont 

Or PARENTS : ΐ 5 ἕ 
Or TwInNs. ε τ Ρ a 

eo. @ δὲ «@ © ὧν oe οἱ δὲ © @ 




Or MarRIAGE Ἐ ἃ 

Or THE Quauity or DEATH 

INDEX . A τ : =) 

eabpeeeews ws, e 









From his own day well into the Renaissance Claudius 
Ptolemy’s name was well-nigh pre-eminent in astro- 
nomy, geography, and astrology alike. ‘“* The divine 
Ptolemy,” he is called by Hephaestion of Thebes,} 
and the expression shows that the reverence accorded 
him fell little short of idolatry. In such circum- 
stances it is surprising that all we know of Ptolemy’s 
personal history must be pieced together from 
passages in his own works, two scholia in ancient 
manuscripts, and brief notices to be found in later 
writers, some of them Arabian.2 The result, when 
the reliable is summed up and the false or fanciful 
subtracted, is meagre indeed. We can probably rely 
upon the reports that he was born at Ptolemais in 
Egypt 8 and lived to the age of 78 ; * he tells us that 
his astronomical observations were made on the 

1 In Catalogus Codicum Astrologicorum Graecorum (here- 
after cited as CCAG), viii. 2, p. 81, 2. 

2The sources are collected and discussed by Εἰ, Boll, 
*“Studien tuber Claudius Ptolemaus,’? Jahrb. f. Cl. Ph., 
Supplementbd. xxi. 1894, pp. 53-66 (hereafter cited as 
Boll, Studien). 

3 Theodore of Melité is the authority; Boll, op. cit., 
pp. 54-55. An eleventh-century work of Abulwafa (ibid., 
pp. 58-62) gave rise to the belief that he was born at 
Pelusium, so that, e.g., he is called [IjAovarevs in the title 
of the first edition of the T'etrabiblos. 

4 This comes from Abulwafa. 


parallel of Alexandria, which convinces Boll that 
Alexandria was his home, although there is another 
tradition ' that for 40 years he observed at Canopus, 
which was about 15 miles east of Alexandria, and it 
is known that he erected votive stelae in the temple 
at Canopus inscribed with the fundamental principles 
of his doctrines.2, Combining the various traditions 
with the fact that the earliest of his observations 
recorded in the Almagest was made in 127 and the 
latest in 151, we may conclude, further, that his 
life fell approximately in the years 100-178,° covering 
the first three-quarters of the second century of our 
era and the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus 
Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. 

A detailed and not too flattering description of 
Ptolemy’s personal appearance and habits goes back, 
again, to the Arabic tradition, and has been repeated 
in some of the modern editions of Ptolemy’s works, 

1 Preserved by Olympiodorus (fourth century), In Plat. 
Phaed., p. 47, 16 (Finckh). 

2 Boll, Studien, p. 66. Heiberg gives the text in his 
edition of the Opera astronomica minora of Ptolemy 
(Leipzig, 1907), pp. 149 ff. 

3'This is Boll’s conclusion (op. cit., p. 64), accepted by 
Christ, Griechische Litteraturgeschichte, 6th ed., 1924, ii. 2, 
p. 896. Boll, zb¢d., pp. 63, 65, cites the passages of the 
Almagest which refer to the dated observations. He points 
out that a very slight change in the text of Almagest, x. 1, 
would make the date of the latest observation 141 instead 
of 15], but though this would, perhaps, agree better with 
some of the traditions, there is no real reason for altering 
the figure. 

4 #.q. in the preface of the Latin version of the Almagest 
published at Venice in 1515; and the preface of the 
translation of the Tetrabiblos by Whalley (see below, 
p. ΧΙ). 



but on examination it proves to be nothing but the 
stock characterization of the philosopher given by 
the Greek physiognomists.! There is, in fact, no 
more to be learned about Ptolemy from external 
sources, and his own works contain little that is 
biographical. We learn from them, however, that 
he took, in general, an Aristotelian position philo- 
sophically, though his predilection for mathematics 
led him to regard that division of science with far 
greater reverence than the more biologically minded 
Aristotle.2, One of his minor works and chapters 
in the longer ones are philosophical and testify to 
his knowledge of and interest in the subject. Though 
he was himself amply capable of original thought, 
he was acquainted with the work and writings of 
his predecessors, of Menelaus in mathematics, of 
Hipparchus in astronomy, of Marinus of Tyre in 
geography, of Didymus in music, and of Posidonius 
in astrological ethnology and the arguments whereby 
astrology was defended. He drew freely and openly 
from them, and had the gift of systematizing the 
materials with which he dealt, a characteristic which 
is especially evident in the Tetrabiblos. 

The works, genuine and false, ascribed to Ptolemy 
are: (1) the Almagest or Syntaxis Mathematica, 
in 13 books, the great treatise on astronomy ; 
(2) Φάσεις ἀπλανῶν ἀστέρων Kai συναγωγὴ ἐπισημα- 
σιῶν (** On the Apparitions of the Fixed Stars and 
a Collection of Prognostics”’); (3) “Ὑποθέσεις τῶν 
πλανωμένων (“On the Planetary Hypothesis ”’) ; 
(4) Κανὼν βασιλειῶν (** Table of Reigns ”’), a chrono- 

! Boll, Studien, pp. 58-62. 
2 Op. cit., pp. 66-111, 131-163. 


logical table of reigns; (5) “Appovxdr βιβλία y’ 
(‘On Music,” in three books) ; (6) the Tetrabiblos, of 
which later; (7) [epi ἀναλήμματος. De Analemmate, 
the description of a sphere on a plane (extant only 
in translation); (8) Planisphaerium, “‘ The Plani- 
sphere ”’; (9) the Optics, in 5 books (its genuineness 
has been doubted); (10) the Kapzés or Centiloquium, 
a collection of astrological aphorisms (generally 
thought to be spurious); (11) the Geography; 
(12) the Πρόχειροι κανόνες or “‘ Ready (astronomical) 
Tables”; (13) Προχείρων κανόνων διάταξις καὶ 
ψηφοφορία. ““Scheme and Manipulation of the 
Ready Tables”; (14) Περὶ κριτηρίου καὶ ἡγεμο- 
νικοῦ, a short treatise dealing with the theory of 
knowledge and the soul. Of these, the Almagest, 
since it is mentioned in the Geography, the Ὑποθέσεις, 
and the Tetrabiblos, and since it contains no reference 
to observations after the year 151, was certainly not 
the latest. The three books mentioned, and possibly 
others, belong to the last third of the author’s life. 


The treatise with which we are especially con- 
cerned is now, and usually has been, called the 
Tetrabiblos or Quadripartitum, but more accurately 
it should be ᾳαωθηματικὴ τετράβιβλος σύνταξις, 
** Mathematical Treatise in Four Books,” which 
is the title found in some of the MSS.) and is 
likely to have been that used by Ptolemy himself. 
Many of the MSS.. however, use the title Ta πρὸς 

'E.g. N (see below). Τ7Τετράβιβλος alone is used by P 
and ἃ. 



Σύρον aroteAcopatixa,' “ The Prognostics addressed 
to Syrus,” in which certain of them substitute the 
similar but less common word συμπερασματικά for 
ἀποτελεσματικά.Σ The book is a systematic treatise 
on astrology, but it should be remembered that in 
Ptolemy’s time the two words: ἀστρολογία and 
ἀστρονομία meant much the same thing, “ astro- 
nomy,” and that he called what we mean by 
“ astrology ᾿᾿ τὸ δι᾿ ἀστρονομίας προγνωστικόν.3 ““ prog- 
nostication through astronomy,” which indeed it was, 
in his estimation. 

In antiquity and the middle ages no one thought it 
inconsistent with Ptolemy’s reputation as a scientific 
astronomer that he should also have written upon 
astrology, and consequently the Tetrabiblos passed 
without question as genuine.’ More lately, however, 
this wedding of astrology to astronomy has come to 
seem incongruous and for that reason the authenticity 
of the work has been challenged by certain scholars.° 
In this brief introduction the question, of course, 
cannot be argued fully. There are, however, two 
reasons for dismissing any doubts concerning the 
authorship of the book. The first is that by the 
second century of our era the triumph of astrology 

1#.g. VMDE. Syrus is otherwise unknown. The 
Anonymous who comments on the Tetrabiblos says that 
some considered it a fictitious name, others that Syrus 
was a physician skilled in astrology. Several other works 
of Ptolemy—notably the Almagest—are dedicated to him. 

2 Hig. A. 3 Tetrabiblos, i. ad init. 

4 Boll, Studien, pp. 127-131. 

5 Chiefly Hultsch. Cf. Boll’s remarks in his paper 
* Zur Ueberlieferungsgeschichte der griechischen Astrologie 

und Astronomie,”’ Sitzungsber.d. Miinch. Ak., phil.-hist. Cl., 
1899, pp. 77 ff. 



was complete.! With few exceptions every one, 
from emperor to the lowliest slave, believed in it, 
and having weathered the criticism of the New 
Academy, astrology was defended by the powerful 
Stoic sect. Its position was strengthened by the 
prevalence of stellar and solar religion throughout 
the world, and it even captured the sciences, such 
as medicine, botany, mineralogy, chemistry, and 
ethnography. Furthermore, this continued to be 
the situation, in general, well into the Renaissance. 
Regiomontanus, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Galileo, 
Kepler, and Leibnitz all either practised astrology 
themselves or countenanced its practice. There is 
really no basis, therefore, for thinking it incongruous 
that Ptolemy should have believed in astrology or 
written upon it. The second reason for accepting 
him as the author of the Tetrabiblos is, as Boll? has 
sufficiently demonstrated, that the book, in its general 
philosophic views, its language, and its astronomy, 
is entirely in accord with the Ptolemaic works whose 
genuineness has never been questioned. These 
arguments are too lengthy to be repeated here. 


Though the Tetrabiblos enjoyed almost the au- 
thority of a Bible among the astrological writers of 
a thousand years or more, its Greek text has been 

See, for example, Chapters II-III of Boll-Bezold, 
Sternglaube und Sterndeutung (ed. 3, revised by W. Gundel). 
Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1926. F.Cumont, Astrology and 
Religion among the Greeks and Romans. New York: 
Putnam, 1912. 

2 Studien, pp. 111-181. 



printed only three times, and not at all since the 
sixteenth century. The editions are as follows: 

(1) The first edition, edited by Joachim 
Camerarius, was printed by Froben at Nirnberg 
in 1535 in quarto. Besides the text, it contains 
Camerarius’ Latin translation of Bks. I-II and of 
parts of Bks. [fI-IV, and his notes on Bks. I-II, the 
Greek text of the Kapzos, and a Latin translation 
by J. Pontanus. 

(2) The second edition, also by Camerarius, was 
printed by Joannes Oporinus in octavo at Basel in 
1553.1 This contains the Greek text of the Tetra- 
biblos, a Latin translation by Philip Melanchthon, 
and the Καρπός in both Greek and Latin. In the 
preparation of the first edition Camerarius had 
relied upon the Niirnberg codex (N in the list on 
p- Xvii), in which his marks to guide the printer are 
still to be seen. He claims for his second edition 
to have corrected many mistakes in the text, and he 
has indeed managed to do away with many errors 
and misprints which are to be found in the first 
edition; but apparently, too, he made use of one 
or more additional MSS., probably of the general 
type of A in our list below, from which he introduced 
nearly a hundred readings at variance with N, and 

1 Κλαυδίου Πτολεμαίου Π]ηλουσιέως τετράβιβλος σύνταξις πρὸς 
Σύρον ἀδελφόν. Τοῦ αὐτοῦ Καρπός, πρὸς τὸν αὐτὸν Σύρον. 
Claudii Ptolemaet Pelusiensis libri quatuor, compositt Syro 
fratri. Hiusdem Fructus librorum suorum, sive Centum 
dicta, ad eundem Syrum. Innumeris quibus hucusque 
scatebant mendis, purgati. Basileae, per loannem Opori- 
num. This is the title page of the Greek text. Tho 
portion containing the translations has a separate title 



in some seventy-five other instances he altered the 
text by outright emendation. In spite of the at- 
tempted improvement the second edition retains 
some forty misprints or mistakes, half of them newly 
introduced ; its punctuation is most illogical, and it 
is far from reproducing what seems to be the best 
tradition of the manuscripts. 

(3) Fr. Junctinus included the Greek text of the 
Tetrabiblos in his Speculum astrologiae, the second 
edition of which, in two folio volumes, was issued at 
Leyden in 1581. Junctinus made no attempt to 
improve the text as already published. 

Professor Franz Boll, whose studies of Ptolemy 
have been cited many times already, had begun 
work upon a new edition of the Tetrabiblos prior 
to his lamented death, July 3, 1924. His pupil, 
Fraulein Emilie Boer, however, continued Boll’s task, 
and the appearance of their completed text has 
been awaited since 1926.1 I regret very much that 
my own work on the present text and translation 
could not have profited from the results of the 
textual studies of these two scholars. 

Translations of the Tetrabiblos have been more 
numerous than texts. The oldest of them is the 
Arabian version, by Ishaq ben Hunein, made in the 
ninth century. Thence in turn Plato Tiburtinus, in 
1138, and Aegidius de Thebaldis, in the middle of 
the thirteenth century, made Latin translations, 

1T am told that the work was completed in this year. 
It has been announced as Vol. III, Fase. 1, of Ptolemaei 
opera omnia in the well-known Bibliotheca Classica, pub- 
lished by B. G. Teubner, Leipzig. The year of publication 
is unknown to the writer as this is written. 



which were the chief means whereby Western 
Europe knew the Tetrabiblos up to the time of the 
first edition of the Greek text. Printed editions of 
these translations—the first dated 1484—appeared,' 
and they were also circulated in manuscript form. 
More important are the Latin translations made 
directly from the Greek, beginning with that of 
Camerarius himself, which was printed both with 
his text, as noted above, and by itself.2 The trans- 
lation by Antonius Gogava, first issued at Louvain 
in 1543, was several times reprinted at other places, 
for instance, at Padua in 1658, and was the version 
used by Cardanus to accompany his commentary. 
Philip Melanchthon’s translation made its appear- 
ance in 1553, as we have seen; this, too, was issued 
separately later. An English translation by John 
Whalley was published in 1701 and in a second 
edition in 1786,4 which, as Ashmand says, “‘ was not, 
in any one instance, purified from the blunders and 
obseurities which disgraced its predecessor.” In 

1On the early Latin versions see Thorndike, History of 
Magicand Experimental Science (New York, 1923), I, p. 110. 
MSS. of the Arabic version exist at the Escurial and in 
the Laurentian Library at Florence. 

2 Printed by Joannes Petreius, Nirnberg, 1535, with 
Camerarius’ notes. 

3 H.g. a rudely printed duodecimo from the press of the 
heirs of Petrus Thomasius, Perusia, 1646, is in the writer’s 
own library. 

4 The Quadripartite ; or, Four Books Concerning the In- 
fluences of the Stars ... by Claudius Ptolemy. ... By 
John Whalley, Professor of Physic and Astrology, and 
Others. The Second Edition, Revised, Corrected, and 
Improved. London: Printed for the Editors, and sold 
by M. Sibley . . . and E. Sibley . . . 1786. 



truth, Ptolemy is not easy to translate accurately, 
and though Whalley’s version is worse than the 
others, all show a certain willingness to disguise 
the difficulties with smooth-sounding but non-com- 
mittal phrases.+ 

The importance and popularity of the Tetrabiblos 
is shown by the number of commentaries upon it 
which have been made. In antiquity, as we deduce 
from expressions used in writings still extant, a con- 
siderable number existed; the name of one com- 
mentator, Pancharios, survives, but none of his 
work except a few quotations.’ Three such treatises 
which did survive, however, were edited by Hierony- 
mus Wolf and published with Latin translations in 
folio at Basel in 1559. These are (1) an anonymous 
commentary on the Tetrabiblos, attributed by some, 
as Wolf says, to Proclus ; (2) an introduction to the 
Tetrabiblos, to which the name of Porphyry is at- 
tached, though its authorship is by no means certain ; 
(3) the scholia of Demophilus. These have not been 
republished, but are to be found in a number of 
manuscripts. Of greater importance for the study 
of the Tetrabiblos is the Paraphrase attributed to 
Proclus, but which, of course, may not have been 
his at all. Since it follows the Tetrabiblos very 

German translations also exist ; e.g. by J. W. Pfaff in 
his Astrologisches Taschenbuch, 1822-23 (mentioned by 
Christ, Gr. Litteraturgeschichte), and one by M. E. Winkel, 
Linseverlag, 1923, which is based on the Latin of Melanch- 
thon (v. W. Gundel in Jahresb. %. die Fortschritte d. Kl. Alt. 
241, 1934, p. 74). 

* Boll, Studien, p. 127. 

3 £.g. ap. CCAG, viii. 2, p. 67, 18 ff.; ¢f. Kroll, Philologus, 
Ivii (1897), p. 123. 



closely, and since, as it happens, one manuscript of 
the Paraphrase is older than any of those of the 
Tetrabiblos, this document must be taken into con- 
sideration by any editor of the latter work. The 
first and only edition of the Paraphrase, with a pre- 
face by Melanchthon, appeared at Basel in 1554,} 
and the standard Latin version, from which at least 
two English translations have been made,” is that 
of Leo Allatius (Elzevir, Leyden, 1635). Besides 
the Paraphrase and the ancient commentaries, the 
elaborate commentary by Hieronymus Cardanus, 
published in the sixteenth century, should also be 
mentioned.? τ 

There are in European libraries at least thirty-five 
manuscripts containing all or a large part of the 
Tetrabiblos, besides a considerable number which 
contain partial texts or astrological miscellanies in 
which Ptolemy is cited along with other writers. 
Parts of the Tetrabiblos, too, are quoted by other 

1 Πρόκλου τοῦ διαδόχου τῶν ἀσαφῶς εἰρημένων ΠΠτολεμαίῳ, 
καὶ δυσπαρακολουθήτως ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ τετραβίβλῳ, ἐπὶ τὸ 
σαφέστερον καὶ δυσπαρακολούθητον [sic] μεταχείρησις. Procli 
paraphrasis in quatuor Ptolemaeit libros de Siderum 
effectionibus. Cum _ praefatione Philippi Melanthonis. 
Basileae, apud Joannem Oporinum [1554]. 

2J.M. Ashmand, Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos or Quadripartite, 
etc. London: Davis and Dickson, 1822. James Wilson, 
The Tetrabiblos or Quadripartite of Ptolemy, etc. London: 
W. Hughes |1828). Charpulier, Les Discourses, eic., 150, 
n. 2, cites a Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos, by J. M. Ashmand, 
London, 1917. 

% Editions were published at Basel in 1554 and 1579, at 
Leyden in 1555, and in the fifth volume of Cardanus’ 
works (Leyden: Huguetan and Revaud, 1663). 



authors, like Hephaestion of Thebes. Finally, there 
are a few manuscripts with Latin or Arabic trans- 
lations. In spite of this volume of material, how- 
ever, the earliest text of the Tetrabiblos itself is only 
of the thirteenth century. There is but one full 
manuscript even of this degree of antiquity, and 
only two or three from the fourteenth century ; most 
of them are from the fifteenth and sixteenth. In 
view of this fact it is fortunate that we have one 
(but only one) manuscript of the Paraphrase which 
antedates all of these, having been written in the 
tenth century. 

In preparing the present text of the Tetrabiblos I 
have been obliged to work entirely with photographs 
and photostats. However, by a fortunate circum- 
stance, I was able to secure a collection of these 
which had been brought together by a German 
scholar unknown to me and which apparently in- 
cludes the most important manuscripts.1 Those 
manuscripts, therefore, which have been collated 
and used, and the symbols which I have used to 
refer to them, are as follows : 5 

V: Vaticanus gr. 1038, 5. XIII. Contains a num- 
ber of the works of Euclid, Hypsicles, and Hero, and 
an almost complete collection of the writings of 
Ptolemy, with the Tetrabiblos on ff. 352-384yv.; the 
ending, after p. 207, 19 (Cam.?), does not appear. 
Heiberg (Deutsche Litieraturzeitung, 1900, p. 417) 

1The purchase of this collection was made possible by 
the Faculty Research Fund of the University of Michigan. 
It was accompanied by an anonymous description of the 
MSS. of the Tetrabiblos, to which I am indebted for infor- 
mation about many MSS. which I could not personally 

2 Of F and H only a few sample pages have been available. 



believes that it was largely copied from Vat. gr. 
1594, S. IX, which contains other Ptolemaic texts in 
a relatively pure form but does not, now at least, 
include the Tetrabiblos. A distinctive feature of this 
manuscript is the large number of small lacune 
left by the scribe when he could not read _ his 
archetype or found it defective. In this Boll sees 
an indication of faithfulness and reliability. Cf. 
I. Boll, “‘ Zur Ueberlieferungsgeschichte der grie- 
chischen Astrologie und Astronomie,”’ Sitzungsberichte 
d. K. B. Akad. d. Wiss. zu Munchen, phil.-hist. Cl., 
1899, pp. 77 ff.; CCAG, v. 1, no. 9. 

D: Parisinus gr. 2509, S. XV. Contains the 
Tetrabiblos on ff. 14-81v., followed by the Kapzos. 
Cf. Omont, Inv. ii. 274; CCAG, viii. 3, no. 82. 
A copy of V, but the lacune were filled in from 
another source. 

P: Parisinus gr. 2425, S. XV. Contains the 
Teirabiblos on ff. 8-63v. The most immediately 
striking feature of this manuscript is its constant 
mis-spelling of words due to the confusion of au and 
€, εἰ, ἡ: and t,o and w, for example: that is, the 
confusions typical of late Greek. They may indicate 
that the manuscript (or an ancestor) was copied 
from dictation. P also has an ending which differs 
from the final sentences of the Camerarius editions 
and most other manuscripts. 

L: Oxon. Laud, gr. 50,5. XVI. A copy of P, 
of no independent value. Paris. Suppl. gr. 597 is 
another copy of P. 

N: Norimbergensis Cent. V, app. 8, S. XVI. 
This is the basis of Camerarius’ text. It contains 
the Tetrabiblos (to p. 187, 6 Cam. only) on ff. 1-59v. 
Cf. CCAG, vii. no. 42. 



A: Vaticanus gr. 208, S. XIV exeuntis. This 
manuscript uses the term συμπερασματικά in the 
title instead of ἀποτελεσματικά. Ἐ and H below are 
related to A. Mercati and De’ Cavalieri, Codices 
Vaticani graeci, i (Rome, 1923); CCAG, v. 1, no. 6. 

E: Monacensis gr. 419, 5. XIV. In this manu- 
script book and chapter headings are missing, and 
the ending is omitted (from p. 212, 7 Cam.). It 
is closely related to M (below), but in the latter 
the missing parts have been supplied in a second 

F: Venetus Mare. 323, S. XV. Contains the 
Tetrabiblos on ff. 403-461. Zanetti, Bibliotheca, p. 146; 
Morelli, Bibliotheca, p. 195 ; CCAG, ii. no. 4. 

G: Vindobonensis philos. gr. 115, 5. XIII. Con- 
tains a portion of Book II of the Tetrabiblos in 
ff. 7-lov. Cf. Boll, Sitzungsb. Munch. Ak. 1899, i. 
Ρ. 84. 

H: Venetus Marc. 324, S. XIV-XV. The Tetra- 
biblos is on ff. 156r.-189v. Zanetti, p. 149; Morelli, 
p- 207; CCAG, ii. no. 5. 

M: Venetus Mare. 314, S. XIV ineuntis. Con- 
tains the Tetrabiblos on ff. 1-7T6v. See on E, above. 
Zanetti, p. 146; Morelli, p. 195: CCAG, ii. no. 3. 

Besides the manuscripts of the Tetrabiblos itself 
the oldest manuscript of the Paraphrase has been 
utilized: Vaticanus gr. 1453, 5. X, containing this 
text on ff. 1-219. Thisis cited as Proc. Camerarius’ 
two editions of the Tetrabiblos are cited respectively 
as Cam.! and Cam.*, or simply Cam., if they agree. 

A puzzling problem connected with the manu- 
scripts of the Tetrabiblos concerns their ending. In 
one group the conclusion is entirely missing, and has 



either been left so! or an ending supplied which is 
identical with that of Proclus’ Paraphrase;* in the 
other an ending appears which is considerably 
longer than the former, but which is precisely the 
same in its general content, and is to be found in 
the Arabic version of the Tetrabiblos.2 One thing is 
certain: the first of these endings is spurious. Of 
course it does not follow that the other is genuine ; 
if it is not, however, the original ending of the book 
must have been lost so early that it is missing in 

all the manuscripts. This is a situation that not 
infrequently occurred in ancient times, especially 
when a book was from the first existent in the form 
of a codex, not a roll; yet I am not ready to concede 
it in this instance, for these reasons: (a) the ending 
shown in P could readily, from its language, have 

1V breaks off at p. 207, 19 Cam.?, E at p. 212, 7 (the 
beginning of the concluding passage). WN also in its present 
state lacks the conclusion (from p. 187, 6 Cam.?), but this 
may have been lost at the time the first edition was made, 
and since Camerarius probably made some use of at least 
one other MS. we cannot be sure whether N originally had 
the conclusion or, if so, if it was of the type which 
Camerarius actually printed (1.6. the one taken from the 
Paraphrase). Ν in general resembles P and one would 
have expected it to have the same conclusion as P. On 
the other hand, if it did, one would have expected 
Camerarius to reproduce it, for it is unlikely that he 
would have departed from his preferred MS. in so important 
a particular. 

2MAD. D, after the point at which V ends, is written 
in a different ink ; the conclusion of M (p. 212, 7 ff. Cam.) 
is in a different hand. 

3 P and its copies alone have this ending. My colleague, 
Professor William H. Worrell, has examined the conclusion 
of the Arabic version as it appears in Cod. Laur. Orient. 
352, ff. 234v.-235r. It is close to, but perhaps not identical 
with, the ending of P. 



been written by Ptolemy himself ;1 (6) the ending 
taken from the Paraphrase is obviously a summary 
of that found in P, and I cannot conceive how any- 
one (¢xcept perhaps Ptolemy) could have reversed 
the process and evolved the tortuous, crabbed 
Greek of the latter from the comparatively simple 
language of the former. Thus the ending found in 
P has the better claim to originality, and if it was 
not written by Ptolemy in the first place it is ex- 
tremely difficult to explain how it came to be written 
at all in the form in which we find it. Since the 
question, however, is admittedly complicated, and 
not all the extant manuscripts could be studied in 
preparing this edition, both endings have been in- 
cluded in the text and translation. 

In constructing the text which follows, my under- 
lying purpose has been to abide by the best manu- 
script tradition; very few emendations have been 

1 Τῦ echoes many words and thoughts found in p. 106, 
25-108, 10 Cam.?, which need not be separately enumerated ; 
not, however, in a manner which would indicate that it is 
a forgery based on the passage, for Ptolemy elsewhere 
repeats phrases in much the same way, especially when 
he wishes to point out that he is carrying out a pre- 
determined scheme. Note, however, in addition, that 
ἁρμόζειν and ἐφαρμόζειν are favourite words of Ptolemy, 
and cef., for example, pp. 17. 1-2, 117. 6, 120. 9 Cam.? and 
p- 1. 21 (with Boll, Studien, p. 171); ef. with διοδευομένου 
the similar forms of ἐφοδεύω and ἐφοδικῶς, pp. 103. 13, 
18; 106. 26; 202. 16 Cam.?; and Boll, op. cit., p. 179; and 
with διὰ τὴν... πρόθεσιν, cf. p. 202. 18, ὥσπερ ἐν ἀρχῇ 
προεθέμεθα. In fact practically every word of the passage 
except the doubtful χρηματείαις is to be paralleled in the 
Tetrabiblos, usually many times; to arrange them in so 
exact an approximation to Ptolemy’s usual style would 
demand a forger of superhuman ingenuity. 



attempted, and I think no great amount of emenda- 
tion is necessary. My collations have been made 
against Camerarius’ second edition, because thus 
far this has been the standard text and it was 
most convenient; I have not, however, allowed 
Camerarius’ choice of readings to influence me 
unduly, for his text, in the first place, was not based 
upon the oldest and best manuscripts and it is, 
besides, full of his emendations. It was quite 
evident that this edition of the Tetrabiblos should 
be built up anew, independently of Camerarius’ 
work. Without making the exhaustive studies of 
the relationships of the manuscripts which should 
eventually be carried out, I have proceeded on the 
assumption that V and P best preserve the original 
text, representing somewhat different strains. With 
V and its copy D, the oldest text of Proclus’ Para- 
phrase is evidently in close alliance, and among the 
Tetrabiblos manuscripts MAEFHG are inclined in 
general to follow the lead of V, ME and AFH being 
related between themselves, as has already been 
stated. N apparently belongs rather to the P 
family, if there is such, but it is far from presenting 
a pure text ; its peculiarities are, in my opinion, the 
result of attempts to edit or improve. The later 
manuscripts, however, all show aberration to a 
greater or less extent, and VPLD Proc. are frequently 
to be found arrayed against MNAE (I leave FGH 
out of consideration because only a few pages of 
each of them have come into the reckoning). In 
such cases I have seldom hesitated to follow VPLD, 
and in general, too, I agree with Boll that V is the 
best single guide that we have. 

I am conscious that in many passages this 



translation falls short of the intended goal, a version 
which, in spite of the technical, unfamiliar subject, 
could readily be understood by itself or at least with 
the help of a few notes. Ptolemy, however, was a 
difficult author even for the ancients ; the existence 
of the Paraphrase and the frequent flounderings of 
the anonymous commentator testify to this. He 
displays a certain enthusiasm for his subject, but 
beyond this it would be impossible to commend his 
literary style or even the clearness of his exposition. 
He is fond of long, involved sentences and has a 
number of mannerisms, among them a fondness for 
the infinitive with the article and an almost Teutonic 
habit of piling up long strings of modifiers between 
article and substantive, which often results in 
sequences of two or even three articles. It would, 
under the circumstances, be almost impossible to 
make him crystal clear, but I trust there are not 
too many Heraclitean passages. 

Annotation of the Tetrabiblos could be carried to 
great lengths by collecting comparable passages 
from other astrological writers. The comments 
attached to this translation, however, are intended 
only to help the reader over difficulties and have 
been kept at minimum length. 

Many friends have assisted, in one way or another, 
with this work. Some I cannot thank as I would 
like to do; but I must express appreciation to Pro- 
fessor W. Carl Rufus for criticizing the astronomy of 
my translation; to Dr. William Warner Bishop, 
Librarian of the University of Michigan, for procuring 
much-needed books and the photostatic reproduc- 
tions of the manuscripts ; and to Franz Cumont for 
ever helpful interest and suggestions. 



Sun © Saturn h Venus 9 
Moon ( Jupiter 2/ Mercury $ 
Mars ¢ 

Effect (i. 5). Gender (i. 6). Sect (i. 7). 
Beneficent 71 9( Masculine Ὁ ἢ 3 ζ Diurnal © ἢ 
Maleficent ἢ g Feminine ( 9 Nocturnal ( 9 g 
Common 9 Common %§ Common 9% 

Symbols and Order. 

Aries Ὁ Cancer 95 Libra = Capricornus )% 
Taurus & Leo $2 Scorpio [ἢ Aquarius 922 

Gemini II Virgo NY Sagittarius f Pisces } 

The order Aries to Pisces is that “οἵ the following 

signs,” or direct; from Pisces to Aries that “ of the leading 
signs,’’ or reverse. 



Equinoctial == 
Solstitial σα y4 
Solid & QMsa 
Bicorporeal ILNY f} 
Masculine and diurnal Ὁ Π ( fe 
Feminine and nocturnal 8 SONY V4 4 
Commanding and obeying (i. 14) 6%; Tez; σσγᾷ; Qt; 
Beholding each other (i. 15) ΠΩ; SM; T=; HM; «ef 


Signs. Governors. 
ΠΝ eee Toye 
Ty Se ΟΠ ~Pi(2), Cin.) 
III. ΝΕ. .) Dees (ee) 
IV. S.W. . SMX  ¢, P(A), C(n.) 

d., day; n., night. 


Planet. Solar house. Lunar house. Exaltation. Depression. 

© ie. Some —: = 
CRP Aes σδ ὅ ΠῚ. 
h V4 ᾿Ξ ΞΞ 7 
ἡ 7 # ore a) 
3 M τ γ᾽ σσ 
φ a fe} + NY 
ὕ ny ΤΠ ny M; 





p. 1 

Κλαυδίου Πτολεμαίου μαθηματικῆς 
τετραβίβλου συντάξεως 


<a. ΠΠροοίμιον» 

~ A > 
Τῶν τὸ δι᾿ ἀστρονομίας προγνωστικὸν τέλος 
/ a , ~ 

nmapackevalovtwy,! ὦ Σύρε, δύο τῶν μεγίστων καὶ 

/ ~ 
κυριωτάτων ὑπαρχόντων, ἑνὸς μὲν TOD πρώτου καὶ 

/ > 
τάξει καὶ δυνάμει, καθ᾽ ὃ τοὺς γινομένους ἑκάστοτε 
~ / 
σχηματισμοὺς τῶν κινήσεων ἡλίου Kal σελήνης καὶ 
υ \ / ~ 
ἀστέρων" πρὸς ἀλλήλους τε Kal THY γῆν κατα- 
/ / A > «A \ ~ ~ 
λαμβανόμεθα δευτέρου δὲ καθ᾽ ὃ διὰ τῆς φυσικῆς 
τῶν σχηματισμῶν αὐτῶν ἰδιοτροπίας τὰς ἀποτελου- 
μένας μεταβολὰς τῶν ἐμπεριεχομένων ἐπισκεπτό- 
~ 3 \ 
μεθα: τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ἰδίαν ἔχον Kat δι᾿ ἑαυτὴν 
\ \ ~ ~ 
αἱρετὴν θεωρίαν, Kav μὴ TO ἐκ τῆς ἐπιζεύξεως Tod 
δευτέρου τέλος συμπεραίνηται, κατ᾽ ἰδίαν σύνταξιν 
ὡς μάλιστα ἐνῆν ἀποδεικτικῶς σοι ὃ περιώδευται. 
~ \ 

περὶ δὲ τοῦ δευτέρου Kai μὴ ὡσαύτως αὐτοτέλους 
ἡμεῖς ἐν τῷ παρόντι ποιησόμεθα λόγον κατὰ τὸν 

c / / / \ «ς ΝΜ 
ἁρμόζοντα φιλοσοφίᾳ τρόπον καὶ ὡς ἄν τις φιλα- 

~ ye. \ 

λήθει μάλιστα χρώμενος σκοπῷ μήτε τὴν κατά- 
ληψιν αὐτοῦ παραβάλλοι τῇ τοῦ πρώτου καὶ ἀεὶ 
« v ” / \ > - 5 \ 
ὡσαύτως ἔχοντος βεβαιότητι, TO ἐν πολλοῖς ἀσθενὲς 

1 κατασκευαζόντων P. 
2 τῶν ἀστέρων NCam.; τῶν om. VPMADE. 

3 σοι] ἐν τῇ συντάξει P. 


1. Introduction. 

Or the means of prediction through astronomy, O 
Syrus, two are the most important and valid. One, 
which is first! both in order and in effectiveness, is 
that whereby we apprehend the aspects of the move- 
ments of sun, moon, and stars in relation to each 
other and to the earth, as they occur from time to 
time ; the second is that in which by means of the 
natural character of these aspects themselves we 
investigate the changes which they bring about in 
that which they surround. The first of these, 
which has its own science, desirable in itself even 
though it does not attain the result given by its 
combination with the second, has been expounded 
to you as best we could in its own treatise * by the 
method of demonstration. We shall now give an 
account of the second and less self-sufficient method 
in a properly philosophical way, so that one whose 
aim is the truth might never compare its perceptions 
with the sureness of the first, unvarying science, for 
he ascribes to it the weakness and unpredictability 

' Astronomy proper. 
2 The Almagest. 


\ ~ “- 
2 καὶ δυσεικαστον τῆς ὑλικῆς ποιότητος προσποιού- 
ἊΝ. A A 
μενος, μήτε πρὸς τὴν κατὰ TO ἐνδεχόμενον ἐπί- 
iy ~ ~ 
σκεψιν ἀποκνοίη, τῶν τε πλείστων Kai ὁλοσχερῶν 
συμπτωμάτων ἐναργῶς οὕτω τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ περι- 
έχοντος αἰτίαν ἐμφανιζόντων. ἐπεὶ δὲ πᾶν μὲν τὸ 
/ \ A a ΕἸ / ” 
δυσέφικτον παρὰ τοῖς πολλοῖς εὐδιάβλητον ἔχει 
4 258 \ ~ / 4 / 
φύσιν, ἐπὶ δὲ τῶν προκειμένων δύο καταλήψεων 
ς A A ΄, 1 ὃ λ \ ΧΩ ” > 
ai μὲν τῆς προτέρας διαβολαὶ τυφλῶν ἂν εἶεν 
~ « A ~ 
παντελῶς, αἱ δὲ τῆς δευτέρας εὐπροφασίστους 
” A > 4 Bd ‘ \ ee ϑ' ἢ tA 
ἔχουσι Tas ἀφορμάς (ἢ yap τὸ ἐπ᾽ ἐνίων δυσθεώ- 
3 λ / Xr , ὃ / 2 / Ἃ 
ρητον ἀκαταληψίας τελείας δόξαν 5 παρέσχεν, ἢ 
τὸ τῶν γνωσθέντων δυσφύλακτον καὶ τὸ τέλος ὡς 
ἄχρηστον διέσυρε), πειρασόμεθα διὰ βραχέων πρὸ 
“Ἢ / «ες “- 
τῆς κατὰ μέρος ὑφηγήσεως τὸ μέτρον ἑκατέρου τοῦ 
τε δυνατοῦ καὶ τοῦ χρησίμου τῆς τοιαύτης προ- 
> ΄ “- ~ 
γνώσεως ἐπισκέψασθαι: Kal πρῶτον τοῦ δυνατοῦ. 

«β.» Ὅτι καταληπτικὴ ἡ δι ἀστρο- 
νομίας γνῶσις, καὶ μέχρι τίνος 
Ὅτι μὲν τοίνυν διαδίδοται καὶ διικνεῖταί τις 

δύ 3 \ ~ > ὃ \ LUO 4, 

ὕύναμις ἀπὸ τῆς αἰθερώδους καὶ ἀιδίου φύσεως 

1 τάξει καὶ δυνάμει post προτέρας add. NCam. 
2 δόξαν om. NCam. 

1 Ptolemy is contrasting, after the manner of Aristotle, 
the unchangeability of the heavenly bodies and their 
regular motions, which can be known and predicted by 
astronomy, with the constant and unpredictable changes 
of material objects in the sublunary region. 

2On the arguments against astrology, see Bouché- 
Leclereq, pp. 570 ff. The Academic school, led by 



of material qualities found in individual things,! nor 
yet refrain from such investigation as is within the 
bounds of possibility, when it is so evident that most 
events of a general nature draw their causes from 
the enveloping heavens. But since everything that 
is hard to attain is easily assailed 5 by the generality 
of men, and in the case of the two before-mentioned 
disciplines the allegations against the first could be 
made only by the blind, while there are specious 
grounds for those levelled at the second—for its 
difficulty in parts has made them think it completely 
incomprehensible, or the difficulty of escaping what 
is known ® has disparaged even its object as useless— 
we shall try to examine briefly the measure of both 
the possibility and the usefulness of such prognos- 
tication before offering detailed instruction on the 
subject. First as to its possibility. 

2. That Knowledge by Astronomical Means is 
Attainable, and How Far. 

A very few considerations would make it apparent 
to all that a certain power emanating from the 
eternal ethereal substance 4 is dispersed through and 

Carneades, initiated the most serious attack against it in 
antiquity. The answers given by Ptolemy in the two 
chapters following are, as Boll (Studien, pp. 131 ff.) shows, 
largely derived from the Stoic Posidonius, who defended 

3 Proclus paraphrases, “‘ the difficulty of retaining in the 
memory what has been learned,’ but the reference is 
clearly to the subject discussed in 1. 3. 

4The ether, or fifth element, contrasted with the usual 
four; this is an Aristotelian (Peripatetic) doctrine. 



ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν περιγείαν καὶ δι᾿ ὅλων μεταβλητήν, 
τῶν ὑπὸ τὴν σελήνην πρώτων στοιχείων πυρὸς καὶ 
ἀέρος περιεχομένων μὲν καὶ τρεπομένων ὑπὸ τῶν 
κατὰ τὸν αἰθέρα κινήσεων, περιεχόντων δὲ καὶ 
συντρεπόντων τὰ λοιπὰ πάντα, γῆν καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ τὰ 
ἐν αὐτοῖς φυτὰ καὶ ζῷα, πᾶσιν ἂν ἐναργέστατον | 
8 καὶ δι᾿ ὀλίγων φανείη. ὃ τε γὰρ ἥλιος διατίθησί 
πως ἀεὶ μετὰ τοῦ περιέχοντος πάντα τὰ περὶ τὴν 
γῆν. οὐ μόνον διὰ τῶν κατὰ τὰς ἐτησίους ὥρας 
μεταβολῶν πρὸς γονὰς ζῴων καὶ φυτῶν καρπο- 
φορίας καὶ ῥύσεις ὑδάτων καὶ σωμάτων μετατροπὰς 
ἀλλὰ καὶ διὰ τῶν καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν περιόδων, 
θερμαίνων τε καὶ ὑγραίνων καὶ ξηραίνων καὶ 
ψύχων τεταγμένως τε καὶ ἀκολούθως τοῖς πρὸς 
τὸν κατὰ κορυφὴν ἡμῶν γινομένοις ὁμοιοτρόποις 
σχηματισμοῖς. ἥ τε σελήνη πλείστην," ὡς περιγειο- 
τάτη, διαδίδωσιν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ὃ τὴν ἀπόρροιαν, συμ- 
παθούντων αὐτῇ καὶ συντρεπομένων τῶν πλείστων καὶ 
ἀψύχων καὶ ἐμψύχων, καὶ ποταμῶν μὲν συναυξόντων 
καὶ συμμειούντων τοῖς φωσὶν αὐτῆς τὰ ῥεύματα, 
θαλαττῶν δὲ συντρεπουσῶν ταῖς ἀνατολαῖς καὶ ταῖς 
δύσεσι τὰς ἰδίας ὁρμάς, φυτῶν δὲ καὶ ζῴων ἢ ὅλων 
ἢ κατά τινα μέρη συμπληρουμένων τε αὐτῇ καὶ συμ- 
μειουμένων. αἵ τε τῶν ἀστέρων τῶν τε ἀπλανῶν 
καὶ τῶν πλανωμένων πάροδοι πλείστας ποιοῦσι 
ἐπισημασίας τοῦ περιέχοντος καυματώδεις καὶ πνευ- 
ματώδεις 4 καὶ νιφετώδεις, ὑφ᾽ ὧν καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς 
' ἐνεργέστατον MAECam. δπλείστην om. NCam. 

3 ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν VMADE, ὑπὸ τὴν γῆν Ρ, πρὸς τῇ γῇ NCam. 
4 καὶ πνευματώδεις Om. NCam. 


permeates the whole region about the earth, which 
throughout is subject to change, since, of the primary 
sublunar elements, fire and air are encompassed and 
changed by the motions in the ether, and in turn 
encompass and change all else, earth and water and 
the plants and animals therein. For the sun,! 

affecting everything on the earth, 1 not only by the 
changes that accompany the seasons of the year to 
bring about the generation of animals, the —pro- 
ductiveness of plants, the flowing of waters, and the 
changes of bodies, but also by its daily revolutions 
furnishing heat, moisture, dryness, and cold in 
regular order and in correspondence with its posi- 
tions relative to the zenith. The moon, too, as the 
heavenly body nearest the earth, bestows her effluence? 
most abundantly upon mundane things, for most ef 
them, animate or inanimate, are sympathetic to her 
and change in company with her ; the rivers increase 
and diminish their streams with her light, the seas turn 
their own tides with her rising and setting, and plants 
and animals in whole or in some part wax and wane 
with her. Moreover, the passages of the fixed stars 
and the planets through the sky often signify hot, 
windy, and snowy conditions of the air, and mundane 

1 Boll, Studien, pp. 133 ff., enumerates parallels to this 
passage concerning the sun and the moon in Cicero, Philo 
Judaeus, Cleomedes, and Manilius, and ascribes their 
likeness to the influence of Posidonius. 

* This word, ἀπόρροια, has another meaning, “ separation,” 
as a technical term of astrology ; see c. 24 below and my 
note on P. Mich. 149, col. iii, 33. 



γῆς οἰκείως διατίθεται. ἤδη δὲ καὶ of πρὸς ἀλλή- 
λους αὐτῶν σχηματισμοί, συνερχομένων πως ' καὶ 
συγκιρναμένων τῶν διαδόσεων, πλείστας καὶ ποικίλας 
μεταβολὰς ἀπεργάζονται, κατακρατούσης μὲν τῆς 
τοῦ ἡλίου δυνάμεως πρὸς τὸ καθ᾽ ὅλου τῆς ποιότητος 
τεταγμένον, συνεργούντων δὲ ἢ ἀποσυνεργούντων 
4 κατά τι τῶν λοιπῶν, καὶ τῆς μὲν σελήνης ἐκφανέ- 
στερον καὶ συνεχέστερον ὡς ἐν ταῖς συνόδοις καὶ 
διχοτόμοις καὶ πανσελήνοις, τῶν δὲ ἀστέρων περιοδι- 
κώτερον καὶ ἀσημότερον ὡς ἐν ταῖς φάσεσι καὶ 
κρύψεσι καὶ προσνεύσεσιν. ὅτι δὲ τούτων οὕτω 
θεωρουμένων οὐ μόνον τὰ ἤδη συγκραθέντα δια- 
τίθεσθαί πως ὑπὸ τῆς τούτων κινήσεως ἀναγκαῖον 
ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν σπερμάτων τὰς ἀρχὰς καὶ τὰς πληρο- 
φορήσεις διαπλάττεσθαι καὶ διαμορφοῦσθαι πρὸς 
τὴν οἰκείαν τοῦ τότε περιέχοντος ποιότητα, πᾶσιν 
ἂν δόξειεν ἀκόλουθον εἶναι. οἱ γοῦν παρατηρητικώ- 
τεροι τῶν γεωργῶν καὶ τῶν νομέων ἀπὸ τῶν κατὰ 
τὰς ὀχείας καὶ τὰς τῶν σπερμάτων καταθέσεις συμ- 
βαινόντων πνευμάτων στοχάζονται τῆς ποιότητος 
τῶν ἀποβησομένων, καὶ ὅλως τὰ μὲν ὁλοσχερέστερα 
καὶ διὰ τῶν ἐπιφανεστέρων συσχηματισμῶν ἡλίου 
καὶ σελήνης καὶ ἀστέρων ἐπισημαινόμενα καὶ παρὰ 
τοῖς μὴ φυσικῶς, μόνον δὲ παρατηρητικῶς σκεπτο- 
μένοις, ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν προγινωσκόμενα θεωροῦμεν, τὰ 
μὲν ἐκ μείζονός τε δυνάμεως καὶ ἁπλουστέρας 

1 πως] τε NCam. 

1 Positions relative to one another in the heavens. For 
the names of the aspects recognized by Ptolemy cf. the 
note on i. 13 (pp. 72-73). 



things are affected accordingly. Then, too, their 
aspects | to one another, by the meeting and mingling 
of their dispensations, bring about many compli- 
cated changes. For though the sun’s power prevails 
in the general ordering of quality, the other heavenly 
bodies aid or oppose it in particular details, the 
moon more obviously and continuously, as for ex- 
ample when it is new, at quarter, or full, and the 
stars at greater intervals and more obscurely, as 
in their appearances, occultations, and approaches.” 
If these matters be so regarded, all would judge it 
to follow that not only must things already com- 
pounded be affected in some way by the motion of 
these heavenly bodies, but likewise the germination 
and fruition of the seed must be moulded and con- 
formed to the quality proper to the heavens at the 
time. The more observant farmers and herdsmen, 
indeed, conjecture, from the winds prevailing at the 
time of impregnation and of the sowing of the seed, 
the quality of what will result; and in general we see 
that the more important consequences signified by 
the more obvious configurations of sun, moon, and 
stars are usually known beforehand, even by those 
who inquire, not by scientific means, but only by 
observation. Those which are consequent upon 
greater forces and simpler natural orders, such as 

2 By “‘stars”’ (ἀστέρων) in this passage Ptolemy means 
primarily the planets rather than the fixed stars. Their 
“appearances”? and “‘occultations’’ are their heliacal 
risings and settings (ς΄. Bouché-Leclereq, p. 111, n. 3). 
πρόσνευσις is used to mean both “inclination ’”’ and, as here, 
the “approach”’ of one heavenly body to another. 

85 Cicero, de divinatione, i. 112: Multa medici, multa 
gubernatores, agricolae etiam multa praesentiunt. 

ie 9 


τάξεως καὶ παρὰ τοῖς πάνυ ἰδιώταις, μᾶλλον δὲ Kal 
παρ᾽ ἐνίοις τῶν ἀλόγων ζῴων, ὡς τῶν ὡρῶν καὶ τῶν 
πνευμάτων τὰς ἐτησίους διαφοράς - τούτων γὰρ ὡς 
ἐπὶ πᾶν ὁ ἥλιος αἴτιος " τὰ δὲ ἡ ἧττον οὕτως ἔχοντα 
παρὰ τοῖς ἤδη κατὰ τὸ ἀναγκαῖον ταῖς παρατηρή- 
5 σεσιν ἐνειθισμένοις, ὦ ὡς τοῖς ναυτιλλομένοις τὰς κατὰ 
μέρος τῶν χειμώνων καὶ τῶν πνευμάτων ἐπιση- 
μασίας, ὅσαι γίνονται κατὰ τὸ περιοδικώτερον ὑπὸ 
τῶν τῆς σελήνης ἢ καὶ τῶν ἀπλανῶν ἀστέρων πρὸς 
τὸν ἥλιον συσχηματισμῶν. παρὰ μέντοι τὸ μήτε 
αὐτῶν τούτων τοὺς χρόνους καὶ τοὺς τόπους ὑπὸ 
ἀπειρίας ἀκριβῶς δύνασθαι κατανοεῖν, μήτε τὰς τῶν 
πλανωμένων ἀστέρων περιόδους, πλεῖστον καὶ αὐτὰς 
συμβαλλομένας, τὸ πολλάκις αὐτοῖς ! σφάλλεσθαι συμ- 
Baiver. τί δὴ οὖν κωλύει τὸν ἠκριβωκότα μὲν τὰς 
πάντων τῶν ἀστέρων καὶ ἡλίου καὶ σελήνης κινήσεις, 
ὅπως αὐτὸν μηδενὸς τῶν σχηματισμῶν μήτε ὁ τόπος 
μήτε ὁ χρόνος λανθάνοι, διειληφότα δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἔτι 
ἄνωθεν συνεχοῦς ἱστορίας ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν αὐτῶν τὰς 
φύσεις," κἂν μὴ τὰς κατ᾽ αὐτὸ τὸ ὑποκείμενον ἀλλὰ 
τάς γε δυνάμει ποιητικάς,3 οἷον ὡς τὴν τοῦ ἡλίου ὅτι 
θερμαίνει καὶ τὴν τῆς σελήνης ὅτι ὑγραίνει καὶ ἐπὶ 
τῶν λοιπῶν ὁμοίως, ἱκανὸν δὲ πρὸς ταῦτα τοιαῦτα 
ὄντα φυσικῶς ἅμα καὶ εὐστόχως ἐκ τῆς συγκράσεως * 
πάντων τὸ ἴδιον τῆς ποιότητος διαλαβεῖν, ὡς δύνα- 
σθαι μὲν ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστου τῶν διδομένων καιρῶν ἐκ 
1 αὐτοῖς VPMNDE; αὐτοὺς ACam. 

Ξὡς. -. φύσεις post διειληφότα δὲ NCam.; αὐτῶν PMAE, 
αὐτὰ VDNCam.; τὰς φύσεις MAEProc., φύσει VDNCam., 

φήση P. 


the annual variations of the seasons and the winds, 
are comprehended by very ignorant men, nay even 
by some dumb animals; for the sun is in general re- 
sponsible for these phenomena. Things that are not 
of so general a nature, however, are comprehended 
by those who have by necessity become used to 
making observations, as, for instance, sailors know 
the special signs of storms and winds that arise 
periodically by reason of the aspects of the moon 
and fixed stars tothe sun. Yet because they cannot 
in their ignorance accurately know the times and 
places of these phenomena, nor the periodic move- 
ments of the planets, which contribute importantly 
to the effect, it happens that they oftenerr. If, then, 
a man knows accurately the movements of all the 
stars, the sun, and the moon, so that neither the place 
nor the time of any of their configurations escapes 
his notice, and if he has distinguished in general] their 
natures as the result of previous continued study,even 
though he may discern, not their essential, but only 
their potentially effective qualities, such as the sun’s 
heating and the moon’s moistening, and so on with 
the rest; and if he is capable of determining in view 
of all these data, both scientifically and by successful 
conjecture, the distinctive mark of quality resulting 
from the combination of all the factors, what is to 
prevent him from being able to tell on each given 
occasion the characteristics of the air from the rela- 

ὅποιητικάς VPMNDECam.! ; ποιότητας ACam.? 
ὁ συγκρίσεως PCam. 



τῆς τότε τῶν φαινομένων σχέσεως τὰς τοῦ περι- 
ἔχοντος ἰδιοτροπίας εἰπεῖν, οἷον ὅτι θερμότερον ἢ 
ὑγρότερον ἔσται, δύνασθαι δὲ καὶ καθ᾽ ἕνα ἕκαστον 
~ > ~ 
τῶν ἀνθρώπων τήν te καθ᾽ ὅλου ποιότητα τῆς 
"ἰδιοσυγκρασίας ἀπὸ τοῦ κατὰ τὴν σύστασιν περι- 
- ~ A 
έχοντος συνιδεῖν, οἷον ὅτι TO μὲν σῶμα τοιόσδε, τὴν 
δὲ ψυχὴν τοιόσδε, Kal τὰ κατὰ καιροὺς συμπτώματα 
Ἁ “- \ A / ͵ ~ ~ / 
διὰ τοῦ τὸ μὲν τοιόνδε περιέχον τῇ τοιᾷδε συγκράσει 
σύμμετρον ἢ καὶ πρόσφορον γίνεσθαι πρὸς εὐεξίαν, 
τὸ δὲ τοιόνδε ἀσύμμετρον καὶ πρόσφορον πρὸς 
κάκωσιν ; ἀλλὰ γὰρ τὸ μὲν δυνατὸν τῆς τοιαύτης 
καταλήψεως διὰ τούτων καὶ τῶν ὁμοίων ἔστι 
“Oi δὲ 5 ͵ὔ ‘ > / δέ 
τι δὲ εὐπροφασίστως μέν, οὐ προσηκόντως δέ, 
\ ‘ A > / ” \ 4 n 
τὴν πρὸς TO ἀδύνατον ἔσχε διαβολὴν οὕτως ἂν 
/ ~ A 
κατανοήσαιμεν. πρῶτον μὲν yap τὰ πταίσματα 
~ ΝΜ 
τῶν μὴ ἀκριβούντων τὸ ἔργον, πολλὰ ὄντα, ὡς ἐν 
μεγάλῃ καὶ πολυμερεῖ θεωρίᾳ, καὶ τοῖς ἀληθευο- 
μένοις τὴν τούτου ἐκ τύχης παρέσχε δόξαν, οὐκ 
ὀρθῶς. τὸ γὰρ τοιοῦτον οὐ τῆς ἐπιστήμης, ἀλλὰ 
τῶν μεταχειριζομένων ἐστὶν ἀδυναμία" ἔπειτα καὶ 
«ς “- ~ ͵ σ ε / / ~ 
οἱ πλεῖστοι τοῦ πορίζειν ἕνεκεν ἑτέραν τέχνην τῷ 
ταύτης ὀνόματι καταξιοπιστευόμενοι' τοὺς μὲν 
> , > ~ \ , “- s 
ἰδιώτας ἐξαπατῶσι, πολλὰ προλέγειν δοκοῦντες Kal 
τῶν μηδεμίαν φύσιν ἐχόντων προγινώσκεσθαι, τοῖς 

1 καταξιοπιστευόμενοι VPMADE; διὰ τὴν ἀξιοπιστίαν Proc. ; 
καὶ ἀξίᾳ προστησάμενοι καὶ πιστευόμενοι NCam. 

1 The first part of the pseudo-Lucianic Περὶ ἀστρολογίης 
closely parallels this passage, as Boll, Studien, pp. 151-153, 



tions of the phenomena at the time, for instance, that 
it will be warmer or wetter ? Why can he not, too, 
with respect to an individual man, perceive the 
general quality of his temperament from the ambient 
at the time of his birth, as for instance that he is such 
and suchin body and such and such insoul, and predict 
occasional events, by use of the fact that such and 
such an ambient is attuned to such and such a tem- 
perament and is favourable to prosperity, while 
another is not so attuned and conduces to injury ? 
Enough, however; for the possibility of such know- 
ledge can be understood from these and similar 

The following considerations might lead us to 
observe that criticism of the science on the score 
of impossibility has been specious but undeserved. 
In the first place, the mistakes! of those who are 
not accurately instructed in its practice, and they 
are many, as one would expect in an important and 
many-sided art, have brought about the belief that 
even its true predictions depend upon chance, which 
is incorrect. For a thing like this is an impotence, 
not of the science, but of those who practise it. 
Secondly, most, for the sake of gain, claim credence 
for another art in the name of this,” and deceive the 
vulgar, because they are reputed to foretell many 
things, even those that cannot naturally be known 

2 Cardanus (p. 104) gives a number of examples, among 
them the geomantici, those who make elaborate predictions 
from the mere fact that a man was born on a certain day 
of the week, of the moon, or of the month, those who pre- 
dict by reckoning the numerical equivalents of the letters 
in a man’s name (arithmologists), and so on. Cf. also 

Plato’s remarks about unworthy pretenders to philosophy, 
Republic, 495C ff. 


δὲ ζητητικωτέροις διὰ τούτου παρέσχον ἀφορμὴν ἐν 
tow! καὶ τῶν φύσιν ἐχόντων προλέγεσθαι 5" κατα- 
΄, » \ ~ / > A ‘ 
γινώσκειν. οὐδὲ τοῦτο δεόντως - οὐδὲ yap φιλο- 
σοφίαν ἀναιρετέον, ἐπεί τινες τῶν προσποιουμένων 
A > 
αὐτὴν πονηροὶ καταφαίνονται. ἀλλ᾽ ὅμως ἐναργές 
ἐστιν ὅτι κἂν διερευνητικῶς τις ὡς ἔνι μάλιστα 
‘ - / , 
Kal γνησίως τοῖς μαθήμασι προσέρχηται, πολλάκις 
> ~ 
πταίειν αὐτὸν ἐνδέχεται, du οὐδὲν μὲν τῶν εἰρη- 
τ᾿ ~ 
μένων, δὲ αὐτὴν δὲ τὴν τοῦ πράγματος φύσιν καὶ 
τὴν πρὸς τὸ μέγεθος τῆς ἐπαγγελίας ἀσθένειαν. 
καθ᾽ ὅλου γὰρ πρὸς τῷ τὴν περὶ τὸ ποιὸν τῆς ὕλης 
θεωριαν πᾶσαν εἰκαστικὴν εἶναι καὶ οὐ διαβεβαιω- 
\ ~ 
τικήν, Kal μάλιστα THY ἐκ πολλῶν ἀνομοίων συγ- 
κιρναμένην, ἔτι καὶ τοῖς παλαιοῖς τῶν πλανωμένων 
- ee > A «ς 
συσχηματισμοῖς, ἀφ᾽ ὧν ἐφαρμόζομεν τοῖς ὡσαύτως 
~ ~ ~ t Laer 
ἔχουσι τῶν νῦν Tas ὑπὸ τῶν προγενεστέρων ἐπ 
ἐκείνων παρατετηρημένας προτελέσεις," παρόμοιοι 
μὲν * δύνανται γίνεσθαι μᾶλλον ἢ ἧττον καὶ οὗτοι 
ὃ Ἁ ~ "ὃ > LAA δὲ ὃ ~ 
la μακρῶν περιόδων, ἀπαράλλακτοι δὲ οὐδαμῶς, 
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ A 
Ths πάντων ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ μετὰ τῆς γῆς κατὰ 
> / 
TO ἀκριβὲς συναποκαταστάσεως, εἰ μή τις KEVO- 
ιἴσῳ VPD: ἐκάστῳ MNAECam. 
ὃ προλέγεσθαι VMADEProc. ; πως λέγεσθαι (post φύσιν) P: 
προγινώσκεσθαι NCam. 
3 μὴ καθάπαξ τοὺς αὐτοὺς συμβεβηκέναι τοῖς νῦν add. NCam. ; 

om. VPMADE Proc. 
4 yap add. codd.; om. Proc. 

1On rascals in philosophy cf. Plato, Republic 487D, and 
the discussion which follows. 

2? By various ancient authors it was claimed that the 
Chaldaean observations extended over periods of from 
470,000 to 720,000 years; Boll-Bezold-Gundel, pp. 25, 99. 



beforehand, while to the more thoughtful they have 
thereby given occasion to pass equally unfavourable 
judgement upon the natural subjects of prophecy. 
Nor is this deservedly done; it is the same with 
philosophy—we need not abolish it because there 
are evident rascals among those that pretend to it.! 
Nevertheless it is clear that even though one ap- 
proach astrology in the most inquiring and legitimate 
spirit possible, he may frequently err, not for any 
of the reasons stated, but because of the very nature 
of the thing and his own weakness in comparison 
with the magnitude of his profession. For in general, 
besides the fact that every science that deals with 
the quality of its subject-matter is conjectural and 
not to be absolutely affirmed, particularly one which 
is composed of many unlike elements, it is further- 
more true that the ancient configurations of the 
planets,” upon the basis of which we attach to similar 
aspects of our own day the effects observed by the 
ancients in theirs, can be more or less similar to the 
modern aspects, and that, too, at long intervals, but 
not identical, since the exact return of all the heavenly 
bodies and the earth to the same positions,’ unless one 

3 “ The Stoics say that the planets, returning to the same 
point of longitude and latitude which each occupied when 
first the universe arose, at fixed periods of time bring about 
a conflagration and destruction of things, and that the 
universe again reverts anew to the same condition, and 
that as the stars again move in the same way everything 
that took place in the former period is exactly reproduced. 
Socrates, they say, and Plato will again exist, and every 
single man, with the same friends and countrymen ; the 
same things will happen to them, they will meet with 
the same fortune, and deal with the same things,”’ etc. 
(Nemesius, De natura hominis, 38, p. 309, Matthaei). 



dofoin περὶ τὴν τῶν ἀκαταλήπτων κατάληψιν καὶ 
γνῶσιν." ἢ μηδ᾽ ὅλως ἢ 5 μὴ κατά γε τὸν αἰσθητὸν 
ἀνθρώπῳ χρόνον ἀπαρτιζομένης, ὡς διὰ τοῦτο τὰς 
προρρήσεις 3 ἀνομοίων ὄντων τῶν ὑποκειμένων 
παραδειγμάτων ἐνίοτε διαμαρτάνεσθαι. περὶ μὲν 
οὖν τὴν ἐπίσκεψιν τῶν κατὰ τὸ περιέχον γινομένων 
συμπτωμάτων, τοῦτ᾽ ἂν εἴη μόνον τὸ δυσχερές, 
μηδεμιᾶς ἐνταῦθα συμπαραλαμβανομένης αἰτίας τῇ 
κινήσει τῶν οὐρανίων. περὶ δὲ τὰς γενεθλιο- 
8λογικάς,, καὶ ὅλως τὰς κατ᾽ ἰδίαν τῆς ἑκάστου 
συγκρίσεως," οὐ μικρὰ οὐδὲ τὰ τυχόντα ἔστιν ἰδεῖν 
συναίτια καὶ αὐτὰ γινόμενα. τῆς τῶν συνισταμένων 
ἰδιοτροπίας. αἵ τε γὰρ τῶν σπερμάτων διαφοραὶ 
πλεῖστον δύνανται πρὸς τὸ τοῦ γένους ἴδιον, ἐπει- 
δήπερ τοῦ περιέχοντος καὶ τοῦ ὁρίζοντος ὑποκειμένου 
τοῦ αὐτοῦ κατακρατεῖ τῶν σπερμάτων ἕκαστον εἰς 
τὴν καθ᾽ ὅλου τοῦ οἰκείου μορφώματος διατύπωσιν, 
οἷον ἀνθρώπου καὶ ἵππου καὶ τῶν ἄλλων οἵ τε 
τόποι τῆς γενέσεως οὐ μικρὰς ποιοῦνται τὰς περὶ 
τὰ συνιστάμενα παραλλαγάς. καὶ τῶν σπερμάτων 
γὰρ κατὰ γένος ὑποκειμένων τῶν αὐτῶν, οἷον 
ἀνθρωπίνων, καὶ τῆς τοῦ περιέχοντος καταστάσεως 
τῆς αὐτῆς, παρὰ τὸ τῶν χωρῶν διάφορον πολὺ καὶ 
τοῖς σώμασι καὶ ταῖς ψυχαῖς οἱ γενόμενοι διήνεγκαν. 
πρὸς δὲ τούτοις αἵ τε τροφαὶ καὶ τὰ ἔθη, πάντων 
τῶν προκειμένων ἀδιαφόρων ὑποτιθεμένων, συμβάλ- 
λονταί τι πρὸς τὰς κατὰ μέρος τῶν βίων διαγωγάς. 
1 καὶ γνῶσιν om. Cam. 
27) cae 7) VMADE 5 κεῦ 5...) et NCam,. jim segs ΥΩ Ἐν. 

8 προρρήσεις libri (mpw- P) Proc.Cam.! (* notatum) ; 
παρατηρήσεις Cam.” 



holds vain opinions of his ability to comprehend and 
know the incomprehensible, either takes place not at 
all or at least not in the period of time that falls 
within the experience of man; so that for this reason 
predictions sometimes fail, because of the disparity of 
the examples on which they are based. As to the in- 
vestigation of atmospheric phenomena, this would be 
the only difficulty, since no other cause besides the 
movement of the heavenly bodies is taken into con- 
sideration. But in an inquiry concerning nativities 
and individual temperaments in general, one can see 
that there are circumstances of no small importance 
and of no trifling character, which join to cause the 
special qualities of those who are born. For differ- 
ences of seed exert a very great influence on the 
special traits of the genus, since, if the ambient 
and the horizon are the same, each seed prevails to 
express in general its own form, for example, man, 
horse, and so forth; and the places of birth bring 
about no small variation in what is produced. For 
if the seed is generically the same, human for example, 
and the condition of the ambient the same, those who 
are born differ much, both in body and soul, with the 
difference of countries. In addition to this, all the 
aforesaid conditions being equal, rearing and customs 
contribute to influence the particular way in which a 

1 The first three chapters of Book ii dea] with astrological 
ethnology, and in iv. 10 Ptolemy points out that in all 
nativities such general considerations as nationality and 
age take precedence over more particular details. 

4 γενεθλιολογικάς VD, cf. Proc. ; γενεθλιολογίας cett. Cam. 
5 συγκρίσεως VP (-Kpn-) MDECam.'; συγκράσεως Cam.” 



ὧν ἕκαστον ἐὰν μὴ συνδιαλαμβάνηται ταῖς ἀπὸ τοῦ 
περιέχοντος αἰτίαις, εἰ καὶ ὅτι μάλιστα τὴν πλείστην 
ἔχει τοῦτο δύναμιν (τῷ τὸ μὲν περιέχον κἀκείνοις 
αὐτοῖς εἰς τὸ τοιοῖσδε εἶναι συναίτιον γίνεσθαι, 
τούτῳ δ᾽ ἐκεῖνα μηδαμῶς), πολλὴν ἀπορίαν δύνανται 
΄ ~ > \ ~ / > ‘ > \ / 

παρέχειν τοῖς ἐπὶ τῶν τοιούτων οἰομένοις ἀπὸ μόνης 

9779S τῶν μετεώρων κινήσεως͵ πάντα, καὶ τὰ μὴ 
τέλεον ἐπ᾽ αὐτῇ, δύνασθαι διαγινώσκειν. 

Τούτων δὲ οὕτως ἐχόντων, προσῆκον ἂν εἴη μήτε, 
ἐπειδὴ διαμαρτάνεσθαϊ ποτε τὴν τοιαύτην πρόγνωσιν 
ἐνδέχεται, καὶ τὸ πᾶν αὐτῆς ἀναιρεῖν, ὥσπερ οὐδὲ 
τὴν κυβερνητικὴν διὰ τὸ πολλάκις πταίειν ἀπο- 
δοκιμάζομεν ἀλλ᾽ ὡς ἐν μεγάλοις, οὕτω καὶ θείοις 
ἐπαγγέλμασιν, ἀσπάζεσθαι καὶ ἀγαπητὸν ἡγεῖσθαι 
τὸ δυνατόν͵ μήτ᾽ αὖ πάλιν πάντα 5 ἡμῖν ἀνθρωπίνως 
καὶ ἐστοχασμένως αἰτεῖν παρ᾽ αὐτῆς, ἀλλὰ συμῴφιλο- 
καλεῖν, καὶ ἐν οἷς οὐκ ἦν ἐπ᾽ αὐτῇ τὸ πᾶν ἐφοδιάζειν." . 
Kal ὥσπερ τοῖς ἰατροῖς͵ ὅταν ἐπιζητῶσί. τινα, καὶ περὶ 
αὐτῆς τῆς νόσου καὶ περὶ τῆς τοῦ κάμνοντος ἰδιο- 
τροπίας οὐ μεμψόμεθα λέγουσιν," οὕτω καὶ ἐνταῦθα 
τὰ γένη καὶ τὰς χώρας καὶ τὰς τροφάς, ἢ καί τινα 
τῶν ἤδη συμβεβηκότων, μὴ ἀγανακτεῖν ὑποτιθε- 

1 τὴν κυβερνητικὴν VPMDEProc. ; κυβερνητικοὺς NACam. 

2 πάντα] μὴ πάντα VPD. 
8 λέγουσιν NCam., λέγοντες VPMADE. 



life is lived. Unless each one of these things is ex- 
amined together with the causes that are derived 
from the ambient, although this latter be conceded 
to exercise the greatest influence (for the ambient 
is one of the causes for these things being what they 
are, while they in turn have no influence upon it), 
they can cause much difficulty for those who believe 
that in such cases everything can be understood, even 
things not wholly within its jurisdiction, from the 
motion of the heavenly bodies alone. 

Since this is the case, it would not be fitting to 
dismiss all prognostication of this character because 
it can sometimes be mistaken, for we do not dis- 
credit the art of the pilot for its many errors; but 
as when the claims are great, so also when they are 
divine, we should welcome what is possible and 
think it enough. Nor, further, should we gropingly 
and in human fashion demand everything of the art, 
but rather join in the appreciation of its beauty, 
even in instances wherein it could not provide the 
full answer; and as we do not find fault with the 
physicians, when they examine a person, for speak- 
ing both about the sickness itself and about the 
patient’s idiosyncrasy, so too in this case we should 
not object to astrologers using as a basis for calcula- 
tion nationality, country, and rearing, or any other 
already existing accidental qualities. 



<y> Ὅτι καὶ ὠφέλιμος 

Τίνα μὲν οὖν τρόπον δυνατὸν γίνεται τὸ δι᾽ 
ἀστρονομίας προγνωστικόν, καὶ ὅτι μέχρι μόνον 
ἂν φθάνοι τῶν τε κατ᾽ αὐτὸ τὸ περιέχον συμπτω- 
μάτων καὶ τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς τοιαύτης αἰτίας τοῖς 
ἀνθρώποις παρακολουθούντων, ταῦτα δ᾽ ἂν εἴη 
περί τε τὰς ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἐπιτηδειότητας τῶν δυνάμεων 
καὶ πράξεων σώματος καὶ ψυχῆς καὶ τὰ κατὰ 

Ι0Οκαιροὺς αὐτῶν πάθη, πολυχρονιότητάς τε καὶ 
ὀλιγοχρονιότητας, ἔτι δὲ καὶ ὅσα τῶν ἔξωθεν 
κυρίαν τε καὶ φυσικὴν ἔχει πρὸς τὰ πρῶτα συμ- 
πλοκήν, ὡς πρὸς τὸ σῶμα μὲν ἡ κτῆσις καὶ ἡ 
συμβίωσις, πρὸς δὲ τὴν ψυχὴν ἥ τε τιμὴ καὶ τὸ 
ἀξίωμα, καὶ τὰς τούτων κατὰ καιροὺς τύχας, 
σχεδὸν ὡς ἐν κεφαλαίοις ' γέγονεν ἡμῖν δῆλον. 
λοιπὸν δ᾽ ἂν εἴη τῶν προκειμένων τὴν κατὰ τὸ 
χρήσιμον ἐπίσκεψιν διὰ βραχέων ποιήσασθαι, πρό- 
τερον διαλαβοῦσι τίνα τρόπον, καὶ πρὸς τί τέλος 
ἀφορῶντες τὴν αὐτοῦ τοῦ χρησίμου δύναμιν ἐκδεξό- 
μεθα. εἰ μὲν γὰρ πρὸς τὰ τῆς ψυχῆς ἀγαθά, τί 
ἂν εἴη συμφορώτερον 5 πρὸς εὐπραγίαν καὶ χαρὰν 
καὶ ὅλως εὐαρέστησιν τῆς τοιαύτης προγνώσεως, 
καθ᾽ ἣν τῶν τε ἀνθρωπίνων καὶ τῶν θείων γινόμεθα 
συνορατικοί; εἰ δὲ πρὸς τὰ τοῦ σώματος, πάντων 
ἂν μᾶλλον ἡ τοιαύτη κατάληψις ἐπιγινώσκοι τὸ 
οἰκεῖόν τε καὶ πρόσφορον τῇ καθ᾽ ἑκάστην σύγκρασιν 
ἐπιτηδειότητι" εἰ δὲ μὴ πρὸς πλοῦτον ἢ δόξαν ἢ 

1 κεφαλαίοις libri, -ῳ Cam. 

ὃ συμφορώτερον VD, συμφερότερον PL, σπουδαιότερον MAE 
Cam. ; post προγνώσεως MAE. 



3. That it is also Beneficial. 

In somewhat summary fashion it has been shown 
how prognostication by astronomical means is pos- 
sible, and that it can go no further than what happens 
in the ambient and the consequences to man from 
such causes—that is, it concerns the original endow- 
ments of faculties and activities of soul and body, their 
occasional diseases, their endurance for a long or a 
short time, and, besides, all external circumstances 
that have a directive and natural connection with 
the original gifts of nature, such as property and 
marriage in the case of the body and honour and 
dignities in that of the soul, and finally what befalls 
them from time to time.’ The remaining part of our 
project would be to inquire briefly as to its useful- 
ness,” first distinguishing how and with what end in 
view we shall take the meaning of the word useful- 
ness. For if we look to the goods of the soul, what’ 
could be more conducive to well-being, pleasure, 
and in general satisfaction than this kind of forecast, 
by which we gain full view of things human and 
divine? And if we look to bodily goods, such know- 
ledge, better than anything else, would perceive what 
is fitting and expedient for the capabilities of each 
temperament. But if it does not aid in the acquisi- 
tion of riches, fame, and the like, we shall be able 

1 Note that in this sentence Ptolemy refers to several of 
the subjects of chapters in Books iii and iv. 

2 According to Cicero, De divinatione, ii. 105, Dicaearchus 
wrote a book to prove that divination was useless; 
Plutarch took the other side, in an essay of which only 
fragments are preserved. 



~ - / /, 
τὰ τοιαῦτα συνεργεῖ, προχωρήσει καὶ περὶ πάσης 
φιλοσοφίας τὸ αὐτὸ τοῦτο φάσκειν: οὐδενὸς γὰρ 
~ ¢€ lol 
τῶν τοιούτων ἐστίν, ὅσον ἐφ᾽ ἑαυτῇ, περιποιητική. 
3 > ” ὦ 2 / \ a > n Ε / 
ἀλλ᾽ οὔτ᾽ ἐκείνης διὰ τοῦτ᾽ av οὔτε ταύτης KaTa- 
ινώσκοιμεν δικαίως, ἀφέμενοι τοῦ πρὸς τὰ μείζω 
A / 
σ , nN > 4 ΄- a“ ς Διὶ 
Odws δ᾽ ἂν ἐξετάζουσι φανεῖεν ἂν οἱ τὸ ἄχρηστον 
11τῆς καταλήψεως ἐπιμεμφόμενοι πρὸς οὐδὲν τῶν 
κυριωτάτων ἀφορῶντες, ἀλλὰ πρὸς αὐτὸ τοῦτο 
~ > / ¢ / 
μόνον, OTL τῶν πάντη πάντως ἐσομένων ἡ πρό- 
/ ~ ~ 
γνωσις περιττή, Kal τοῦτο δὲ ἁπλῶς πάνυ, καὶ οὐκ 
> ~ \ \ tal “- 
εὖ διειλημμένως. πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ δεῖ σκοπεῖν, 
an / \ 
ὅτι Kal ἐπὶ τῶν ἐξ ἀνάγκης ἀποβησομένων TO μὲν 
ἀπροσδόκητον τούς τε θορύβους ἐκστατικοὺς καὶ 
τὰς χαρὰς ἐξοιστικὰς μάλιστα πέφυκε ποιεῖν - τὸ δὲ 
προγινώσκειν ἐθίζει καὶ ῥυθμίζει τὴν ψυχὴν τῇ 
μελέτῃ τῶν ἀπόντων ὡς παρόντων, καὶ παρα- 
σκευάζει μετ᾽ εἰρήνης καὶ εὐσταθείας ἕκαστα τῶν 
> / > / mv 9 ἂν > ΄“ 
ἐπερχομένων ἀποδέχεσθαι. ἔπειθ᾽ ὅτι μηδ᾽ οὕτως 
¢ \ - ~ 
ἕκαστα χρὴ νομίζειν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἀπὸ τῆς ἄνωθεν 
“- a > > ~ > 
αἰτίας παρακολουθεῖν, ὥσπερ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἀπό τινος 
ἀλύτου καὶ θείου προστάγματος καθ᾽ ἕνα ἕκαστον 
νενομοθετημένα καὶ ἐξ ἀνάγκης ἀποβησόμενα, μηδε- 
a uv ς ~ baat! > / , > 9 
μιᾶς ἄλλης ἁπλῶς αἰτίας ἀντιπράξαι δυναμένης, ἀλλ 
ὡς μὲν τῆς τῶν οὐρανίων κινήσεως καθ᾽ εἱμαρμένην 
> ~ 
θείαν Kat ἀμετάπτωτον ἐξ αἰῶνος ἀποτελουμένης, 
lol ~ > 
τῆς δὲ τῶν ἐπιγείων ! ἀλλοιώσεως καθ᾽ εἱμαρμένην 
φυσικὴν καὶ μεταπτώτην τὰς πρώτας αἰτίας ἄνωθεν 
λαμβανούσης κατὰ συμβεβηκὸς καὶ κατ᾽ ἐπακολού- 
θησιν " καὶ ὡς τῶν μὲν διὰ καθολικοτέρας περιστά- 



to say the same of all philosophy, for it does not 
provide any of these things as far as its own powers 
are concerned. We should not, however, for that 
reason be justified in condemning either philosophy 
or this art, disregarding its greater advantages. 

To a general examination it would appear that 
those who find fault with the uselessness of prog- 
nostication have no regard for the most important 
matters, but only for this—that foreknowledge of 
events that will happen in any case is superfluous ; 
this, too, quite unreservedly and without due dis- 
crimination. For, in the first place, we should 
consider that even with events that will necessarily 
take place their unexpectedness is very apt to cause 
excessive panic and delirious joy, while foreknow- 
ledge accustoms and calms the soul by experience 
of distant events as though they were present, and 
prepares it to greet with calm and steadiness what- 
ever comes. A second reason is that we should not 
believe that separate events attend mankind as the 
result of the heavenly cause as if they had been 
originally ordained for each person by some irre- 
vocable divine command and destined to take place 
by necessity without the possibility of any other 
cause whatever interfering. Rather is it true that 
the movement of the heavenly bodies, to be sure, 
is eternally performed in accordance with divine, 
unchangeable destiny, while the change of earthly 
things is subject to a natural and mutable fate, and 
in drawing its first causes from above it is governed 
by chance and natural sequence. Moreover, some 
things happen to mankind through more general 

1 περιγείων PMECam. 


A > ΄“- 
σεις τοῖς ἀνθρώποις συμβαινόντων, οὐχὶ δὲ ἐκ τῆς 
12 ἰδίας ἑκάστου ' φυσικῆς ἐπιτηδειότητος, ὡς ὅταν 

A 4 ~ 
κατὰ μεγάλας καὶ δυσφυλάκτους τοῦ περιέχοντος 
A > - μὴ ~ 
τροπὰς ἐκ πυρώσεων ἢ λοιμῶν ἢ κατακλυσμῶν 
‘ ~ vA ~ 
κατὰ πλήθη διαφθαρῶσιν, ὑποπιπτούσης ἀεὶ τῆς 

, ~ / > , ~ 

βραχυτέρας αἰτίας τῇ μείζονι καὶ ἰσχυρωτέρᾳ, τῶν 
\ \ ‘ 
δὲ κατὰ τὴν ἑνὸς ἑκάστου φυσικὴν ἰδιοσυγκρασίαν 
διὰ μικρὰς καὶ τὰς τυχούσας τοῦ περιέχοντος ἀντι- 
,ὔ / A a / A 
παθείας. τούτων yap οὕτω διαληφθέντων, φανερὸν 
ὅτι καὶ καθ᾽ ὅλου καὶ κατὰ μέρος, ὅσων μὲν συμπτω- 
/ ~ \ a 
μάτων TO πρῶτον αἴτιον " ἄμαχόν τέ ἐστι καὶ μεῖζον 
~ ~ 4 
παντὸς τοῦ ἀντιπράττοντος, ταῦτα καὶ πάντη πάν- 
τως ἀποβαίνειν ἀνάγκη: ὅσα δὲ μὴ οὕτως ἔχει, 
~ > / 
τούτων τὰ μὲν ἐπιτυγχάνοντα τῶν ἀντιπαθησόντων 3 
‘A , 
εὐανάτρεπτα γίνεται, τὰ δὲ μὴ εὐπορήσοντα ἃ Kat 
- A > ΝΜ 
αὐτὰ ταῖς πρώταις φύσεσιν ἀκολουθεῖ, δι᾿ ἄγνοιαν 
\ ~ > > ‘ 
μέντοι καὶ οὐκέτι διὰ τὴν τῆς ἰσχύος ἀνάγκην. TO 
> A 3 Μ ” \ \ > A ra 
αὐτὸ δ᾽ av tis ἴδοι συμβεβηκὸς καὶ ἐπὶ πάντων 
~ ~ > > 4, νὴ A 
ἁπλῶς τῶν φυσικὰς ἐχόντων Tas ἀρχάς. καὶ yap 
~ ΝΜ > / 
καὶ λίθων καὶ φυτῶν καὶ ζῴων, ἔτι δὲ τραυμάτων 
~ \ > > / 
καὶ παθῶν Kal νοσημάτων, τὰ μὲν ἐξ ἀνάγκης τι 
a nn > / 
ποιεῖν πέφυκε, τὰ δ᾽ εἰ μηδὲν τῶν ἐναντίων ἀντι- 
~ a > 
πράξει. οὕτως οὖν χρὴ νομίζειν Kal τὰ τοῖς ἀνθρώ- 
\ Α a 
ποις συμβησόμενα προλέγειν τοὺς φυσικοὺς τῇ 
1 ἐκ τῆς ἰδίας ἑκάστου VMADE;; ἰδίας om. PL; ἀπὸ ἑκάστης 
φυσικῆς ἰδίας Cam.” 
26 post αἴτιον add. Cam., om. libri. 

8 ἀντιπαθησόντων VADCam., -σάντων PME. 
4 εὐπορήσοντα VADCam., -σαντα PME. 

1Cf. ii. 1, ‘‘ the particular always falls under the 
general.” Ptolemy distinguishes carefully between uni- 



circumstances and not as the result of an individual’s 
own natural propensities—for example, when men 
perish in multitudes by conflagration or pestilence 
or cataclysms, through monstrous and inescapable 
changes in the ambient, for the lesser cause always 
yields to the greater! and stronger; other occur- 
rences, however, accord with the individual’s own 
natural temperament through minor and fortuitous 
antipathies of the ambient. For if these distinc- 
tions are thus made, it is clear that both in general 
and in particular whatever events depend upon a 
first cause, which is irresistible and more powerful 
than anything that opposes it, must by all means 
take place ; on the contrary, of events that are not 
of this character, those which are provided with 
resistant forces are easily averted, while those that 
are not follow the primary natural causes, to be 
sure, but this is due to ignorance and not to the 
necessity of almighty power. One might observe this 
same thing happening in all events whatsoever that 
have natural causes. For even of stones, plants, and 
animals, and also of wounds, mishaps, and sicknesses, 
some are of such a nature as to act of necessity, 
others only if no opposing thing interferes. One 
should therefore believe that physical philosophers 
predict what is to befall men with foreknowledge of 

versal (καθολική) and particular or genethlialogical 
(γενεθλιαλογική) astrology. The former deals with astro- 
logical influences which affect all mankind or whole 
countries and races of men, and is treated in Books i-ii; 
the latter concerns the nativities of individuals, and is the 
subject of Books iii-iv. 



τοιαύτῃ προγνώσει, καὶ μὴ κατὰ κενὰς δόξας προσ- 
ἐρχομένους, ὡς τῶν μὲν διὰ τὸ πολλὰ καὶ μεγάλα 
13 τὰ ποιητικὰ τυγχάνειν, ἀφυλάκτων ὄντων, τῶν δὲ 
διὰ τοὐναντίον μετατροπὰς ἐπιδεχομένων. καθάπερ 
καὶ τῶν ἰατρῶν ὅσοι δυνατοὶ σημειοῦσθαι τὰ παθή- 
ματα προγινώσκουσι τά τε πάντως ἀνελόντα, καὶ 
τὰ χωροῦντα Σ βοήθειαν. ἐπὶ δὲ τῶν μεταπεσεῖν 
δυναμένων, οὕτως ἀκουστέον τοῦ γενεθλιαλόγου, 
φέρ᾽ εἰπεῖν, ὅτι τῇ τοιᾷδε συγκράσει κατὰ τὴν 
τοιάνδε τοῦ περιέχοντος ἰδιοτροπίαν τραπεισῶν ἐπὶ 
τὸ πλέον ἢ ἔλαττον τῶν ὑποκειμένων συμμετριῶν, 
τὸ τοιόνδε 8 παρακολουθήσει πάθος - ὡς καὶ τοῦ μὲν 
ἰατροῦ, ὅτι τόδε τὸ ἕλκος νομὴν ἢ σῆψιν ἐμποιεῖ, 
τοῦ δὲ μεταλλικοῦ, λόγου ἕνεκεν, ὅτι τὸν σίδηρον ἡ ἡ 
λίθος ἡ μαγνῆτις ἕλκει. ὥσπερ γὰρ τούτων ἑἕκάτε- 
ρον, ἐαθὲν μὲν δι᾿’ ἀγνωσίαν τῶν ἀντιπαθησόντων, 
πάντη πάντως παρακολουθήσει τῇ τῆς πρώτης 
φύσεως δυνάμει, οὔτε δὲ τὸ ἕλκος τὴν νομὴν ἢ τὴν 
σῆψιν κατεργάσεται τῆς ἀντικειμένης θεραπείας 
τυχόν, οὔτε τὸν σίδηρον ἡ μαγνῆτις ἑλκύσει παρα- 
τριβέντος αὐτῇ σκορόδου. καὶ αὐτὰ δὲ ταῦτα τὰ 
κωλύοντα φυσικῶς καὶ καθ᾽ εἱμαρμένην ἀντεπάθη- 
σεν οὕτω καὶ ἐπ᾽ ἐκείνων, ἀγνοούμενα μὲν τὰ 
συμβησόμενα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις, ἢ ἐγνωσμένα μέν, μὴ 
τυχόντα δὲ τῶν ἀντιπαθούντων, πάντη πάντως 
ἀκολουθήσει τῷ τῆς πρώτης φύσεως εἱρμῷ. προ- 
γνωσθέντα δὲ καὶ εὐπορήσαντα τῶν θεραπευόντων 
1 ἀναιροῦνται Cam.?, ἀναιροῦντα Cam.” 

Ξχωροῦντα VMADE; cf. τὰ θεραπείαν ἐπιδεχόμενα Proc. ; 

χωρηγοῦντα Cam.', Cam.? (χορ-), P (χωρι-). 
3 ἄν post τοιόνδε add. PMECam. 



this character and do not approach their task under 
false impressions ; for certain things, because their 
effective causes are numerous and powerful, are 
inevitable, but others for the opposite reason may 
be averted. Similarly those physicians who can re- 
cognize ailments know beforehand those which are 
always fatal and those which admit of aid. In the 
case of events that may be modified we must give 
heed to the astrologer, when, for example, he says 
that to such and such a temperament, with such and 
such a character of the ambient, if the fundamental 
proportions increase or decrease, such and such an 
affection will result. Similarly we must believe the 
physician, when he says that this sore will spread or 
cause putrefaction, and the miner, for instance, that 
the lodestone attracts iron: just as each of these, if left 
to itself through ignorance of the opposing forces, will 
inevitably develop as its original nature compels, but 
neither will the sore cause spreading or putrefaction 
if it receives preventive treatment, nor will the lode- 
stone attract the iron if it is rubbed with garlic; and 
these very deterrent measures also have their resist- 
ing power naturally and by fate; so also in the other 
cases, if future happenings to men are not known, or 
if they are known and the remedies are not applied, 
they will by all means follow the course of primary 
nature; but if they are recognized ahead of time 
and remedies are provided, again quite in accord 

1 A current belief; cf. Thorndike, History of Magic and 
Experimental Science, I, p. 213, for an instance of its 
occurrence in Plutarch. 




φυσικῶς πάλιν καθ᾽ εἱμαρμένην, ἢ ἀγένητα ' τέλεον, 
ἢ μετριώτερα καθίσταται. ὅλως δὲ τῆς τοιαύτης 
δυνάμεως τῆς αὐτῆς οὔσης ἐπί τε τῶν ὁλοσχερῶς 
θεωρουμένων καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν κατὰ μέρος, θαυμάσειεν 
ἄν τις διὰ τίνα δή ποτε αἰτίαν ἐπὶ μὲν THY? καθ᾽ 
ὅλου πιστεύουσι πάντες καὶ τῷ δυνατῷ τῆς προγνώ- 
σεως καὶ τῷ πρὸς τὸ φυλάττεσθαι χρησίμῳ (τάς τε 
γὰρ ὥρας καὶ τὰς τῶν ἀπλανῶν ἐπισημασίας καὶ 
τοὺς τῆς σελήνης σχηματισμοὺς οἱ πλεῖστοι προγινώ- 
σκειν ὁμολογοῦσι, καὶ πολλὴν πρόνοιαν ποιοῦνται 
τῆς φυλακῆς αὐτῶν, πεφροντικότες ἀεὶ πρὸς μὲν τὸ 
θέρος τῶν ψύχειν δυναμένων, πρὸς δὲ τὸν χειμῶνα 
τῶν θερμαινόντων, καὶ ὅλως προπαρασκευάζοντες 
αὑτῶν τὰς φύσεις ἐπὶ τὸ εὔκρατον - καὶ ἔτι πρὸς μὲν 
τὸ ἀσφαλὲς τῶν τε ὡρῶν καὶ τῶν ἀναγωγῶν παρα- 
φυλάττοντες τὰς τῶν ἀπλανῶν ἀστέρων ἐπισημασίας, 
πρὸς δὲ τὰς ἀρχὰς τῶν ὀχειῶν καὶ φυτειῶν τοὺς 
κατὰ πλήρωσιν τῶν φωτῶν τῆς σελήνης σχηματισ- 
μούς, καὶ οὐδεὶς οὐδαμῆ τῶν τοιούτων κατέγνωκεν 
οὔὐθ᾽ ὡς ἀδυνάτων, οὔθ᾽ ὡς ἀχρήστων), ἐπὶ δὲ τῶν κατὰ 
μέρος καὶ ἐκ τῆς τῶν λοιπῶν συγκράσεως ἰδιωμά- 
των, οἷον μᾶλλον καὶ ἧττον, χειμώνων ἢ καὶ 
καυμάτων, καὶ τῆς Kal? ἕκαστον ἰδιοσυγκρασίας, 
οὔτε τὸ προγινώσκειν ἔτι δυνατὸν ἡγοῦνταί τινες 
οὔτε τὰ πολλὰ ἐγχωρεῖν φυλάξασθαι - καίτοι προ- 
δήλου τυγχάνοντος, ὅτι πρὸς τὰ καθ᾽ ὅλου καύματα 

1 ἀγένητα VADE, ἀγέννητα PMCam. 
3 τῶν libri, τοῖς Cam. 

1Hesiod’s Works and Days, 383 ff. (ed. Flach), well il- 
lustrates how such stars and constellations as the Pleiades, 



with nature and fate, they either do not occur at all 
or are rendered less severe. And in general, since 
such power is the same whether applied to things 
regarded universally or particularly, one would 
wonder why all believe in the efficacy of prediction 
in universal matters, and in its usefulness for 
guarding one’s interests (for most people admit that 
they have foreknowledge of the seasons, of the 
significance of the constellations, and of the phases 
of the moon, and take great forethought for safe- 
guarding themselves, always contriving cooling 
agents against summer and the means of warmth 
against winter, and in general preparing their own 
natures with moderation as a goal; furthermore, to 
ensure the safety of the seasons and of their sailings 
they watch the significance of the fixed stars, and, 
for the beginning of breeding and sowing, the aspects 
of the moon’s light at its full,! and no one ever 
condemns such practices either as impossible or 
useless); but, on the other hand, as regards par- 
ticular matters and those depending upon the 
mixture of the other qualities—such as predictions 
of more or less, of cold or of heat, and of the in- 
dividual temperament—some people believe neither 
that foreknowledge is still possible nor that pre- 
cautions can be taken in most instances. And yet, 
since it is obvious that, if we happen to have 
cooled ourselves against heat in general, we shall 

Orion, Hyades, Sirius, and Arcturus, and the solstices 
were observed in ordinary rural life in such connections as 
those mentioned by Ptolemy; also in navigation (618 ff.). 
The favourable and unfavourable days of the month (i.e. 
of the moon) are enumerated in lines 769 ff. 



el τύχοιμεν προκαταψύξαντες ἑαυτοὺς ἧττον καυσού- 
μεθα, δύναται τὸ ὅμοιον ἐνεργεῖν καὶ πρὸς τὰ ἰδίως 
τήνδε τὴν σύγκρασιν εἰς ἀμετρίαν avéavta! τοῦ 
θερμοῦ. ἀλλὰ γὰρ αἴτιον τῆς τοιαύτης ἁμαρτίας 
τό τε δύσκολον καὶ ἄηθες τῆς τῶν κατὰ μέρος 
προγνώσεως, ὅπερ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων σχεδὸν 
ἁπάντων ἀπιστίαν ἐμποιεῖ. καὶ τὸ μὴ συναπτο- 
μένης ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν τῆς ἀντιπαθούσης δυνάμεως τῇ 
προγνωστικῇ, διὰ τὸ σπάνιον τῆς οὕτω τελείας 
διαθέσεως, καὶ περὶ τὰς πρώτας φύσεις ἀνεμποδί- 
στως ἀποτελουμένης, δόξαν ὡς περὶ ἀτρέπτων καὶ 
ἀφυλάκτων παρέσχε καὶ πάντων ἁπλῶς τῶν ἀπο- 

“Ὥσπερ δέ, οἶμαι, καὶ ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῦ τοῦ προγνωστικοῦ, 
καὶ εἰ μὴ διὰ παντὸς ἦν ἄπταιστον, τό γε δυνατὸν 
αὐτοῦ μεγίστης ἄξιον σπουδῆς κατεφαίνετο, τὸν 
αὐτὸν τρόπον καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ φυλακτικοῦ, καὶ εἰ μὴ 
πάντων ἐστὶ θεραπευτικόν, ἀλλὰ τό γ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἐνίων, 
κἂν ὀλίγα κἂν μικρὰ ἣ, ἀγαπᾶν καὶ ἀσπάζεσθαι καὶ 
κέρδος οὐ τὸ τυχὸν ἡγεῖσθαι προσήκει. 

Τούτοις δέ, ὡς ἔοικε, συνεγνωκότες οὕτως ἔχουσι, 
καὶ οἱ μάλιστα τὴν τοιαύτην δύναμιν τῆς τέχνης 
προαγαγόντες Αἰγύπτιοι συνῆψαν πανταχῆ τῷ δι᾽ 
10 ἀστρονομίας προγνωστικῷ τὴν ἰατρικήν. οὐ γὰρ 
1 αὔξαντα PL, -οντα VMADECam. 

2 καὶ εἰ μὴ MAE, κἂν μὴ VDCam., καὶ ἢ μὴ P, καὶ εἰ μὲν L. 

1 Ptolemy’s language is highly condensed and obscure ; 
the translation gives the probable meaning. Proclus’ 
Paraphraxe, pp. 31-32, thus renders the passage: ‘‘ But 
the reason for such an assumption is the difficulty of 
prognostication in particular cases, the accurate and truth- 



suffer less from it, similar measures can prove effec- 
tive against particular forces which increase this 
particular temperament to a disproportionate amount 
of heat. For the cause of this error is the difficulty 
and unfamiliarity of particular prognostication, a 
reason which in most other situations as well brings 
about disbelief. And since for the most part the 
resisting faculty is not coupled with the prognostic, 
because so perfect a disposition is rare, and since the 
force of nature takes its course without hindrance 
when the primary natures are concerned, an opinion 
has been produced that absolutely all future events 
are inevitable and unescapable.! 

But, I think, just as with prognostication, even if 
it be not entirely infallible, at least its possibilities 
have appeared worthy of the highest regard, so too 
in the case of defensive practice, even though it does 
not furnish a remedy for everything, its authority 
in some instances at least, however few or un- 
important, should be welcomed and prized. and 
regarded as profitable in no ordinary sense. 

Recognizing, apparently, that these things are so, 
those who have most advanced this faculty of the 
art, the Egyptians, have entirely united medicine 
with astronomical prediction. For they would 

ful handling of these matters, and the tact that, because a 
person is rarely found who has so perfect a disposition that 
none of the remedies escapes him, the taculty which 
generally resists the force which, unhindered, is effective 
through the primary natures, is not coupled with the 
prognostication, and, not being so coupled, creates the 
opinion concerning al! future events without exception 
that they are inevitable and that it is impossible to ward 
them off.” 2 See Bouché-Leclercq, pp. 517-520. 



ἄν ποτε ἀποτροπιασμούς τινας καὶ φυλακτήρια καὶ 
θεραπείας συνίσταντο πρὸς τὰς ἐκ τοῦ περιέχοντος 
ἐπιούσας ἢ παρούσας περιστάσεις καθολικάς τε καὶ 
μερικάς, εἴ τις αὐτοῖς ἀκινησίας καὶ ἀμετατρεψίας 
τῶν ἐσομένων ὑπῆρχε δόξα. νῦν δὲ καὶ τὸ κατὰ 
τὰς ἐφεξῆς φύσεις ἀντιπράξαι δυνάμενον ἐν δευτέρᾳ 
χώρᾳ τοῦ καθ᾽ εἱμαρμένην λόγου" τιθέμενοι, συν- 
ἔζευξαν τῇ τῆς προγνώσεως δυνάμει τὴν κατὰ τὸ 
χρήσιμον καὶ ὠφέλιμον διὰ τῶν καλουμένων παρ᾽ 
αὐτοῖς ἰατρομαθηματικῶν συντάξεων," ὅπως διὰ 
μὲν ἀστρονομίας τάς τε τῶν ὑποκειμένων συγ- 
κράσεων ποιότητας 38 εἰδέναι συμβαίνῃ, καὶ τὰ διὰ 
τὸ περιέχον ἐσόμενα συμπτώματα, καὶ τὰς ἰδίας 
αὐτῶν αἰτίας (ὡς ἄνευ τῆς τούτων γνώσεως, καὶ 
τῶν βοηθημάτων κατὰ τὸ πλεῖστον διαπίπτειν 
ὀφειλόντων, ἅτε μὴ πᾶσι σώμασιν ἢ πάθεσι τῶν 
αὐτῶν συμμέτρων ὄντων), διὰ δὲ τῆς ἰατρικῆς 
ἀπὸ τῶν ἑκάστοις οἰκείως συμπαθούντων ἢ ἀντι- 
παθούντων, τάς τε τῶν μελλόντων παθῶν προφυ- 
λακὰς καὶ τὰς τῶν ἐνεστώτων θεραπείας ἀδια- 
πτώτους, ὡς ἔνι μάλιστα, ποιούμενοι διατελῶσιν." 
᾿Αλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν μέχρι τοσούτων ἡμῖν κατὰ τὸ 
κεφαλαιῶδες προτετυπώσθω. ποιησόμεθα δὲ ἤδη 
τὸν λόγον κατὰ τὸν εἰσαγωγικὸν τρόπον, ἀρξάμενοι 
περὶ τῆς ἑκάστου τῶν οὐρανίων περὶ αὐτὸ τὸ 
17 ποιητικὸν ἰδιοτροπίας, ἀκολούθως ταῖς ὑπὸ τῶν 

1 λόγου VMADE, λόγον PL, om. Cam. 

2 Post συντάξεων add. eases Cam. ; in libris deest. 
8 ποιότητας libri, ἰδιότητας Cam. 

4 διατελοῦσι Cam. 



never have devised certain means of averting or 
warding off or remedying the universal and parti- 
cular conditions that come or are present by reason 
of the ambient, if they had had any idea that the 
future cannot be moved and changed. But as it 
is, they place the faculty of resisting by orderly 
natural means in second rank to the decrees of fate, 
and have yoked to the possibility of prognostica- 
tion its useful and beneficial faculty, through what 
they call their iatromathematical systems (medical 
astrology), in order that by means of astronomy they 
may succeed in learning the qualities of the under- 
lying temperatures, the events that will occur in the 
future because of the ambient, and their special 
causes, on the ground that without this knowledge 
any measures of aid ought for the most part to fail, 
because the same ones are not fitted for all bodies 
or diseases;1 and, on the other hand, by means 
of medicine, through their knowledge of what is 
properly sympathetic or antipathetic in each case, 
they proceed, as far as possible, to take precautionary 
measures against impending illness and to prescribe 
infallible treatment for existing disease. 

Let this be, to this point, our summarily stated 
preliminary sketch. We shall now conduct our dis- 
cussion after the manner of an introduction,” begin- 
ning with the character of each of the heavenly 

1 Perhaps “‘affections,’’ the more general sense of the 
word πάθος. 

2 “* Introductions” (eicaywyai), or systematic elemen- 
tary treatises, are a common literary form in antiquity. 
Nicomachus’ Introduction to Arithmetic (εἰσαγωγὴ ἀριθμητική) 
is a good example. The “ art’ (τέχνη) was a similar form 
of treatise, and might deal with any art or science. 



~ A ‘ 
παλαιῶν κατὰ τὸν φυσικὸν τρόπον ἐφηρμοσμέναις 
fe ‘ / = ~ 
παρατηρήσεσι. Kal πρώταις ' ταῖς τῶν πλανω. 
/ 3 4 / « 
μένων ἀστέρων δυνάμεσι ἡλίου τε καὶ σελήνης 

6.> Περὶ τῆς τῶν πλανωμένων 
ἀστέρων" δυνάμεως 

‘O HA iX \ ‘ Μ ~ 
ἥλιος κατείληπται TO ποιητικὸν ἔχων τῆς 
΄ ~ > 

οὐσίας ev τῷ θερμαίνειν, καὶ ἠρέμα Enpaivew. 

ταῦτα δὲ μάλιστα τῶν ἄλλων ἡμῖν εὐαισθητότερα 

γίνεται διά τε τὸ μέγεθος αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ τῶν κατὰ 

~ > 

Tas ὥρας μεταβολῶν ἐναργές, ἐπειδήπερ Gow ἂν 

μᾶλλον ἐγγίζῃ τοῦ κατὰ κορυφὴν ἡμῶν τόπου, 

~ ¢ ~ “ 4 « A / A 

μᾶλλον ἡμᾶς οὕτω διατίθησιν. ἡ δὲ σελήνη τὸ 

μὲν πλέον ἔχει τῆς δυνάμεως ἐν τῷ ὑγραίνειν, διὰ 

δ “- ~ 

τὴν περιγειότητα δηλονότι καὶ THY τῶν ὑγρῶν 

ἀναθυμίασιν. καὶ διατίθησιν οὕτως ἄντικρυς τὰ 

\ / A 
σώματα πεπαίνουσα Kal διασήπουσα τὰ πλεῖστα, 
\ ~ 

κεκοινώνηκε δὲ ἠρέμα καὶ τοῦ θερμαίνειν διὰ τοὺς 
ἀπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου φωτισμούς. 

« A “ / > \ ‘ ,ὔ » “ la 

O δὲ τοῦ Κρόνου ἀστὴρ τὸ πλέον ἔχει τῆς ποιό- 

~ ~ > / 
τητος ἐν TH ψύχειν καὶ τῷ ἠρέμα ξηραίνειν, διὰ τὸ 
| πρώταις VD, πρώτης MAE, πρὸ τῆς Ῥ, πρὸς τῆς L, πρῶτον 
Proc., πρώτως Cam. 

2 πλανωμένων ἀστέρων VADEProc., om. ἀστέρων M, πλα- 
νητῶν PLCam. 3 τῷ. . . τόπῳ MAECam. 

1In this chapter and elsewhere Ptolemy makes use of 
the four Aristotelian principles, hot, cold, wet, dry (e.g. 
De generatione et corruptione, ii. 2, 3). Cf. Boll-Bezold- 
Gundel, p. 50. 

2Tt was a doctrine as old as Thales that the moisture 
arising from the earth nourished the heavenly bodies ; α΄. 



bodies with respect to its active power, in agreement 
with the physical observations attached to them by 
the ancients, and in the first place the powers of 
the planets, sun, and moon. 

4. Of the Power of the Planets. 

The active power of the sun’s essential nature is 
found to be heating and, to a certain degree, drying.! 
This is made more easily perceptible in the case of 
the sun than any other heavenly body by its size 
and by the obviousness of its seasonal changes, for 
the closer it approaches to the zenith the more it 
affects us in this way. Most of the moon’s power 
consists of humidifying, clearly because it is close 
to the earth and because of the moist exhalations ? 
therefrom. Its action therefore is precisely this, to 
soften and cause putrefaction in bodies for the most 
part, but it shares moderately also in heating power 
because of the light which it receives from the sun. 

It is Saturn’s * quality chiefly to cool and, mode- 
rately, to dry, probably because he is furthest 

Diels, Doxographi Graeci (Berlin, 1879), p. 276; J. Burnet, 
Early Greek Philosophy (London, 1920), p. 49. 

3 Ptolemy ordinarily says “ the (star) of Saturn,” * the 
(star) of Jupiter,’’ etc. (ὁ τοῦ Κρόνου, ὁ τοῦ Διός), and less 
often merely ‘‘ Saturn,” “ Jupiter,’’ and the like, a form 

of speech which tends to identify the planet and the 
divinity whose name it bears. On the other hand, he does 
not use the older Greek names such as ®waddpos, Φαίνων, 
etc. (though Πυροείς occurs for “Apys in one of the MSS.). 
See F. Cumont, “ Antiochus d’Athénes et Porphyre,” 
Annuaire de l’Inst. de Philologie et d’ Histoire Orientale, ii. 
139, and ‘‘ Les noms de planétes et d’astrolatrie chez les 
grecs,” L’ Antiquité Classique, iv. 1, pp. 5-43;  Boll- 
Bezold-Gundel, p. 48. 



λ a Cy ” > ͵ὔ 1 Ὁ“ ~ ~ « ͵ 
πλεῖστον, ὡς ἔοικεν, ἀπέχειν } ἅμα τῆς τε τοῦ ἡλίου 
\ ~ ~ ‘ \ ~ ~ 
θερμασίας καὶ τῆς τῶν περὶ τὴν γῆν ὑγρῶν avabv- 
μιάσεως. συνίστανται δὲ δυνάμεις ἐπί τε τούτου 
\ ~ ~ \ ~ ~ 
καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν, καὶ διὰ τῆς τῶν πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον 
καὶ τὴν σελήνην σχηματισμῶν παρατηρήσεως, ἐπει- 
18 δήπερ οἱ μὲν οὕτως, οἱ δὲ οὕτω τὴν τοῦ περιέχοντος 
κατάστασιν ἐπὶ τὸ μᾶλλον ἢ ἧττον συντρέποντες 
€ “- » , ~ 
O δὲ τοῦ Ἄρεως ὃ ξηραίνειν μάλιστα καὶ καυσοῦν 
ν ͵ὔ ~ lol 7 5 , 
ἔχει φύσιν, TH τε πυρώδει τοῦ χρώματος οἰκείως 
\ a uf ‘ ν > 4 « / > ~ 
Kal τῇ πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον ἐγγύτητι, ὑποκειμένης αὐτῷ 
τῆς ἡλιακῆς σφαίρας. 
« \ “- A ” μ᾿ ‘ ‘ “- 
Ο δὲ τοῦ Διὸς εὔκρατον ἔχει τὸ ποιητικὸν τῆς 
/ \ ond / ~ ~ 
δυνάμεως, μεταξὺ γινομένης THs κινήσεως αὐτοῦ τοῦ 
‘ A ~ ~ ‘ ‘ 
τε κατὰ τὸν Κρόνον ψυκτικοῦ καὶ τοῦ κατὰ τὸν "Apny 
fol ov \ e Ul 
καυστικοῦ. θερμαίνει Te yap ἅμα καὶ vypatver, 
lol s / ‘ ~ 
καὶ διὰ τὸ μᾶλλον εἶναι θερμαντικός, ὑπὸ τῶν 
~ ΄ / 
ὑποκειμένων σφαιρῶν, γονίμων πνευμάτων γίνεται 
\ ¢ ~ . ͵ 2. ~ " ᾽ ~ ? 
Kai ὁ τῆς Αφροδίτης δὲ τῶν μὲν αὐτῶν ἐστι 
> ἣν 2: / 
κατὰ TO εὔκρατον ποιητικός," ἀλλὰ κατὰ TO ἐναντίον. 
\ \ A 
θερμαίνει μὲν yap ἠρέμα διὰ τὴν ἐγγύτητα THY πρὸς 
td ΄ ε / 
τὸν ἥλιον - μάλιστα δὲ ὑγραίνει καθάπερ ἡ σελήνη 
\ > A \ A / ~ > ͵ ~ ’ὔ 
καὶ αὐτὸς διὰ τὸ μέγεθος τῶν ἰδίων φωτῶν, νοσφιζό- 
Ἁ > \ ~ ΄ \ ~ ~ > 
μενος THY ἀπὸ τῶν περιεχόντων THY γῆν ὑγρῶν ava- 
᾿ ἀπέχεν VMADE, om. PLCam.; ἀφεστάναι add. post 
ἀναθυμιάσεως Cam. 
ὃ Πυροέντος ME. Ordinem restauravi quam praebent 

VPLADProc.; in MECam. ordo est ὁ δὲ τοῦ Διὸς. .. 
ποιητικός. ὁ δὲ τοῦ Apews . . σφαίρας. 



removed! both from the sun’s heat and the moist 
exhalations about the earth. Both in Saturn’s case 
and in that of the other planets there are powers, too, 
which arise through the observation of their aspects 
to the sun and the moon, for some of them appear 
to modify conditions in the ambient in one way, some 
in another, by increase or by decrease. 

The nature of Mars is chiefly to dry and to burn, 
in conformity with his fiery colour and by reason 
of his nearness to the sun, for the sun’s sphere lies 
just below him. 

Jupiter has a temperate active force because his 
movement takes place between the cooling influence 
of Saturn and the burning power of Mars. He both 
heats and humidifies; and because his heating 
power is the greater by reason of the underlying 
spheres, he produces fertilizing winds. 

Venus has the same powers and tempered nature 
as Jupiter, but acts in the opposite way; for she 
warms moderately because of her nearness to the 
sun, but chiefly humidifies, like the moon, because 
of the amount of her own light and because she 
appropriates the exhalations from the moist atmo- 
sphere surrounding the earth. 

1 The order of the heavenly bodies followed by Ptolemy 
is Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon ; ¢f. 
Bouché-Leclereq, pp. 107-108. 

ὃ ποιητικός... evavtiov VPLMADE (καὶ κατὰ ME); ef. 
Proc.; τῷ Ζηνὶ κατὰ μέντοι τὸ ἀντικείμενον ποιητικός Cam. 

(om. τῷ Ζηνὶ ed. pr.). 


Ὃ δὲ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν ἐξ ἴσου ποτὲ μὲν 
ξηραντικὸς καταλαμβάνεται καὶ τῶν ὑγρῶν ἀναπω- 
τικός, διὰ τὸ μηδέποτε πολὺ τῆς τοῦ ἡλίου θερ- 
μασίας κατὰ μῆκος ἀφίστασθαι, ποτὲ δ᾽ αὖ ὑγραν- 
τικός, διὰ τὸ τῇ περιγειοτάτῃ σφαίρᾳ τῆς σελήνης 
ἐπικεῖσθαι, ταχείας δὲ ποιεῖσθαι τὰς ἐν ἀμφοτέροις 3 

19 μεταβολάς, πνευματούμενος ὥσπερ ὑπὸ τῆς περὶ 
αὐτὸν τὸν ἥλιον ὀξυκινησίας. 

«ε.) Περὶ ἀγαθοποιῶν καὶ κακοποιῶν 8 

Τούτων οὕτως ἐχόντων, ἐπειδὴ τῶν τεττάρων 
χυμάτων δύο μέν ἐστι τὰ γόνιμα καὶ ποιητικά, τό 
τε τοῦ θερμοῦ καὶ τὸ τοῦ ὑγροῦ - διὰ τούτων γὰρ 
πάντα συγκρίνεται καὶ αὔξεται - δύο δὲ τὰ φθαρτικὰ 
καὶ παθητικά, τό τε τοῦ ξηροῦ καὶ τὸ τοῦ ψυχροῦ, 
δι᾿ ὧν πάντα πάλιν διακρίνεται καὶ φθίνει, τοὺς 
μὲν δύο τῶν πλανητῶν, τόν τε τοῦ Atos καὶ τὸν τῆς 
᾿Αφροδίτης, καὶ ἔτι τὴν σελήνην, ὡς ἀγαθοποιοὺς οἱ 
παλαιοὶ παρειλήφασι, διὰ τὸ εὔκρατον καὶ τὸ πλέον 
ἔχειν ἔν τε τῷ θερμῷ καὶ τῷ ὑγρῷ, τὸν δὲ τοῦ 
Κρόνου καὶ τὸν τοῦ "Apews® τῆς ἐναντίας φύσεως 
ποιητικούς, τὸν μὲν τῆς ἄγαν ψύξεως ἕνεκεν, τὸν 
δὲ τῆς ἄγαν ξηρότητος" τὸν δὲ ἥλιον καὶ τὸν τοῦ 
“Ἑρμοῦ διὰ τὸ κοινὸν τῶν φύσεων ὡς ἀμφότερα 
δυναμένους, καὶ μᾶλλον συντρεπομένους, οἷς ἂν τῶν 

ἄλλων προσγένωνται.5 
1 ἀναπαυτικός PL. 
2 ἐν ἀμφοτέροις VMADE, ἀμῴοτερ Ῥ, ἀμφοτέρας L, ἐπ᾿ ἀμφό- 
τερα Proc. Cam. 
3 Titulum capitis om. Cam., habent VPLMADE. 



Mercury in general is found at certain times alike 
to be drying and absorptive of moisture, because he 
never is far removed in longitude from the heat of 
the sun; and again humidifying, because he is next 
above the sphere of the moon, which is closest to the 
earth ; and to change quickly from one to the other, 
inspired as it were by the speed of his motion in the 
neighbourhood of the sun itself. 

5. Of Beneficent and Maleficent Planets. 

Since the foregoing is the case, because two of the 
four humours are fertile and active, the hot and the 
moist (for all things are brought together and in- 
creased by them), and two are destructive and 
passive, the dry and the cold, through which all 
things, again, are separated and destroyed, the 
ancients accepted two of the planets, Jupiter and 
Venus, together with the moon, as beneficent because 
of their tempered nature and because they abound 
in the hot and the moist, and Saturn and Mars as 
producing effects of the opposite nature, one because 
of his excessive cold and the other for his excessive 
dryness; the sun and Mercury, however, they 
thought to have both powers, because they have 
a common nature, and to join their influences with 
those of the other planets, with whichever of them 
they are associated. 

4“ φθίνει VMADE, διαφθείρεται LCam., διαφθείρη Ῥ, φθείρεται 

5 Post Ἄρεως add. κακοποιούς, was MAECam., om. VPLD. 

ὃ προογένωνται VMADE, παραγίγνωνται P, παραγίνονται 1, 
Cam.; add. ὡς μέσους Cam.*, μέσους Cam. 



<s.> Περὶ ἀρρενικῶν καὶ θηλυκῶν 

Πάλιν ἐπειδὴ τὰ πρῶτα γένη τῶν φύσεών ἐστι 
δύο, τό τε ἀρρενικὸν καὶ τὸ θῆλυ, τῶν δὲ προκειμέ- 
νων δυνάμεων ἡ τῆς ὑγρᾶς οὐσίας μάλιστα θηλυκὴ 
τυγχάνει (πλέον γὰρ ἐγγίνεται καθ᾽ ὅλου τοῦτο 
τὸ μέρος πᾶσι τοῖς θήλεσι, τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα μᾶλλον τοῖς 
20 dppeav), εἰκότως τὴν μὲν σελήνην καὶ τὸν τῆς 
᾿Αφροδίτης ἀστέρα θηλυκοὺς ἡμῖν παραδεδώκασι 
διὰ τὸ πλέον ἔ ἔχειν. ἐν τῷ ὑγρῷ, τὸν δὲ ἥλιον καὶ τὸν 
τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τὸν τοῦ Διὸς καὶ τὸν τοῦ "Αρεως 
ἀρρενικούς, τὸν δὲ τοῦ ᾿Ερμοῦ κοινὸν ἀμφοτέρων 
τῶν γενῶν, καθ᾽ ὃ ἐξ ἴσου τῆς τε ξηρᾶς καὶ τῆς 
ὑγρᾶς οὐσίας ἐστὶ ποιητικός. ἀρρενοῦσθαι δέ φασι 
τοὺς ἀστέρας καὶ θηλύνεσθαι παρά τε τοὺς πρὸς 
τὸν ἥλιον σχηματισμούς - ἑῴους μὲν γὰρ ὄντας καὶ 
προηγουμένους ἀρρενοῦσθαι, ἑσπερίους δὲ καὶ ἕπο- 
μένους θηλύνεσθαι. καὶ ἔτι παρὰ τοὺς πρὸς τὸν 
ὁρίζοντα - ἐν μὲν γὰρ τοῖς ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς μέχρι 
μεσουρανήσεως, ἢ καὶ ἀπὸ δύσεως μέχρι τῆς ὑπὸ γῆν 
ἀντιμεσουρανήσεως ! σχηματισμοῖς, ὡς ἀπηλιωτι- 
κοὺς ἀρρενοῦσθαι ἐν δὲ τοῖς λοιποῖς δυσὶ τεταρτη- 
μορίοις ὡς λιβυκοὺς 2 θηλύνεσθαι. 

1 μέχρι πάλιν τοῦ ἀντικειμένου μεσουρανήματος Cam.; om. PL. 
5 δυτικοὺς Cam. 

τον matutine ; that is, stars which are above the earth 
when the sun rises, as evening, or vespertine, stars set after 
the sun. Cardanus (p. 127) says that whatever planet is 



6. Of Masculine and Feminine Planets. 

Again, since there are two primary kinds of natures, 
male and female, and of the forces already mentioned 
that of the moist is especially feminine—for as a 
general thing this element is present to a greater 
degree in all females, and the others rather in males— 
with good reason the view has been handed down to 
us that the moon and Venus are feminine, because 
they share more largely in the moist, and that the sun, 
Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars are masculine, and Mer- 
cury common to both genders, inasmuch as he 
produces the dry and the moist alike. They say 
too that the stars become masculine or feminine 
according to their aspects to the sun, for when they 
are morning stars! and precede the sun they be- 
come masculine, and feminine when they are evening 
stars and follow the sun. Furthermore this happens 
also according to their positions with respect to the 
horizon; for when they are in positions from the 
orient to mid-heaven,” or again from the occident 
to lower mid-heaven, they become masculine be- 
cause they are eastern, but in the other two quad- 
rants, as western stars, they become feminine. 

less than 6 signs removed from the sun in the order of the 
signs is feminine and occidental ; any that is more than 
6 signs distant, masculine and oriental. 

2 Cardanus (l.c.) remarks that some do not accept this 
statement but count all stars from the inferior to the 
superior mid-heaven (4th to the 10th house) masculine 
and from the superior to the inferior mid-heaven (10th 
to the 4th house) feminine. Planets may also become 
masculine or feminine in consequence of occupying a 
masculine or feminine sign ; see Bouché-Leclereq, p. 103. 

M 41 



«ζΣ Theron ἡμερινῶν καὶ νυκτερινῶν 

¢ ‘ Sh od \ ~ ͵ ‘ ΄ ‘A 
Opoiws δὲ ἐπειδὴ τῶν ποιούντων τὸν χρόνον τὰ 
> . ~ 
ἐκφανέστατα διαστήματα δύο ταῦτα τυγχάνει TO TE 
“ eb] ~ ~ 
τῆς ἡμέρας ἠρρενωμένον μᾶλλον διὰ τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ 
θερμὸν καὶ δραστικὸν καὶ τὸ τῆς νυκτὸς τεθηλυσ- 
͵ “ \ \ > > \ fos \ > 
μένον μᾶλλον διὰ τὸ κατ᾽ αὐτὴν δίὔγρον καὶ ava- 
παυστικόν, νυκτερινοὺς μὲν ἀκολούθως παραδεδώ- 
, (ἃ \ A “ 3 / 
κασι THY τε σελήνην Kal Tov THs ᾿Αφροδίτης, 
ε A δὲ / ὅλ δ \ ~ A / > / 
ἡμερινοὺς δὲ τόν τε ἥλιον καὶ τὸν Tod Ads, ἐπί- 
~ « “- 
κοινον δὲ κατὰ ταὐτὰ τὸν τοῦ “Βρμοῦ καὶ ἐν 
“ ΄ ¢ > ~ ΜΙ 
μὲν τῷ EW) σχήματι ἡμερινόν, ἐν δὲ τῷ ἑσπερίῳ 
/ / \ ε / ~ ι ͵7 
νυκτερινόν. προσένειμαν δὲ ἑκατέρᾳ τῶν αἱρέσεων 
\ \ / \ “ ~ > ἐφ > Μ 
καὶ τοὺς δύο τοὺς τῆς φθαρτικῆς οὐσίας, οὐκ ἔτι 
/ \ \ > \ ~ 4 > ἢ > ‘\ 
μέντοι κατὰ τὰς αὐτὰς τῆς φύσεως αἰτίας, ἀλλὰ 
κατὰ τὰς ἐναντίας. τοῖς μὲν γὰρ τῆς ἀγαθῆς 
a ~ \ 
κράσεως οἰκειούμενα τὰ ὅμοια μεῖζον αὐτῶν TO 
3 / a a \ a \ > / 
ὠφέλιμον ποιεῖ, τοῖς δὲ φθαρτικοῖς τὰ ἀνοίκεια 
A ~ 
μιγνύμενα παραλύει τὸ πολὺ! τῆς κακώσεως 
᾽ ~ ” \ A ~ / 4 wv 
αὐτῶν. ἔνθεν τὸν μὲν τοῦ Κρόνου ψυκτικὸν ὄντα 
“ “ ~ € / > / ἢ \ AW 
τῷ θερμῷ τῆς ἡμέρας ἀπένειμαν, Tov δὲ τοῦ “Apews 
“ ~ a / 4 ε / 
ξηρὸν ὄντα τῷ ὑγρῷ τῆς νυκτός - οὕτω yap ἐκά- 
~ “ τ \ 
Tepos ὑπὸ τῆς κράσεως " τῆς συμμετρίας τυχὼν 
a ~ la , 
οἰκεῖος γίνεται τῆς TO εὔκρατον παρασχούσης 

᾿ι᾿ πολὺ VMADEFProc., κακὸν PL, σφοδρὸν Cam. 

2 ἐναντίας κράσεως Cam.; ἐναντίας om, libri. 



7. Of Diurnal and Nocturnal! Planets. 

Similarly, since of the two most obvious intervals 
of those which make up time, the day is more mas- 
culine because of its heat and active force, and night 
more feminine because of its moisture and its gift of 
rest, the tradition has consequently been handed down 
that the moon and Venus are nocturnal, the sun 
and Jupiter diurnal, and Mercury common as before, 
diurnal when it is a morning star and nocturnal as 
an evening star. They also assigned to each of the 
sects the two destructive stars, not however in this 
instance on the principle of similar natures,” but of 
just the opposite ; for when stars of the same kind 
are joined with those of the good temperament their 
beneficial influence is increased, but if dissimilar 
stars are associated with the destructive ones the 
greatest part of their injurious power is broken. Thus 
they assigned Saturn, which is cold, to the warmth 
of day, and Mars, which is dry, to the moisture of 
night, for in this way each of them attains good 
proportion through admixture and becomes a proper 
member of its sect, which provides moderation. 

1These are the sects (αἵρεσις, conditio, secta) of the 
sun and moon respectively ; cf. Vettius Valens, ii. 1, iii. 5; 
Rhetorius, ap. CCAG, i. 146. 

*T.e. that “birds of a feather flock together,’’ in 
various forms a proverbial expression in Greek; e.g. 

Odyssey, 17. 218, ὡς αἰεὶ τὸν ὁμοῖον aye θεὸς ὡς τὸν 
ὁμοῖον ; Plato, Republic, 329 A, Phaedrus, 240 C, etc. 



«ἢ. Περὶ τῆς δυνάμεως τῶν πρὸς 
τὸν ἥλιον σχηματισμῶν 

"Hd hs \ A \ A \ ὅλ 
ῃ μέντοι καὶ παρὰ τοὺς πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον συσχη- 
ματισμοὺς ἣ τε σελήνη καὶ οἱ τρεῖς τῶν πλανω- 
/ 1 \ ~ \ - 4 2, A 
péevav τὸ μᾶλλον καὶ ἧττον λαμβάνουσιν ev ταῖς 
οἰκείαις ἑαυτῶν δυνάμεσιν. ἥ τε γὰρ σελήνη κατὰ 
μὲν τὴν ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς μέχρι τῆς πρώτης διχοτόμου 
αὔξησιν ὑγρότητός ἐστι μᾶλλον ποιητική" κατὰ 
δὲ τὴν ἀπὸ πρώτης διχοτόμου μέχρι πανσελήνου, 
θερμότητος - κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἀπὸ πανσελήνου μέχρι 
22 δευτέρας διχοτόμου ξηρότητος: κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἀπὸ 
δευτέρας διχοτόμου 2 μέχρι κρύψεως * ψυχρότητος. 
ν \ ta / > A A lol 
ot te πλανώμενοι Kal ἑῷοι μόνον ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς 
ἀνατολῆς μέχρι τοῦ πρώτου στηριγμοῦ μᾶλλόν 
εἰσιν ὑγραντικοί, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ πρώτου στηριγμοῦ 
μέχρι τῆς ἀκρονύκτου μᾶλλον θερμαντικοί, ἀπὸ δὲ 
τῆς ἀκρονύκτου μέχρι τοῦ δευτέρου στηριγμοῦ 
μᾶλλον ξηραντικοί, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ δευτέρου στηριγμοῦ 
/ / a / ~ A ΄ ‘ 
μέχρι δύσεως μᾶλλον ψυκτικοί: δῆλον δὲ ὅτι Kat 
ἀλλήλοις συγκιρνάμενοι παμπληθεῖς διαφορὰς ποιο- 
τήτων εἰς τὸ περιέχον ἡμᾶς ἀπεργάζονται, κατα- 
κρατούσης μὲν ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν τῆς ἰδίας ἑκάστου 
δυνάμεως, τρεπομένης δὲ κατὰ τὸ ποσὸν ὑπὸ τῆς 
τῶν σχηματιζομένων." 
1Post πλανωμένων add. 6 τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ ὁ τοῦ Διὸς καὶ ὁ 
τοῦ ἄρεως AFCam., om. VPLMDE. 
2 μείωσιν post διχοτόμου add. Cam.? 
8 κρύψεως VMDEProc.Cam.; τρήψεως P, τρέψεως L; 

συνόδου AFH et Cam.? in marg. 
4 ἐναντιώσεως post σχηματιζομένων add. Cam., om. libri. 



8. Of the Power of the Aspects to the Sun. 

Now, mark you, likewise, according to their 
aspects to the sun, the moon and three of the 
planets! experience increase and decrease in their 
own powers. For inits waxing from new moon to first 
quarter the moon is more productive of moisture ; 
in its passage from first quarter to full, of heat: 
from full to last quarter, of dryness, and from last 
quarter to occultation,’ of cold. The planets, in 
oriental aspects only, are more productive of mois- 
ture from rising to their first station,® of heat from 
first station to evening rising, of dryness from evening 
rising to the second station, of cold from second 
station to setting; and it is clear that when they 
are associated with one another they produce very 
many variations of quality in our ambient, the proper 
force of each one for the most part persisting, but 
being changed in quantity by the force of the stars 
that share the configuration. 

‘Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars; a gloss to this effect has 
been incorporated into the text of certain MSS. and of 
Camerarius’ editions (see the critical note). 

2 J.e. new moon. 

3 By “rising’’ heliacal rising is meant. The stations 
are the points in the motion of the planets at which they 
appear to stand still before beginning retrograde movement. 
Ptolemy explained these irregularities of movement by the 
theory of epicycles. Cf. Bouché-Leclercq, pp. 111-123. 



<.> Περὶ τῆς τῶν ἀπλανῶν 
ἀστέρων δυνάμεως 

« ~ ~ ~ 
Εξῆς δὲ ὄντος Kat tas τῶν ἀπλανῶν φύσεις κατὰ 
τὸ ἰδίως αὐτῶν ποιητικὸν ἐπιδραμεῖν, ἐκθησόμεθα 
v A ee fo ~ 
Kal Tas ἐπ᾽ αὐτῶν τετηρημένας ἰδιοτροπίας κατὰ 
τὸ ὅμοιον ταῖς τῶν πλανωμένων φύσεσι τὸν ἐμ- 
φανισμὸν ποιούμενοι" καὶ πρῶτον τῶν περὶ αὐτὸν 
τὸν διὰ μέσων κύκλον ἰ ἐχόντων τὰς μορφώσεις. 
~ ~ f « ~ ~ A 
Τοῦ Κριοῦ τοίνυν οἱ μὲν ev τῇ κεφαλῇ τὸ 
\ “ od ~ 
ποιητικὸν ὅμοιον ἔχουσι κεκραμένον TH τε τοῦ 
“ \ ~ ~ / / € \ > ~ 
Apews καὶ τῇ τοῦ Κρόνου δυνάμει - οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ 
~ ~ « ~ \ > ~ ~ 
στόματι τῇ τε τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ καὶ ἠρέμα τῇ τοῦ 
, « δὲ > ~ >? / δὶ ~ ~ A 
Κρόνου - ot δὲ ἐν τῷ ὀπισθίῳ ποδὶ τῇ τοῦ “Apews, 
¢€ Ay"): ΑἹ ~ > ~ ~ ~ 5 4 / 
οἱ δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς οὐρᾶς TH τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης. 
~ \ > ~ Te / > ΄ 2 « \ 2 A ~ 
Τῶν δὲ ἐν τῷ Ταύρῳ ἀστέρων 2 ot μὲν ἐπὶ τῆς 
“ " ~ ~ ~ > 
ἀποτομῆς ὁμοίαν ἔχουσι κρᾶσιν τῷ τε τῆς “Adpo- 
/ \ 3 / ~ “- / ε > > ~ 
δίτης, καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου οἱ δ᾽ ἐν τῇ 
Πλειάδι τῇ τε τῆς σελήνης καὶ τῷ τοῦ Ζιός - τῶν 
A > ~ lod « \ κ᾿ « ~ ‘Vad 3 ‘ 
δὲ ev TH κεφαλῇ ὁ μὲν λαμπρὸς ὁ τῆς “Yados* Kat 
ὑπόκιρρος,, καλούμενος δὲ “αμπαδίας, τῷ τοῦ 
v ¢ \ \5 ~ ~ K / hry / 
Apews: of δὲ λοιποὶ τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ ἠρέμα 
~ ae ~ «ς oF 3. ΝΜ - ‘ “ ~ 
τῷ τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ. οἱ δ᾽ ἐν ἄκροις τοῖς κέρασι TH τοῦ 
181d μέσων κύκλον] Cworaxov NCam. 
27Qv . . . ἀστέρων] τοῦ δὲ Ταύρου NCam. 
8 ὃ τῆς γάδος VDProc., τῆς ‘Yados PLMAEFH, τῶν ᾿γάδων 
4 ἀπόκιρρος NCam. 
δ οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ... TH τοῦ “Apews] haec post t. 21, “Apews 

VPLMADEProc., om. NFHCam.!; post |. 16, rod dios Cam.?; 
post λοιποὶ add. ἐκεῖ ὄντες Cam.*, om. libri. 



9. Of the Power of the Fixed Stars. 

As it is next in order to recount the natures of the 
fixed stars with reference to their special powers, 
we shall set forth their observed characters in an 
exposition like that of the natures of the planets, and 
in the first place those of the ones that occupy the 
figures in the zodiac? itself. 

The stars in the head of Aries, then, have an effect 
like the power of Mars and Saturn, mingled ; those 
in the mouth like Mercury’s power and moderately 
like Saturn’s ; those in the hind foot like that of 
Mars, and those in the tail like that of Venus. 

Of those in Taurus,” the stars along the line where 
it is cut off have a temperature like that of Venus 
and in a measure like that of Saturn; those in the 
Pleiades, like those of the moon and Jupiter; of 
the stars in the head, the one of the Hyades that is 
bright and somewhat reddish, called the Torch,’ has 
a temperature like that of Mars; the others, like 
that of Saturn and moderately \ike that of Mercury ; 
those in the tips of the horns, like that of Mars. 

1Strictly, ‘‘around the ecliptic itself.” Properly, the 
zodiac is 6 ζωδιακὸς κύκλος, and the ecliptic, the path of 
the sun through its middle, is ὁ διὰ μέσων (sc. τῶν ζῳδίων) 
κύκλος OF ὁ διὰ μέσου (80. τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ) κύκλος, “the circle 
through the midst of the signs”’ or ‘through the middle 
of the zodiac.” 

2 Taurus was represented as the head and fore parts only 
of a charging bull. 

3 Aldebaran. 



Τῶν δὲ ἐν τοῖς Διδύμοις ἀστέρων οἱ μὲν ἐπὶ 
τῶν ποδῶν τῆς ὁμοίας κεκοινωνήκασι ποιότητος 
~ am ¢ ~ ‘ ’ / ~ ~ > , 
τῷ τε τοῦ ‘Eppod καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τῆς “Adpodirns - 
οἱ δὲ περὶ τοὺς μηροὺς λαμπροὶ τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου" 
~ \ > A ~ / ~ c A > 
τῶν δὲ ἐν ταῖς κεφαλαῖς δύο λαμπρῶν ὁ μὲν ἐν 
τῇ προηγουμένῃ τῷ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ, καλεῖται δὲ καὶ 
> / ε δὲ > ~ ¢ / ~ ~ Mw 
Απόλλωνος - ὁ δὲ ἐν TH ἑπομένῃ τῷ τοῦ “Apews, 
- \ Vit: / 
καλεῖται δὲ Kat “Πρακλέους. 
~ \ > ~ / > ΄ « \ a2 48 ~ 
Τῶν δὲ ἐν τῷ Καρκίνῳ ἀστέρων ot μὲν ἐπὶ τῶν 
~ ~ ~ Α 
ὀφθαλμῶν δύο τῆς αὐτῆς ἐνεργείας εἰσὶ ποιητικοὶ 
τῷ τε τοῦ ᾿ Ἑρμοῦ καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ "ἄρεως - ot δὲ 
ἐν ταῖς χηλαῖς τῷ τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τοῦ ᾿ Ἑρμοῦ. 
ς \ > ~ / \ id 
ἡ δὲ ἐν τῷ στήθει νεφελοειδὴς συστροφή, Kadov- 
μένη δὲ Φάτνη, τῷ τε τοῦ "Apews καὶ τῇ σελήνῃ" 
«ς \ < / > ~ / / \ wm 
ot δὲ ἑκατέρωθεν αὐτῆς δύο, καλούμενοι δὲ “Ovor, 
τῷ τοῦ “Apews καὶ τῷ ἡλίῳ. 
~ \ \ \ / « ᾿ ae κ᾿ “Ἢ “- 

Τῶν δὲ περὶ τὸν Λέοντα οἱ μὲν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς 
δύο τὸ ὅμοιον ποιοῦσι τῷ τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ ἠρέμα 
τῷ τοῦ "Apews, οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ τραχήλῳ τρεῖς τῷ τοῦ 

/ \ > ‘ ~ ἀπῇ ¢ ~ ¢ \ εξ ~ 
24 Κρόνου καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ “Eppotd: ὁ δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς 
, v. τς \ , ~ 
καρδίας λαμπρός͵ καλούμενος δὲ Βασιλίσκος, τῷ 
~ Mu \ ~ ~ / ¢ \ > ~ 7 See 
τοῦ “Apews καὶ τῷ τοῦ Atos: ot δὲ ἐν τῇ ὀσφύϊ 
καὶ ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς οὐρᾶς λαμπρὸς τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τῷ 
τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης- οἱ δὲ ἐν τοῖς μηροῖς τῷ τε τῆς 
3 / Vek , ~ ~ Ψ Fi “- 
Adpoditns καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ “Eppod. 

Τῶν δὲ κατὰ τὴν Ilapbévov οἱ μὲν ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ 
καὶ ὁ ἐπ᾽ ἄκρας τῆς νοτίου πτέρυγος ὅμοιον ἔχουσι 
τὸ ποιητικὸν τῷ τε τοῦ “Eppod καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ 
Ἄρεως. of δὲ λοιποὶ τῆς πτέρυγος λαμπροὶ καὶ οἱ 


Of the stars in Gemini, those in the feet share the 
same quality as Mercury and, to a less degree, as 
Venus ; the bright stars in the thighs, the same as 
Saturn; of the two bright stars in the heads,! the 
one in the head in advance the same as Mercury ; 
it is also called the star of Apollo; the one in the 
head that follows, the same as Mars ; it is also called 
the star of Hercules. 

Of the stars in Cancer, the two in the eyes produce 
the same effect as Mercury, and, to a less degree, as 
Mars ; those in the claws, the same as Saturn and 
Mercury ; the cloud-like cluster in the breast, called 
the Manger,” the same as Mars and the moon; and 
the two on either side of it, which are called Asses,? 
the same as Mars and the sun. 

Of those in Leo, the two in the head act in the same 
way as Saturn and, to a less degree, as Mars; the 
three in the throat, the same as Saturn and, to a 
less degree, as Mercury; the bright star upon the 
heart, called Regulus, the same as Mars and Jupiter ; 
those in the hip and the bright star in the tail,* the 
same as Saturn and Venus ; and those in the thighs, 
the same as Venus and, to a less degree, Mercury. 

Of the stars in Virgo,® those in the head and the 
one upon the tip of the southern wing have an effect 
like that of Mercury and, in less degree, of Mars ; 
the other bright stars of the wing and those on the 

1 These are Castor (‘in advance ’’) and Pollux. 

2 Praesepe ; more popularly, Beehive. 

3. Asinus Borealis and Asinus Australis. 

4 B Leonis. 

5 Virgo was represented as a winged woman bearing in 
her left hand a stem of wheat, the head of which was 
marked by the bright star Spica. 



~ ~ ¢ ~ 
κατὰ τὰ περιζώματα TH τε τοῦ “Eppod καὶ ἠρέμα 
~ ~ > / «ες \ > ~ / , 
τῷ τῆς Adpodityns: 6 δὲ ἐν τῇ βορείᾳ πτέρυγι 
λαμπρός, καλούμενος δὲ [Π]Ἰροτρυγητήρ, τῷ τοῦ 
΄“-“ ~ € ~ 
Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τοῦ ‘Eppot: ὁ δὲ καλούμενος 
~ ~ ’ \ > , ~ ~ 
Στάχυς τῷ τῆς “Ἀφροδίτης καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ 
¢€ - ~ 
Ἄρεως. of δὲ ἐν ἄκροις τοῖς ποσὶ Kal τῷ σύρματι:ϊ 
~ ar 'C: ~ \ > ~ “- 
τῷ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ "Apews. 
Τῶν δὲ Χηλῶ Ty iov® of μὲν ἐν a 
ὧν δὲ Χηλῶν τοῦ Σ᾽ κορπίου ὃ οἱ μὲν ἐν ἄκραις 
αὐταῖς ὡσαύτως διατιθέασι τῷ τε τοῦ Διὸς καὶ τῷ 
ae “- « > ~ ~ 
τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ - οἱ δὲ ἐν μέσαις τῷ τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ 
ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ “Apews. 
~ > ~ ~ ͵΄ ~ 
Τῶν δὲ ἐν TH σώματι τοῦ Σ'κορπίου ot μὲν ἐν TO 
μετώπῳ λαμπροὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσι τῷ τε τοῦ "Apews 
~ ~ ¢ ~ 
Kal ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ Kpdvov: ot δὲ ἐν TH σώματι 
- 7 \ 
τρεῖς, ὧν ὁ μέσος ὑπόκιρρος Kat λαμπρότερος, 
a > ΄ ~ aM ‘ 3 ~ 
καλεῖται δὲ ‘Avrdpyns, τῷ τοῦ "Apews καὶ ἠρέμα TO 
aA ͵ ἜΘ a , - τ , 
τοῦ Διός - οἱ δὲ ἐν τοῖς σφονδύλοις τῷ τε τοῦ Κρόνου 
A / ~ ~ > / € Vert) \ ~ L4 
καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τῆς Adpodityns οἱ δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ κέντρου 
A A A A my ἡ c 
25T@ τε τοῦ ᾿Ερμοῦ καὶ τῷ τοῦ "Apews: ἡ δὲ λεγο- 
Ἄ \ \ ~ “- "A \ ~ 
μένη νεφελοειδὴς συστροφὴ τῷ τοῦ “Apews καὶ TH 
~ A ‘ ‘ , c \ > ‘ ~ > A ~ 
Τῶν δὲ περὶ τὸν Τοξότην οἱ μὲν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀκίδος τοῦ 
βέλους ὅμοιον ἔχουσι τὸ ποιητικὸν τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως 
\ ~ / ¢ \ \ \ ͵ \ A A 
Kal TH σελήνῃ - οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸ τόξον καὶ THY λαβὴν 
τῆς χειρὸς τῷ τε τοῦ Διὸς καὶ τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως. ἡ 
1Post σύρματι add. τοῦ ματίου NProc.Cam.; om. 
Στοῦ Ἑρμοῦ VPADEFHProc., τοῦ ᾿Αφροδίτης MNCam. 

8 Σκορπίου VPDProc., Ζυγοῦ NCam., om. LN (lac. 6 litt.) 



girdles like that of Mercury and, in a measure, of 
Venus ; the bright star in the northern wing, called 
Vindemiator, like those of Saturn and Mercury ; the 
so-called Spica, like that of Venus and, in a less 
degree, that of Mars; those in the tips of the feet 
and the train! like that of Mercury and, in a less 
degree, Mars. 

Of those in the Claws of the Scorpion,? the ones 
at their very extremities exercise the same influence 
as do Jupiter and Mercury; those in the middle 
parts the same as do Saturn and, to a less degree, 


Of the stars in the body of Scorpio, the bright 
stars on the forehead act in the same way as does 
Mars and in some degree as does Saturn; the three 
in the body, the middle one of which is tawny and 
rather bright and is called Antares, the same as 
Mars and, in some degree, Jupiter; those in the 
joints, the same as Saturn and, in some degree, 
Venus ; those in the sting, the same as Mercury and 
Mars ; and the so-called cloud-like cluster, the same 
as Mars and the moon. 

Of the stars in Sagittarius,® those in the point of 
his arrow have an effect like that of Mars and the 
moon ; those in the bow and the grip of his hand, like 
that of Jupiter and Mars ; the cluster in his forehead, 

1“ Of the garment’”’ is added in the Nuremberg MS., by 
Proclus, and in the printed editions; see the critical note. 

2 «Claws of the Scorpion’”’ was the earlier name of Libra 
(Ζυγός) ; the latter came into general use in the first century 
before Christ. Ptolemy uses both names. 

8 Represented as a centaur preparing to shoot an arrow ; 
a mantle flies above and behind his shoulders. 



> ~ ~ ‘ ~ 
δὲ ἐν TH προσώπῳ συστροφὴ τῷ τε ἡλίῳ καὶ TO 
τοῦ ἄρεως. ot δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἐφαπτίσι! καὶ τῷ νώτῳ 
τῷ τοῦ Διὸς καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ “ρμοῦ - οἱ δὲ ἐν 
τοῖς ποσὶ τῷ τοῦ Διὸς καὶ τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου: τὸ δὲ 
Pe 4 ~ ~ a ~ 
ἐπὶ τῆς οὐρᾶς τετράπλευρον τῷ τῆς ‘Adpodirns Kat 
ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου. 
~ A A \ > / > / c \ >’ αὐ 
Τῶν δὲ κατὰ τὸν Αἰγόκερων ἀστέρων ot μὲν ἐπὶ 
~ ’ὔ e / > ~ ~ ~ » / 
τῶν κεράτων ὡσαύτως ἐνεργοῦσι τῷ τῆς Agpodirns 
Kal ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως. οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ στόματι TO 
- 0 \ > / ~ ~ > ‘ δ A 
τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης - οἱ δὲ 
ἐν τοῖς ποσὶ καὶ τῇ κοιλίᾳ τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως καὶ τῷ 
ae ~ ¢ \ > \ ~ > ~ ~ ~ / 
τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ: οἱ δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς οὐρᾶς τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου 
καὶ τῷ τοῦ Διός. 
~ \ A A e ΄ ς \ > - » 
Τῶν δὲ περὶ τὸν “Ydpoydov οἱ μὲν ἐν τοῖς ὥμοις 
ὁμοίως διατιθέασι τῷ τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τοῦ 
“Ἑρμοῦ, σὺν τοῖς ἐν τῇ ἀριστερᾷ χειρὶ καὶ τῷ 
ἱματίῳ ot δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν μηρῶν μᾶλλον μὲν τῷ τοῦ 
« ~ Ke \ ~ ~ / ς ΒΝ ma es 
Ἑρμοῦ, ἧττον δὲ τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου « ot δὲ ev τῇ ῥύσει 
~ LA ~ ~ /, \ > ,ὔ - ~ 
τοῦ ὕδατος τῷ τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ 
Τῶν δὲ περὶ τοὺς ᾿Ιχθῦς οἱ μὲν ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ τοῦ 
lol ~ ae ~ 
νοτιωτέρου ἰχθύος τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσι TH τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ 
καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου: οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ σώματι 
~ ~ ~ ~ Ἑ - « αὶ ~ 
τῷ τοῦ Atos καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Eppobd- οἱ de ἐπὶ τῆς 
~ ~ ~ ~ ‘ 
2600pas καὶ τοῦ νοτίου λίνου τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ 
~ ~ ~ ~ \ ~ 
ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ: οἱ δὲ ἐν TH σώματι Kal TH 
> / - ~ / > 4 ~ ~ A \ 2 A > / 
ἀκάνθῃ τοῦ βορείου ἰχθύος τῷ τοῦ Διὸς 5 καὶ ἠρέμα 
1 ἐφαπτίσι VMADEFHProc. ; ἐφαπτρίσι Cam.*; πτέρηξιν Ῥ, 

πτέρυξι LNCam.? 
2 dios VMADFHProc., “Apews PLNCam., “Ἑρμοῦ E. 



like that of the sun and Mars; those in the cloak and 
his back, like that of Jupiter and, to a less degree, of 
Mercury ; those in his feet, like that of Jupiter and 
Saturn; the quadrangle upon the tail, like that of 
Venus and, to a less degree, of Saturn. 

Of the stars in Capricorn,' those in the horns act 
in the same way as Venus and, in some degree, as 
Mars ; those in the mouth, as Saturn and, in some 
degree, as Venus; those in the feet and the belly, as 
Mars and Mercury ; and those in the tail, as Saturn 
and Jupiter. 

Of the stars in Aquarius, those in the shoulders 
exert an influence like that of Saturn and Mercury, 
together with those in the left arm and the cloak ; 
those in the thighs, like that of Mercury in a greater 
degree and like that of Saturn in a lesser degree ; 
those in the stream of water, like that of Saturn and, 
in some degree, like that of Jupiter. 

Of the stars in Pisces,? those in the head of the 
southern Fish act in the same way as Mercury and 
somewhat as does Saturn; those in the body, as do 
Jupiter and Mercury; those in the tail and the 
southern cord, as do Saturn and, in some degree, 
Mercury ; those in the body and backbone of the 
northern Fish, as do Jupiter and, in some degree, 

1 Represented as a monster with a goat’s head and fore 
feet and a fish’s tail. 

2The southern Fish (not to be confused with the extra- 
zodiacal constellation Piscis Australis, mentioned later) 
is toward Aquarius; the two fishes are represented as 
being joined by a cord from tail to tail. 




τῷ τῆς Adpodirns: οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ βορείῳ τοῦ λίνου 
~ lol / \ ~ “- ~ 
τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τοῦ Atos: ὁ δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ 
/ \ ~ a MW ‘ > / ~ 
συνδέσμου λαμπρὸς τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ 
τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ. 
~ Ay. a ΄ “ lol ’ 
Τῶν δὲ ἐν ταῖς βορειοτέραις τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ μορφώ- 
σεσιν οἱ μὲν περὶ τὴν μικρὰν Ἄρκτον λαμπροὶ τὴν 
ὁμοίαν ἔχουσι ποιότητα τῷ τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ 
ἠρέμα τῷ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης - οἱ δὲ περὶ τὴν μεγάλην 
Ἄρκτον τῷ τοῦ "Apews- ἡ δὲ ὑπὸ τὴν οὐρὰν 
αὐτῆς τοῦ ΠΙλοκάμου συστροφὴ τῇ σελήνῃ καὶ τῷ 
~ 3 / « \ > ~ / ᾿ ra 
τῆς “Adpoditns: οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ δράκοντι λαμπροὶ 
τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως καὶ τῷ τοῦ Διός" 
Η \ “ / Sm ~ / ο \ ~ “ 
οἱ δὲ τοῦ Κήφεως τῷ τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τοῦ 
Διός - οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Βοώτην τῷ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ καὶ 
~ ~ / «ς Ν ‘ \ « / ~ 
τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου ὁ δὲ λαμπρὸς καὶ ὑπόκιρρος τῷ 
τοῦ Atos καὶ Ἄρεως, ὁ καὶ ᾿Μρκτοῦρος καλούμενος * 
οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ βορείῳ Στεφάνῳ τῷ τε τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης 
καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ: οἱ δὲ κατὰ τὸν ἐν γόνασι τῷ 
τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ: οἱ δὲ ἐν τῇ Δύρᾳ τῷ τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης 
\ ~ ae lol ‘ crs aw \ Cy 4 
καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Eppod: καὶ ot ἐν τῇ "Ορνιθι δὲ woav- 
τως" οἱ δὲ κατὰ τὴν Κασσιέπειαν τῷ τε τοῦ 
/ \ ~ ΄“ > / «ς \ \ A 
Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τῆς "Adpoditns: ot δὲ κατὰ τὸν 
Περσέα τῷ τοῦ Atos καὶ τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου ἡ δὲ ἐν 
τῇ λαβῇ τῆς μαχαίρας συστροφὴ τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως 
\ an mae ~ ¢ sweet) a ¢ / A 
καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ: of δὲ ἐν τῷ ᾿Ηνιόχῳ λαμπροὶ 
τῷ τοῦ "Apews καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ: οἱ δὲ κατὰ 
τὸν ᾿Οφιοῦχον τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τῆς 
> {4 « \ \ A »» > ~ ~ ~ 
᾿Αφροδίτης - ot δὲ περὶ τὸν ὄφιν αὐτοῦ τῷ τε τοῦ 
Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τοῦ "Apews: οἱ δὲ κατὰ τὸν 
- ~ ΄Ά οἱ \ > / ~ ~ 
᾿Οϊστὸν τῷ τε τοῦ Ἄρεως καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τῆς 



Venus ; those in the northern part of the cord, as 
do Saturn and Jupiter; and the bright star on the 
bond, as do Mars and, in some degree. Mercury. 

Of the stars in the configurations north of the 
zodiac, the bright stars in Ursa Minor have a similar 
quality to that of Saturn and, to a less degree, to 
that of Venus; those in Ursa Major, to that of Mars ; 
and the cluster of the Coma Berenices beneath the 
Bear’s tail, to that of the moon and Venus; the 
bright stars in Draco, to that of Saturn, Mars, and 
Jupiter; those of Cepheus, to that of Saturn and 
Jupiter: those in Boétes, to that of Mercury and 
Saturn; the bright, tawny star, to that of Jupiter 
and Mars, the star called Arcturus; the star in 
Corona Septentrionalis, to that of Venus and 
Mercury; those in Geniculator,! to that of Mercury; 
those in Lyra,” to that of Venus and Mercury; and 
likewise those in Cygnus. The stars in Cassiopeia 
have the effect of Saturn and Venus; those in Per- 
seus, of Jupiter and Saturn; the cluster in the hilt 
of the sword, of Mars and Mercury; the bright 
stars in Auriga,® of Mars and Mercury; those in 
Ophiuchus, of Saturn and, to some degree, of 
Venus ; those in his serpent, of Saturn and Mars ; 
those in Sagitta, of Mars and. to some degree, of 

1 J.e. Hercules. 
2 The bright star Vega is in Lyra. 
3 Capella is the brightest in this constellation. 



Adpodirns: οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν ἀετὸν τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως 
\ ~ ~ / € \ > ~ “- ~ ~ 
καὶ τῷ τοῦ Διός: οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ 4ελῴϊνι τῷ τοῦ 

/ \ ~ am ς A \ ‘ σ᾽ 
Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Apews: οἱ δὲ κατὰ τὸν Ἵππον 
λαμπροὶ τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως καὶ τῷ τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ. οἱ δὲ 
ἐν τῇ ᾿Ανδρομέδῃ τῷ τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης- οἱ δὲ τοῦ 
Tprydvov! τῷ τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ. 

Τῶν δὲ ἐν τοῖς νοτιωτέροις τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ μορφώ- 
μασιν ὁ μὲν ἐν τῷ στόματι τοῦ νοτίου ᾿ΪΙχθύος 
λαμπρὸς ὁμοίαν ἔχει τὴν ἐνέργειαν τῷ τε τῆς 
"A / \ “-“ ~ 1B ~ « \ \ ‘ 

φροδίτης καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ: οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸ 

~ ~ ~ / ~ \ \ A > ΄ ε 
Κῆτος τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου + τῶν δὲ περὶ τὸν “Qpiwva ot 
μὲν ἐπὶ τῶν ὥμων τῷ τε τοῦ ᾿ἄρεως καὶ τῷ τοῦ 
ΚΕ ~ c δὲ Ἃ \ λ \ ~ ~ 4 \ \ 

μοῦ, of δὲ λοιποὶ λαμπροὶ τῷ τε τοῦ Διὸς Kat 
τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου: τῶν δὲ ἐν τῷ ΠἝοοταμῷ ὁ μὲν 
” \ «ε \ ΄ ~ / ς \ a 
ἔσχατος καὶ ὁ λαμπρὸς τῷ τοῦ Ards, οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ 
τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου: οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ Aaya τῷ τε τοῦ 
K / \ 2 ~ ~ ἽΕΙ ~ ~ ὃ A ‘ \ Kv 

ρόνου καὶ 5 τῷ τοῦ “Eppot: τῶν δὲ περὶ τὸν Kiva, 
ς \ Μ ~ ~ 74 / < AG? \ ~ ΄ 
οἱ μὲν ἄλλοι τῷ τῆς Adpodizns, ὁ δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ στόματος 
λαμπρὸς τῷ τοῦ Διὸς καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ “Apews ; ὁ 
δὲ ἐν τῷ ΠΙροκυνὶ λαμπρὸς τῷ τε τοῦ ᾿ρμοῦ καὶ 
> / ~ ~ "A ed «ς δὲ A \ “ὃ 
ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως οἱ δὲ κατὰ τὸν “Υδρον 
λαμπροὶ τῷ τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τῆς ‘Adpodirns " 
ς \ > fi ~ “ an A > / ‘ 
οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ Κρατῆρι τῷ τε τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης καὶ 
ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ “Ερμοῦ : οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸν Κόρακα τῷ 
aw \ ΄σ ~ ped « iol *A lol 
τοῦ “Apews καὶ τῷ τοῦ Kpdvov~ ot δὲ τῆς Ἀργοῦς 
λαμπροὶ τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τοῦ Aids τῶν δὲ 
περὶ τὸν Κένταυρον οἱ μὲν ἐν τῷ ἀνθρωπείῳ σώματι 
1 τοῦ Τριγώνου VMADEFHProc., τοῦ Δέλτῳ Ῥ, του L, ἐν 

τῷ Δέλτα NCam. 
3 τῷ τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ om. Cam. 



Venus; those in Aquila) of Mars and Jupiter; 
those in Delphinus, of Saturn and Mars ; the bright 
stars in the Horse,” of Mars and Mercury ; those in 
Andromeda, of Venus; those in Triangulum, of 

Of the stars in the formations south of the zodiac 
the bright star in the mouth of Piscis Australis 3 
has an influence similar to that of Venus and 
Mercury ; those in Cetus, similar to that of Saturn ; 
of those in Orion,’ the stars on his shoulders similar 
to that of Mars and Mercury, and the other bright 
stars similar to that of Jupiter and Saturn; of the 
stars in Eridanus the last bright one ὅ has an in- 
fluence like that of Jupiter and the others like that 
of Saturn; the star in Lepus, like that of Saturn 
and Mercury; of those in Canis, the others like 
that of Venus, and the bright star in the mouth,® 
like that of Jupiter and, to a less degree, of Mars ; 
the bright star Procyon, like that of Mercury and, 
in a less degree, that of Mars; the bright stars in 
Hydra,’ like that of Saturn and Venus; those in 
Crater, like that of Venus and, in a less degree, of 
Mercury ; those in Corvus, like that of Mars and 
Saturn; the bright stars of Argo,’ like that of 
Saturn and Jupiter ; of those in Centaurus, the ones 

1 Altair is in this group. 

2 Pegasus. 

3 The bright star is Fomalhaut. 

* Rigel and Betelgeuse are the brightest stars here. 
§ The “last bright star ’’ in Eridanus is Achernar. 
6 Sirius, which is in Canis. 

7 The brightest star is Alphard. 

§ These are Canopus and Var. 



τῷ τε τῆς 'Adpoditns καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Ερμοῦ, οἱ δὲ ἐν 
τῷ ἵππῳ λαμπροὶ τῷ τε τῆς Αφροδίτης καὶ τῷ τοῦ 
Aids: οἱ δὲ περὶ τὸ Θηρίον λαμπροὶ τῷ τε τοῦ 
΄ \ 5 Ὁ A ~ Mu ες ΜΙΝ ~ 
Κρόνου καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ 
Θυμιατηρίῳ τῷ τε τῆς Adpoditns καὶ ἠρέμα τῷ 
~ ἽὝἝ; ane 1 « ὃ A > ~ ͵ pt / λ 6 
28 τοῦ “Eppot:} of δὲ ἐν τῷ νοτίῳ Στεφάνῳ λαμπροὶ 
τῷ τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Eppod.? 
Ai μὲν οὖν τῶν ἀστέρων καθ᾽ ἑαυτὰς δυνάμεις 
τοιαύτης ἔτυχον ὑπὸ τῶν παλαιοτέρων παρατηρή- 

«1.) Περὶ τῆς τῶν ὡρῶν καὶ & γωνιῶν 

Καὶ τῶν ὡρῶν δὲ τῶν τοῦ ἔτους δ΄ οὐσῶν, ἔαρος 
τε καὶ θέρους καὶ μετοπώρου καὶ χειμῶνος, τὸ μὲν 
ἔαρ ἔχει τὸ μᾶλλον ἐν τῷ ὑγρῷ διὰ τὴν κατὰ τὸ 
παρῳχημένον ψύχος, ἀρχομένης δὲ τῆς θερμασίας, 
διάχυσιν +3 τὸ δὲ θέρος τὸ πλέον ἐν τῷ θερμῷ διὰ 
τὴν τοῦ ἡλίου πρὸς τὸν κατὰ κορυφὴν ἡμῶν τόπον * 
ἐγγύτητα - τὸ δὲ μετόπωρον τὸ μᾶλλον ἐν τῷ ξηρῷ, 
διὰ τὴν κατὰ τὸ παρῳχημένον καῦμα τῶν ὑγρῶν 
ἀνάπωτιν " 6 δὲ χειμὼν τὸ πλέον ἐν τῷ ψυχρῷ διὰ 
τὸ τὸν ἥλιον πλεῖστον ἀφίστασθαι τοῦ κατὰ κορυφὴν 
ἡμῶν τόπου. διόπερ, καὶ τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ μηδεμιᾶς 
οὔσης φύσει ἀρχῆς ὡς κύκλου, τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ἐαρινῆς 
ἰσημερίας ἀρχόμενον δωδεκατημόριον, τὸ τοῦ Κριοῦ, 

1 Ἑρμοῦ VPLMADEFHProe., Κρόνου NCam. 
2Titulum capitis post “Ἑρμοῦ posuerunt PLMNEFH. 



in the human body, like that of Venus and Mercury, 
and the bright stars in the equine body like that of 
Venus and Jupiter; the bright stars in Lupus, like 
that of Saturn and, in less degree, of Mars; those 
in Ara, like that of Venus and, to a lesser degree, of 
Mercury ; and the bright stars in Corona Australis. 
like that of Saturn and Mercury. 

Such, then, are the observations of the effects of 
the stars themselves as made by our predecessors. 

10. Of the Effect of the Seasons and of the Four Angles. 

Of the four seasons of the year, spring, summer, 
autumn, and winter, spring exceeds in moisture on 
account of its diffusion after the cold has passed and 
warmth is setting in; the summer, in heat, because 
of the nearness of the sun to the zenith; autumn 
more in dryness, because of the sucking up of the 
moisture during the hot season just past ; and winter 
exceeds in cold, because the sun is farthest away 
from the zenith. For this reason, although there 
is no natural beginning of the zodiac, since it is a 
circle, they assume that the sign which begins with 

POUL TMB. veld τς διάχυσιν] τῆς κατὰ τὸ παρ. ψ. συστάσεως, 
ἀρχ. δὲ τῆς θ. διαχεῖσθαι NCam, 
ὁ τόπον om, NCam., 



\ ~ “ 5 \ ς ‘0 2 Δ 
καὶ τῶν ὅλων ἀρχὴν ὑποτίθενται, καθάπερ ἐμψύχου 
, ~ ~ \ «ς \ ~ mM ς A 
ζῴου τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ τὴν ὑγρὰν τοῦ ἔαρος ὑπερβολὴν 
προκαταρκτικὴν ποιούμενοι, καὶ ἐφεξῆς τὰς λοιπὰς 

90 ὥρας διὰ τὸ καὶ πάντων ζῴων τὰς μὲν πρώτας 
ἡλικίας τὸ πλέον ἔχειν τῆς ὑγρᾶς οὐσίας, παρα- 
πλησίως τῷ ἔαρι ἁπαλὰς οὔσας καὶ ἔτι τρυφεράς " 
τὰς δὲ δευτέρας τὰς μέχρι τῆς ἀκμαιότητος ' τὸ 
πλέον ἔχειν ἐν τῷ θερμῷ " παραπλησίως τῷ θέρει - 

\ \ / ead > ~ \ 3 ~ / 
τὰς δὲ Tpitas καὶ ἤδη ἐν παρακμῇ καὶ ἀρχῇ φθίσεως 
‘ ᾽ὔ ” \ r) νὰ ” > ~ ~ 
τὸ πλέον ἤδη Kal αὐτὰς ἔχειν ἐν TH ξηρῷ παρα- 
πλησίως τῷ μετοπώρῳ " τὰς δὲ ἐσχάτας καὶ πρὸς 
τῇ διαλύσει τὸ πλέον ἔχειν ἐν τῷ ψυχρῷ καθάπερ 
καὶ ὁ χειμών. 

“Ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τῶν δ΄ τοῦ ὁρίζοντος τόπων καὶ 
γωνιῶν, ἀφ᾽ ὧν καὶ οἱ καθ᾽ ὅλα μέρη πνέοντες 
ἄνεμοι τὰς ἀρχὰς ἔχουσι, 6 μὲν πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολὰς 
αὐτός τε τὸ πλέον ἔχει ἐν τῷ ξηρῷ διὰ τὸ κατ᾽ 

“ 4 ~ 
αὐτὸν γινομένου τοῦ ἡλίου τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς νυκτὸς 
ὑγρανθέντα τότε πρῶτον ἄρχεσθαι ξηραίνεσθαι * οἵ 
τε ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πνέοντες ἄνεμοι, οὗς κοινότερον 

1 ἀκμαιότητος VMADEFP, ἀκμαιοτάτης PLNCam. 

2 θερμῷ VMADEF, θερμαίνειν PLNCam. 

3 Hic inser. titulum Περὶ τῆς τῶν τεττάρων γωνιῶν δυνάμεως 

1Cf. Almagest, iii. 1 (p. 192, 19-22), where Ptolemy 
defines the year as the return of the sun to the points fixed 
by the equinoxes and solstices. The sign of Aries, defined 
as the 30° beginning with the vernal equinox, is, of course, 
very different from the sign considered as the actual con- 
stellation. This gave rise to an argument against astro- 
logy, first expressed by Origen. Cf. Boll-Bezold-Gundel, 



the vernal equinox, that of Aries,! is the starting- 
point of them all, making the excessive moisture of 
the spring the first part of the zodiac as though it 
were a living creature, and taking next in order 
the remaining seasons, because in all creatures the 
earliest ages,” like the spring, have a larger share 
of moisture and are tender and still delicate. The 
second age, up to the prime of life, exceeds in heat, 
like summer; the third, which is now past the prime 
and on the verge of decline, has an excess of dry- 
ness, like autumn; and the last, which approaches 
dissolution, exceeds in its coldness, like winter. 
Similarly, too, of the four regions and angles of 
the horizon, from which originate the winds from 
the cardinal points,* the eastern one likewise excels 
in dryness because, when the sun is in that region, 
whatever has been moistened by the night then first 
begins to be dried; and the winds which blow from 

pp. 131-132; Bouché-Leclereq, p. 129, ἢ. 1; Ashmand, 
Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos, p. 32, n. 

2 Ptolemy here enumerates four ages of man, as do also 
many Pythagorizing arithmologists, when they praise the 
number 4, as, for example, Theologoumena Arithmetica, 
p- 20 Ast, Diogenes Laertius, viii. 1. 10, Martianus Capella, 
vii. 734, etc. Ptolemy later (iv. 10) speaks of seven ages, 
assigning one to each planet; the arithmologists have 
also a series of seven ages which they cite in praise of the 
number 7; e.g. Philo, De mundi opificio 36. There are 
also lists in which the ages are merely made up of hebdo- 
madic groups of years. 

3 Proclus’ paraphase for οἱ καθ᾽ ὅλα μέρη πνέοντες ἄνεμοι 18 
οἱ καθολικοὶ ἄνεμοι, which is closer than the Latin trans- 
lations, totas illas partes occwpantes venti (Gogava), 
and venti, qui totas illas partes occupant (Melanchthon). 
Ptolemy means the winds from the cardinal points and 
around them. 



ἀπηλιώτας καλοῦμεν, 1 ἀνικμοί τέ εἰσι καὶ ξηραν- 
τικοί. ὁ δὲ πρὸς μεσημβριαν τόπος αὐτός τέ ἐστι 
θερμότατος δια TE TO πυρῶδες τῶν τοῦ ἡλίου 
μεσουρανήσεων καὶ διὰ τὸ ταύτας κατὰ τὴν τῆς 
ἡμετέρας οἰκουμένης ἔγκλισιν πρὸς μεσημβρίαν 
μᾶλλον ἀποκλίνειν: οἵ τε ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πνέοντες 
ἄνεμοι, οὗς κοινῶς νότους καλοῦμεν, θερμοί τέ εἰσι 
καὶ μανωτικοί. ὁ δὲ πρὸς ταῖς δυσμαῖς τόπος 
αὐτός τέ ἐστιν ὑγρὸς διὰ τὸ κατ᾽ αὐτὸν γινομένου 
80τοῦ ἡλίου τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς ἡμέρας ἀναποθέντα τότε 
πρῶτον ἄρχεσθαι διυγραίνεσθαι - οἵ τε ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ 
φερόμενοι ἄνεμοι, οὗς κοινότερον ζεφύρους καλοῦ- 
μεν, νεαροί τέ εἰσι καὶ ὑγραντικοί. ὁ δὲ πρὸς ταῖς 
ἄρκτοις τόπος αὐτός τέ ἐστι ψυχρότατος διὰ τὸ 
κατὰ τὴν τῆς ἡμετέρας οἰκουμένης ἔγκλισιν τὰς 
τῆς θερμότητος αἰτίας τῶν τοῦ ἡλίου μεσουρανή- 
σεων πλέον αὐτοῦ διεστάναι, ὥσπερ 2 ἀντιμεσου- 
ρανοῦντος" οἵ τε am’ αὐτοῦ πνέοντες ἄνεμοι, οἱ 
καλούμενοι κοινῶς βορέαι, ψυχροί τε ὑπάρχουσι 

ν , 
καὶ πυκνωτικοί. 

Χρησίμη δὲ καὶ ἡ τούτων διάληψις πρὸς τὸ τὰς 
συγκράσεις πάντα τρόπον ἑκάστοτε δύνασθαι ὃ 
διακρίνειν. εὐκατανόητον γὰρ διότι καὶ παρὰ τὰς 
τοιαύτας καταστάσεις ἤτοι τῶν ὡρῶν ἢ τῶν ἡλικιῶν 
ἢ τῶν γωνιῶν τρέπεταί πως τὸ ποιητικὸν τῆς τῶν 
ἀστέρων δυνάμεως, καὶ ἐν μὲν ταῖς οἰκείαις κατα- 
στάσεσιν ἀκρατοτέραν τε ἔχουσι τὴν ποιότητα καὶ 

τὴν ἐνέργειαν ἰσχυροτέραν, οἷον ἐν ταῖς θερμαῖς οἱ 

1 καλοῦσιν NCam. 
2 Post ὥσπερ add. τοῦ ἠλίου NCam., om. alii. 



it, which we call in general Apeliotes,’ are without 
moisture and drying in effect. The region to the 
south is hottest because of the fiery heat of the sun’s 
passages through mid-heaven and because these 
passages, on account of the inclination of our in- 
habited world, diverge more to the south; and 
the winds which blow thence and are called by 
the general name Notus are hot and rarefying. 
The region to the west is itself moist, because when 
the sun is therein the things dried out during the 
day then first begin to become moistened ; likewise 
the winds which blow from this part, which we call 
by the general name Zephyrus, are fresh and moist. 
The region to the north is the coldest, because 
through our inhabited world’s inclination it is too far 
removed from the causes of heat arising from the 
sun’s culmination, as it is also when the sun is at its 
lower culmination ; and the winds which blow thence, 
which are called by the general name Boreas, are 
cold and condensing in effect. 

The knowledge of these facts is useful to enable 
one to form a complete judgement of temperatures in 
individual instances. For it is easily recognizable 
that, together with such conditions as these, of 
seasons, ages, or angles, there is a corresponding 
variation in the potency of the stars’ faculties, and 
that in the conditions akin to them their quality is 
purer and their effectiveness stronger, those that are 
heating by nature, for instance, in heat, and those that 

1 This is the usual Attic form; the alternative, ἀφηλιώτης, 

shows more clearly its derivation from ἥλιος, “the wind 
that blows from the sun.” 

3 δύνασθαι om. NCam. 




θερμαντικοὶ τὴν φύσιν͵ καὶ ἐν ταῖς ὑγραῖς οἱ bypav- 
τικοί, ἐν δὲ ταῖς ἐναντίαις κεκραμένην καὶ ἀσθενεσ- 
τέραν - ὡς ἐν ταῖς ψυχραῖς of θερμαντικοὶ καὶ ἐν 
ταῖς ξηραῖς οἱ ὑγραντικοὶ καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἄλλαις δὲ 
ὡσαύτως κατὰ τὸ ἀνάλογον τῇ διὰ τῆς μίξεως 
συγκιρναμένῃ ποιότητι. 

<a \ ~ ‘ 2 -“ 
«α.) Περὶ τροπικῶν καὶ ἰσημερινῶν 
καὶ στερεῶν! καὶ δισώμων ζῳδίων 

Τούτων δὲ οὕτω προεκτεθέντων ἀκόλουθον ἂν εἴη 
συνάψαι καὶ τὰς αὐτῶν τῶν τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ δωδεκατη- 
μορίων παραδεδομένας φυσικὰς ἰδιοτροπίας. at 
μὲν γὰρ ὁλοσχερέστεραι καθ᾽ ἕκαστον αὐτῶν 
κράσεις ἀνάλογον ἔχουσι ταῖς κατ᾽ αὐτὰ γινομέναις 
ὥραις, συνίστανται δέ τινες αὐτῶν ἰδιότητες ἀπό τε 
τῆς πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην καὶ τοὺς 
ἀστέρας οἰκειώσεως, ws ἐν τοῖς ἐφεξῆς διελευσό- 
μεθα, προτάξαντες τὰς κατὰ τὸ ἀμιγὲς αὐτῶν 
μόνων τῶν δωδεκατημορίων καθ᾽ αὑτά τε καὶ πρὸς 
ἄλληλα θεωρουμένας δυνάμεις. 

Πρῶται μὲν τοίνυν εἰσὶ διαφοραὶ τῶν καλουμένων 
τροπικῶν καὶ ἰσημερινῶν καὶ στερεῶν καὶ δισώμων. 

1 καὶ στερεῶν om. MNECam. Titulum post |. 19 δυνάμεις 
ponunt VDProc. 


1 κράσεις, ‘‘ mixtures’; astrologically used to designate 
the resultant qualities derived from the mingling of various 
influences. Cf. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, 
Bk. I, Chapter 11, ‘“‘ who . . . seemed not to have had 
one single drop of Danish blood in his whole crasis.”’ 



are moistening in the moist, while under opposite 
conditions their power is adulterated and weaker. 
Thus the heating stars in the cold periods and the 
moistening stars in the dry periods are weaker, and 
similarly in the other cases, according to the quality 
produced by the mixture. 

11. Of Solstitial, Equinoctial, Solid, and Bicorporeal 

After the explanation of these matters the next 
subject to be added would be the natural characters 
of the zodiacal signs themselves, as they have been 
handed down by tradition. For although their more 
general temperaments! are each analogous to the 
seasons that take place in them,” certain peculiar 
qualities of theirs arise from their kinship ὃ to the 
sun, moon, and planets, as we shall relate in what 
follows, putting first the unmingled powers of the 
signs themselves alone, regarded both absolutely and 
relatively to one another. 

The first distinctions, then, are of the so-called 
solstitial, equinoctial, solid, and bicorporeal signs.4 

2 That is, when the sun is in these signs. 

3 οἰκείωσις, also translated ‘‘ familiarity,” is a common 
astrological term denoting the various relationships of 
affinity derived from the positions of signs or planets with 
reference to the universe or to each other, as, for example, 
through the aspects (ce. 13). 

‘All but Virgo are represented as bicorporeal in fact. 
Ptolemy, as a learned writer, pays less attention to the 
fanciful and mythological classification of the signs into 
terrestrial, aquatic, four-footed, ete. (although he refers 
to them in i. 12), and gives greater prominence to the 
astronomical classification. 



δύο μὲν γάρ ἐστι τροπικά, TO TE πρῶτον ἀπὸ τῆς 
θερινῆς τροπῆς X’ μοῖρον, τὸ τοῦ Καρκίνου - καὶ τὸ 
πρῶτον ἀπὸ τῆς χειμερινῆς τροπῆς, τὸ κατὰ τὸν 
Αἰγόκερων. ταῦτα δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ συμβεβηκότος 
εἴληφε τὴν ὀνομασίαν. τρέπεται γὰρ ἐν ταῖς ἀρχαῖς 
αὐτῶν γινόμενος ὁ ἥλιος, ἐπιστρέφων εἰς τὰ ἐναντία 
τὴν κατὰ πλάτος πάροδον, καὶ κατὰ μὲν τὸν Καρκί- 
νον θέρος ποιῶν, κατὰ δὲ τὸν Αἰγόκερων χειμῶνα. 
δύο δὲ καλεῖται ἰσημερινά, τό τε ἀπὸ τῆς ἐαρινῆς 
ἰσημερίας πρῶτον δωδεκατημόριον, τὸ τοῦ Κριοῦ, 
καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς μετοπωρινῆς τὸ τῶν Χηλῶν, 
82 ὠνόμασται δὲ καὶ ταῦτα πάλιν ἀπὸ τοῦ συμβεβη- 
κότος, ἐπειδὴ κατὰ τὰς ἀρχὰς αὐτῶν γινόμενος ὁ 
ἥλιος ἴσας ποιεῖ πανταχῆ τὰς νύκτας ταῖς ἡμέραις. 
Τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ὀκτὼ δωδεκατημορίων τέτταρα 
μὲν καλεῖται στερεά, τέτταρα δὲ δίσωμα. καὶ 
στερεὰ μέν ἐστι τὰ ἑπόμενα τοῖς τε τροπικοῖς 
καὶ τοῖς ἰσημερινοῖς, Ταῦρος, Λέων, Σκορπίος, 
“Ὑδροχόος, ἐπειδὴ τῶν ἐν ἐκείνοις ἀρχομένων ὡρῶν 
αἵ τε ὑγρότητες καὶ θερμότητες καὶ ξηρότητες καὶ 
ψυχρότητες, ἐν τούτοις γινομένου τοῦ ἡλίου,. μᾶλλον 
καὶ στερεώτερον ἡμῶν καθικνοῦνται, οὐ τῶν κατα- 
στημάτων φύσει γινομένων τότε ἀκρατοτέρων, ἀλλ᾽ 
ἡμῶν ἐγκεχρονικότων αὐτοῖς ἤδη καὶ διὰ τοῦτο τῆς 
ἰσχύος 2 εὐαισθητότερον ἀντιλαμβανομένων. 
Δίσωμα δέ ἐστι τὰ τοῖς στερεοῖς ἑπόμενα, Aidv- 
μοι, Παρθένος, Τοξότης, ᾿Ιχθῦς, διὰ τὸ μεταξύ τε 
1Post ἡλίου add. καὶ ἐπιτεταγμέναι Cam., ἐπιτεταγμέναι N ; 

om. alii. 
2 Post ἰσχύος add. αὐτῶν NADECam. 



For there are two solstitial signs, the first interval 
of 30° from the summer solstice, the sign of Cancer, 
and the first from the winter solstice, Capricorn ; 
and they have received their name! from what takes 
place in them. For the sun turns when he is at 
the beginning of these signs and reverses his lati- 
tudinal progress, causing summer in Cancer and 
winter in Capricorn. Two signs are called equinoc- 
tial, the one which is first from the spring equinox, 
Aries, and the one which begins with the autumnal 
equinox, Libra; and they too again are named from 
what happens there, because when the sun is at the 
beginning of these signs he makes the nights exactly 
equal to the days. 

Of the remaining eight signs four are called solid 
and four bicorporeal. The solid signs, Taurus, Leo, 
Scorpio, and Aquarius, are those which follow the 
solstitial and equinoctial signs; and they are so 
called because when the sun is in them the moisture, 
heat, dryness, and cold of the seasons that begin 
in the preceding signs touch us more firmly, not that 
the weather is naturally any more intemperate at that 
time, but that we are by then inured to them and 
for that reason are more sensible of their power. 

The bicorporeal signs, Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, 
and Pisces, are those which follow the solid signs, 

1].e. tpomxov, “having to do with turning (tpo77).” 
Astronomers to-day usually call them “ solstitial”’ in- 
stead of “ tropical,”’ since “tropic ’’ generally refers to 
the terrestrial circles, the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic 
of Capricorn. 



εἶναι τῶν στερεῶν καὶ τῶν τροπικῶν Kal ἰσημε- 
ρινῶν, καὶ ὥσπερ κεκοινωνηκέναι κατὰ τὰ τέλη καὶ 
τὰς ἀρχὰς τῆς τῶν δύο καταστημάτων φυσικῆς 

«β.. Περὶ ἀρρενικῶν καὶ θηλυκῶν 

’ὔ \ ¢ ΄ «Δ \ ~ ΄ 

Πάλιν δὲ ὡσαύτως ἕξ μὲν τῶν δωδεκατημορίων 
ἀπένειμαν τῇ φύσει τῇ ἀρρενικῇ καὶ ἡμερινῇ, τὰ δὲ 
ἴσα τῇ θηλυκῇ καὶ νυκτερινῇ. καὶ ἡ μὲν τάξις 

᾽ a > / cm αὶ A A ~ ἘΠῚ Ψ A 

33 αὐτοῖς ἐδόθη παρ᾽ ἕν διὰ τὸ συνεζεῦχθαι Kai ἐγγὺς 
ἀεὶ τυγχάνειν τήν τε ἡμέραν τῇ νυκτὶ καὶ τὸ θῆλυ 
τῷ ἄρρενι. τῆς δὲ ἀρχῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ Κριοῦ & ἃς 
εἴπομεν αἰτίας λαμβανομένης, ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ τοῦ 
ἄρρενος ἄρχοντος καὶ πρωτεύοντος, ἐπειδὴ καὶ τὸ 
ποιητικὸν ἀεὶ τοῦ παθητικοῦ πρῶτόν ἐστι τῇ δυνά- 
μει, τὸ μὲν τοῦ Κριοῦ δωδεκατημόριον καὶ ἔτι τὸ 

~ ~ > \ wy \ ε / \ σ 
τῶν Χηλῶν ἀρρενικὰ ἔδοξε καὶ ἡμερινά, καὶ ἅμα 
ἐπειδήπερ ὁ ἰσημερινὸς κύκλος δι᾿ αὐτῶν γραφό- 
μενος τὴν πρώτην καὶ ἰσχυροτάτην τῶν ὅλων φορὰν 
> λ -“ \ δὲ > ~ > ~ > λ 50 1 ~ 3 
ἀποτελεῖ - τὰ δὲ ἐφεξῆς αὐτῶν ἀκολούθως 1 τῇ παρ 
ἕν, ὡς ἔφαμεν, τάξει. 

“Χρῶνται δέ τινες τῇ τάξει τῶν ἀρρενικῶν καὶ 
θηλυκῶν 5 καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνατέλλοντος δωδεκατη- 
μορίου, ὃ δὴ καλοῦσιν ὡρόσκοπον, τὴν ἀρχὴν τοῦ 
ἄρρενος ὃ ποιούμενοι. ὥσπερ γὰρ καὶ τὴν τῶν 

1 ἀκολούθως VMDEProc., ἀκόλουθα PLNACam., 

2 καὶ θηλυκῶν om. NCam. 
8 τοῦ ἄρρενος om. NCam. 



and are so called because they are between the solid 
and the solstitial and equinoctial signs and share, as 
it were, at end and beginning, the natural properties 
of the two states of weather. 

12. Of Masculine and Feminine Signs. 

Again, in the same way they assigned six of the 
signs to the masculine and diurnal nature’ and an 
equal number to the feminine and nocturnal. An 
alternating order was assigned to them because day 
is always yoked to night and close to it, and female 
to male. Now as Aries is taken as the starting-point 
for the reasons we have mentioned, and as the male 
likewise rules and holds first place, since also the 
active is always superior to the passive in power, 
the signs of Aries and Libra were thought to be 
masculine and diurnal, an additional reason being 
that the equinoctial circle which is drawn through 
them completes the primary and most powerful 
movement of the whole universe.” The signs in 
succession after them correspond, as we said, in 
alternating order. 

Some, however, employ an order of masculine and 
feminine signs whereby the masculine begins with 
the sign that is rising, called the horoscope.* For 
just as some begin the solstitial signs with the moon’s 

1The signs of the zodiac, as well as the planets, are 
divided between the two sects (cf. i. 7). 

2 T.e. the general revolution of the heavens, carrying the 
fixed stars and the other heavenly bodies (according to the 
Ptolemaic and other ancient systems). 

ὅ Obviously, in a system like this, a given sign would 
not always belong to the same sect. 



τροπικῶν ἀρχὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ σεληνιακοῦ Cwdiov! ap- 
βάνουσιν ἔνιοι διὰ τὸ ταύτην τάχιον τῶν ἄλλων 
τρέπεσθαι, οὕτω καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀρρενικῶν ἀπὸ τοῦ 
ὡροσκοποῦντος διὰ τὸ ἀπηλιωτικώτερον,Σ καὶ οἵ 
μὲν ὁμοίως παρ᾽ ἕν πάλιν τῇ τάξει χρώμενοι, οἱ δὲ 
καθ᾽ ὅλα τεταρτημόρια διαιροῦντες καὶ ἑῷα μὲν 
ἡγούμενοι ἃ καὶ ἀρρενικὰ τό τε ἀπὸ τοῦ ὡροσκόπου 
μέχρι τοῦ μεσουρανοῦντος καὶ τὸ κατ᾽ ἀντίθεσιν 
ἀπὸ τοῦ δύνοντος μέχρι τοῦ ὑπὸ γῆν μεσουρανοῦν- 

84 τος, ἑσπέρια δὲ καὶ θηλυκὰ τὰ λοιπὰ δύο τεταρ- 
τημόρια. καὶ ἄλλας δέ τινας τοῖς δωδεκατημορίοις 
προσηγορίας ἐφήρμοσαν ἀπὸ τῶν περὶ αὐτὰ μορφώ- 
σεων : λέγω δὲ οἷον τετράποδα καὶ χερσαῖα καὶ 
ἡγεμονικὰ καὶ πολύσπορα καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα" 
ἃς ὃ αὐτόθεν τό τε αἴτιον καὶ τὸ ἐμῴφανισς 
τικὸν ἐχούσας περιττὸν ἡγούμεθα καταριθμεῖν, τῆς 
ἐκ τῶν τοιούτων διατυπώσεων ποιότητος ἐν αἷς ἂν 
τῶν προτελέσεων χρησίμη φαίνηται δυναμένης ἦ 

1 ζῳδίου VPLADE, κύκλου MNCam. 

276 ἀπηλιωτικώτερον VD (ἀφηλ-) Proc.; τὴν ἀπηλιώτην alii 

3 ἡγούμενοι VMADE, om. PLNCam. 

4 ὑπὸ γῆν μεσουρανοῦντος VMADEProc., ἀντιμεσουρανοῦντος 

5 ἃς VDME, om. PL, ὡς NACam.; καλέσαντες post 
τοιαῦτα inser. PLMNCam., om. VDAE. 

ὁ τό τε αἴτιον om. Cam.?. 

7 δυναμένης VD, δυναμης P, δύναμις LMNAECam. προεκ- 
τίθεσθαι VMDEAProc., πρωεκτεθηῦ P, προεκτίθης L, προεκτε- 
θείσης NCam. 



sign because the moon changes direction more swiftly 
than the rest, so they begin the masculine signs with 
the horoscope because it is further to the east, some 
as before making use of the alternate order of signs, 
and others dividing by entire quadrants, and de- 
signating as matutinal and masculine signs those of 
the quadrant from the horoscope to mid-heaven and 
those of the opposite quadrant from the occident 
to the lower mid-heaven, and as evening and feminine 
the other two quadrants. They have also attached 
other descriptions ! to the signs, derived from their 
shapes; I refer, for example, to “ four-footed,” 
“ terrestrial,” “‘ commanding,” “ fecund,” and similar 
appellations. These, since their reason and their 
significance are directly derived, we think it super- 
fluous to enumerate, since the quality resulting from 
such conformations can be explained in connec- 
tion with those predictions wherein it is obviously 


‘For this type of classification, cf. Bouché-Leclereq, 
pp. 149-152. Vettius Valens, pp. 5 ff. (Kroll), attaches many 
epithets to the signs; cf. also Antiochus, ap. CCAG, viii. 
112; Rhetorius, ap. CCAG, i. 164 ff. Some of them figure 
in il. 7, below. 



<y.> Περὶ τῶν συσχηματιζομένων 

Οἰκειοῦται δὲ ἀλλήλοις τῶν μερῶν τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ 
πρῶτον τὰ συσχηματιζόμενα. ταῦτα δ᾽ ἐστὶν ὅσα 
διάμετρον ἔχει στάσιν, περιέχοντα δύο ὀρθὰς γωνίας 
καὶ ἕξ τῶν δωδεκατημορίων καὶ μοίρας ρπ' " καὶ 
ὅσα τρίγωνον ἔχει στάσιν, περιέχοντα μίαν ὀρθὴν 
γωνίαν καὶ τρίτον καὶ δ΄ δωδεκατημόρια καὶ μοίρας 
pk’* καὶ ὅσα τετραγωνίζειν λέγεται, περιέχοντα 

, > Ai ee , \ , ve 
μίαν ὀρθὴν καὶ γ΄ δωδεκατημόρια Kal μοίρας ? 
καὶ ἔτι ὅσα ἑξάγωνον ποιεῖται στάσιν, περιέχοντα 
δίμοιρον μιᾶς ὀρθῆς καὶ β΄ δωδεκατημόρια καὶ 

/ / 
μοίρας ζ΄. 

> Δ A 8: 49 - ΄ ~ ΄ 
Av ἣν δὲ αἰτίαν αὗται μόναι τῶν διαστάσεων 
/ > iy ”“ / ~ \ \ 
παρελήφθησαν ἐκ τούτων av μάθοιμεν. τῆς μὲν yap 
A δὴ / > / > \ ¢ / ‘ 
κατὰ τὸ διάμετρον αὐτόθεν ἐστὶν 6 λόγος φανερὸς 
ἐπειδήπερ ἐπὶ μιᾶς εὐθείας ποιεῖται τὰς συναν- 
30 τήσεις. λαμβανομένων δὲ τῶν δύο μεγίστων καὶ 
διὰ συμφωνίας μορίων τε καὶ ἐπιμορίων, μορίων 
μὲν πρὸς τὴν τῶν β΄ ὀρθῶν διάμετρον τοῦ τε 
ἡμίσους καὶ τοῦ τρίτου, τὸ μὲν εἰς δύο τὴν τοῦ 

1 Οἵ. the note on οἰκείωσις (i. 11). οἰκειοῦσθαι is the corre- 
sponding verb. 

2 The aspects are geometrical relationships between the 
heavenly bodies. Ptolemy recognizes here only four— 
opposition, trine, quartile, and sextile—as having signifi- 
cance, and does not class ‘“‘ conjunction’’ as an aspect, 
although it is treated as such throughout the T'etrabiblos. 



13. Of the Aspects of the Signs. 

Of the parts of the zodiac those first are familiar ἢ 
one to another which are in aspect.” These are the 
ones which are in opposition, enclosing two right 
angles, six signs, and 180 degrees ;_ those which are in 
trine, enclosing one and one-third right angles, four 
signs, and 120 degrees ; those which are said to be in 
quartile, enclosing one right angle, three signs, and 
90 degrees, and finally those that occupy the sextile 
position, enclosing two-thirds of a right angle, two 
signs, and 60 degrees. 

We may learn from the following why only these 
intervals have been taken into consideration. The 
explanation of opposition is immediately obvious, 
because it causes the signs to meet on one straight 
line. But if we take the two fractions and the two 
superparticulars * most important in music, and if 
the fractions one-half and one-third be applied to 

Kepler is said to have invented several others, based on 
other aliquot parts of 360°, the semiquadrate, quintile, 
sesquiquadrate, biquintile, etc. (cf. Ashmand, pp. 40-41, 
nn.); these have been employed by modern astrologers, 
but the Ptolemaic doctrines of this and the 16th chapter 
are inconsistent with their use. The intervals between 
bodies in aspect in the four ways here mentioned can be 
measured in whole signs. 

3 Nicomachus of Gerasa, Introduction to Arithmetic, i. 19, 
defines the superparticular as “a number that contains 
within itself the whole of the number compared with it, 
and some one factor of it besides.’’ The ‘ two super- 
particulars most important to music ”’ are the first two in 

the series, the sesquialter (ἢ) and the sesquitertian (3), 

which correspond to the diapente and diatessaron respec- 
tively (cf. Nicormmachus, op. cit., ii. 26). 

N 73 


τετραγώνου πεποίηκε, TO δὲ εἰς τρία THY τοῦ 
ἑξαγώνου καὶ τὴν τοῦ τριγώνου 1] ἐπιμορίων δὲ 
πρὸς τὸ τῆς μιᾶς ὀρθῆς τετράγωνον μεταξὺ λαμ- 

ανομένου τοῦ τε ἡμιολίου καὶ τοῦ ἐπιτρίτου, τὸ 
μὲν ἡμιόλιον ἐποίησε τὴν τοῦ τετραγώνου πρὸς 
τὴν τοῦ ἑξαγώνου, τὸ δὲ ἐπίτριτον τὴν τοῦ 
τριγώνου πρὸς τὴν τοῦ τετραγώνου. τούτων 
μέντοι τῶν σχηματισμῶν οἱ μὲν τρίγωνοι καὶ 
ἑξάγωνοι σύμφωνοι καλοῦνται διὰ τὸ ἐξ ὁμογενῶν 
συγκεῖσθαι δωδεκατημορίων ἢ ἐκ πάντων θηλυκῶν 
ἢ ἀρρενικῶν - ἀσύμφωνοι δὲ οἱ τετράγωνοι καὶ ot 
κατὰ διάμετρον διότι κατὰ ἀντίθεσιν τῶν ὁμογενῶν 
τὴν σύστασιν λαμβάνουσιν. 

«κι.» Περὶ προσταττόντων καὶ 

Ὡσαύτως δὲ προστάττοντα καὶ ἀκούοντα λέ- 
γεται τμήματα τὰ κατ᾽ ἴσην διάστασιν ἀπὸ τοῦ 
αὐτοῦ, ἢ καὶ ὁποτέρου, τῶν ἰσημερινῶν σημείων 
ἐσχηματισμένα διὰ τὸ ἐν τοῖς ἴσοις χρόνοις ava- 
φέρεσθαι καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἴσων εἶναι παραλλήλων. 

1 κα. τὴν τοῦ τριγώνου libri omnes Proc. ; καὶ τ. τ. τετραγώνου 

Cam.!; om. Cam.? 

' That is, $ of 180° = 90° (quartile) and 4 of 180° = 60° 
(sextile). All the MSS. and Proclus add here “ and trine,”’ 
which perhaps we should, with Camerarius (ed. 2), discard. 
The trine, however, could be regarded as } of 360° or as 
twice the sextile. 

*That is, the sesquialter = 5 = ae and the sesqui- 



tertian = ξ — 



opposition, composed of two right angles, the half 
makes the quartile and the third the sextile and 
trine.! Of the superparticulars, if the sesquialter and 
sesquitertian be applied to the quartile interval of 
one right angle, which lies between them, the ses- 
quialter makes the ratio of the quartile to the 
sextile and the sesquitertian that of trine to quartile.” 
Of these aspects trine and sextile are called har- 
monious because they are composed of signs of the 
same kind, either entirely of feminine or entirely of 
masculine signs; while quartile and opposition are 
disharmonious because they are composed of signs 

of opposite kinds. 

14. Of Commanding and Obeying Signs. 


Similarly the names “ commanding ” and “ obey- 
ing” * are applied to the divisions of the zodiac 
which are disposed at an equal distance from the 
same equinoctial sign, whichever it may be, because 
they ascend 4 in equal periods of time and are on 
equal parallels. Of these the ones in the summer 

3 Cf. Bouché-Leclercq, pp. 159-164, on this and the 
following chapter. The pairs which “‘ command” and 
“obey” (the “commanding ”’ sign first) are: Taurus- 
Pisces, Gemini-Aquarius, Cancer-Capricorn, Leo-Sagit- 
tarius, Virgo-Scorpio. Aries and Libra are left out of the 
scheme, being the equinoctial signs from which the start is 
made; so Manilius, ii. 485, 501. The original notion 
seems to have been that these signs ‘‘ heard ’’ (ἀκούειν) 
each other, and the idea of “‘ obeying”’ (ὑπακούειν) was 
a pseudo-scientific elaboration. 

‘Cf. the note on ili. 10 (pp. 286 ff.) for the ascension 
of the signs. 



τούτων δὲ Ta μὲν ἐν τῷ θερινῷ ἡμικυκλίῳ προσ- 
τάττοντα καλεῖται, τὰ δ᾽ ἐν τῷ χειμερινῷ 
ὑπακούοντα, διὰ τὸ κατ᾽ ἐκεῖνο μὲν γινόμενον τὸν 
ἥλιον μείζονα ποιεῖν τῆς νυκτὸς τὴν ἡμέραν, κατὰ 
τοῦτο δὲ ἐλάττω. 

86 «.) Περὶ βλεπόντων καὶ ἰσοδυνα- 

Πάλιν δὲ ἰσοδυναμεῖν φασιν ἀλλήλοις μέρη τὰ τοῦ 
αὐτοῦ καὶ ὁποτέρου τῶν τροπικῶν σημείων τὸ ἴσον 
ἀφεστῶτα, διὰ τὸ καθ᾽ ἑκάτερον αὐτῶν τοῦ ἡλίου 
γινομένου τάς τε ἡμέρας ταῖς ἡμέραις καὶ τὰς 
νύκτας ταῖς νυξὶ καὶ τὰ διαστήματα τῶν οἰκείων 
ὡρῶν ἰσοχρόνως | ἀποτελεῖσθαι. ταῦτα δὲ καὶ βλέ- 
mew ἄλληλα λέγεται διά τε τὰ προειρημένα καὶ 
ἐπειδήπερ ἑκάτερον αὐτῶν ἔκ τε τῶν αὐτῶν μερῶν 
τοῦ ὁρίζοντος ἀνατέλλει καὶ εἰς τὰ αὐτὰ καταδύνει. 

«ἰς.. Περὶ ἀσυνδέτων 

> / \ Nie f a ΄ 
᾿Ασύνδετα δὲ καὶ ἀπηλλοτριωμένα καλεῖται τμή- 
“ ΄ / ¢ ~ ” \ ” 
ματα ὅσα μηδένα λόγον ἁπλῶς ἔχει πρὸς ἄλληλα 
τῶν προκατειλεγμένων οἰκειώσεων. ταῦτα δέ 
ἐστιν ἃ μήτε τῶν προστάττοντων ἢ ἀκουόντων 
τυγχάνει μήτε τῶν βλεπόντων ἢ ἰσοδυναμούντων, 
ἔτι καὶ τῶν ἐκκειμένων τεττάρων σχηματισμῶν, 

1 ἰσοχρόνως VMAB, -ων P, -ος D, -α Proc., -α NLCam. 

1 Τὴ the summer hemisphere are the signs Aries, Taurus, 
Gemini, Cancer, Leo, and Virgo ; Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, 



hemisphere ' are called ““ commanding ” and those in 
the winter hemisphere “ obedient,” because the sun 
makes the day longer than the night when he is in 
the summer hemisphere, and shorter in the winter. 

15. Of Signs which Behold each other and Signs of 
Equal Power. 

Again they say that the parts which are equally 
removed from the same tropical sign, whichever it 
may be, are of equal power,” because when the sun 
comes into either of them the days are equal to the 
days, the nights to the nights, and the lengths of 
their own hours * are the same. These also are said 
to “behold” one another both for the reasons stated 
and because each of the pair rises from the same 
part of the horizon and sets in the same part. 

16. Of Disjunct Signs. 

* Disjunct ” and “ alien” are the names applied 
to those divisions of the zodiac which have none 
whatever of the aforesaid familiarities with one 
another. These are the ones which belong neither 
to the class of commanding or obeying, beholding 
or of equal power, and furthermore they are found 

Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces are in the winter hemi- 
sphere ; see the diagram in Bouché-Leclereq, p. 161. 

2 These pairs are Gemini-Leo, Taurus-Virgo, Aries-Libra, 
Pisces-Scorpio, and Aquarius-Sagittarius; Cancer and 
Capricorn are left without mates (a¢vya). 

3 Their own hours ”’ are “ ordinary’ or “ civil’ hours 
(kaipixat ὧραι; cf. p. 286, n. 3), which are always one- 
uwelfth of the day (sunrise to sunset) or night (sunset to 
sunrise). Of course, they are equal if the days and nights 
are equal. 



τοῦ τε διαμέτρου Kal τοῦ τριγώνου καὶ τοῦ τετρα- 
σις Jf 
γώνου καὶ τοῦ ἑξαγώνου κατὰ τὸ παντελὲς ἀμέτοχα 
καταλαμβανόμενα, καὶ ἤτοι δι’ ἑνὸς ἢ διὰ πέντε 
γινόμενα δωδεκατημορίων, ἐπειδήπερ τὰ μὲν Ov 
(aA 5 ͵ σ 3 / \ / ᾽ AT 
ἑνὸς ἀπέστραπται ὥσπερ ἀλλήλων καὶ δύο αὐτὰ ὄντα 
ἑνὸς περιέχει γωνίαν, τὰ δὲ διὰ πέντε εἰς ἄνισα 
an \ Ld / ~ ΝΜ ~ 
37 διαιρεῖ τὸν ὅλον κύκλον, τῶν ἄλλων σχηματισμῶν 
εἰς ἴσα τὴν τῆς περιμέτρου διαίρεσιν ποιουμένων. 

«ιζ.), Περὶ οἴκων ἑκάστου ἀστέρος 

Συνοικειοῦνται δὲ καὶ οἱ πλάνητες τοῖς τοῦ 
ζωδιακοῦ μέρεσι κατά τε τοὺς καλουμένους οἴκους 
καὶ τρίγωνα καὶ ὑψώματα καὶ ὅρια καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα. 
καὶ τὸ μὲν τῶν οἴκων τοιαύτην ἔχει φύσιν. ἐπειδὴ 
γὰρ τῶν ιβ΄ ζῳδίων τὰ βορειότατα καὶ συνεγγίζοντα 
μᾶλλον τῶν ἄλλων τοῦ κατὰ κορυφὴν ἡμῶν τόπου, 
θερμασίας τε καὶ ἀλέας διὰ τοῦτο περιποιητικὰ 
τυγχάνοντα, τό τε τοῦ [Καρκίνου ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ τοῦ 
Λέοντος, τὰ δύο ταῦτα τοῖς μεγίστοις καὶ κυριωτά- 
τοις, τουτέστι τοῖς φωσίν, ἀπένειμαν οἴκους, τὸ 
μὲν τοῦ Λέοντος ἀρρενικὸν ὃν τῷ ἡλίῳ, τὸ δὲ τοῦ 
Καρκίνου θηλυκὸν τῇ σελήνῃ. καὶ ἀκολούθως τὸ 
μὲν ἀπὸ τοῦ Adovtos μέχρις Αἰγόκερω ἡμικύκλιον 
ἡλιακὸν ὑπέθεντο, τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ ‘Ydpoydou μέχρι 
Καρκίνου σεληνιακόν, ὅπως ἐν ἑκατέρῳ τῶν ἡμικυ- 
κλίων ἕν ζῴδιον καθ᾽ ἕκαστον τῶν πέντεΞ ἀστέρων 
οἰκείως ἀπονεμηθῇ, τὸ μὲν πρὸς ἥλιον, τὸ δὲ πρὸς 

1Titulum sic habent VADEProc.; om. ἑκάστου ἀστέρος 
alii Cam. * πέντε om. PLNCam. 



to be entirely without share in the four aforesaid 
aspects, opposition, trine, quartile, and sextile, and 
are either one or five signs apart; for those which 
are one sign apart are as it were averted from one 
another and, though they are two, bound the angle 
of one, and those that are five signs apart divide 
the whole circle into unequal parts, while the other 
aspects make an equal division of the perimeter. 

17. Of the Houses of the Several Planets. 

The planets also have familiarity with the parts 
of the zodiac, through what are called their houses, 
triangles, exaltations, terms,' and the like. The sys- 
tem of houses is of the following nature. Since of 
the twelve signs the most northern, which are closer 
than the others to our zenith and therefore most 
productive of heat andof warmth are Cancer and Leo, 
they assigned these to the greatest and most power- 
ful heavenly bodies, that is, to the luminaries, as 
houses, Leo, which is masculine, to the sun and 
Cancer, feminine, to the moon. In keeping with 
this they assumed the semicircle from Leo to 
Capricorn to be solar and that from Aquarius to 
Cancer to be lunar, so that in each of the semi- 
circles one sign might be assigned to each of the 
five planets as its own, one bearing aspect to the 

1 ὅρια, termini, literally ‘‘ boundaries’; see c. 20. The 
triangles or triplicities are treated in ο. 18 and the exalta- 
tions in c. 19. 



, > , > 4 a ~ 
σελήνην ἐσχηματισμένον, ἀκολούθως ταῖς τῶν 
/ ~ Aa ~ 
κινήσεων αὐτῶν σφαίραις καὶ ταῖς τῶν φύσεων 
> / ~ \ Ν “- / ~ 
ἰδιοτροπίαις. τῷ μὲν yap τοῦ Κρόνου ψυκτικῷ 
~ ” \ / > ~ ~ 
μᾶλλον ὄντι τὴν φύσιν κατ᾽ ἐναντιότητα τοῦ θερμοῦ 
καὶ τὴν ἀνωτάτω καὶ μακρὰν τῶν φωτῶν ἔχοντι 
/ > / ‘ / ΓΑ ~ / 
ζώνην ἐδόθη τὰ διάμετρα ζῴδια τοῦ τε Καρκίνου 
88 καὶ τοῦ Λέοντος, 6 τε Αἰγόκερως καὶ Ὑδροχόος, 
μετὰ τοῦ καὶ ταῦτα τὰ δωδεκατημόρια ψυχρὰ καὶ 
χειμερινὰ τυγχάνειν, καὶ ἔτι τὸν κατὰ διάμετρον 
συσχηματισμὸν ἀσύμφωνον πρὸς ἀγαθοποιίαν εἶναι. 
- ~ \ ~ 
τῷ δὲ τοῦ Διὸς ὄντι εὐκράτῳ καὶ ὑπὸ THY TOD 
/ “ 25 50 A. 39 / ὃ / ~ 
Κρόνου σφαῖραν ἐδόθη τὰ ἐχόμενα δύο τῶν προκει- 
μένων πνευματικὰ ὄντα καὶ γόνιμα, ὃ τε Τοξότης 
\ Ct) ~ A \ A Ἁ ~ / 
καὶ οἱ ᾿Ιχθῦς, κατὰ τριγωνικὴν πρὸς τὰ φῶτα διά- 
στασιν, ἥτις ἐστὶ συμφώνου καὶ ἀγαθοποιοῦ σχημα- 
τισμοῦ. ἐφεξῆς δὲ τῷ τοῦ “Apews ξηραντικῷ 
c ε 
~ A \ ΄ \ « \ \ ~ \ Μ 
μᾶλλον ὄντι τὴν φύσιν καὶ ὑπὸ τὴν τοῦ Atos ἔχοντι 
A an \ ? re 7 > , >? 40 
τὴν σφαῖραν τὰ ἐχόμενα πάλιν ἐκείνων ἐδόθη 
δωδεκατημόρια τὴν ὁμοίαν ἔχοντα φύσιν, O τε 
, \ φ / > 4 ~ ~ ‘ 
Σκορπίος καὶ ὁ Kpios, ἀκολούθως τῇ φθαρτικῇ Kat 
ἀσυμφώνῳ"' ποιότητι, τὴν τετράγωνον πρὸς τὰ φῶτα 
~ / ol \ aA > ΄ > 
ποιοῦντα διάστασιν. τῷ δὲ τῆς “Adpoditns εὐ- 
~ >? / 
κράτῳ τε ὄντι Kal ὑπὸ τὸν τοῦ "Apews τὰ ἐχόμενα 
ἐδόθη δύο ζῴδια γονιμώτατα ὄντα, αἵ τε Χηλαὶ Kat 
~ ~ ~ / 
ὁ Ταῦρος, τηροῦντα τὴν συμφωνίαν τῆς ἑξαγώνου 

1 ἀσυμφώνῳ VPLMADE, ἀκολούθως N, om. Cam. (locum * 



sun and the other to the moon, consistently with the 
spheres of their motion ! and the peculiarities of their 
natures.” For to Saturn, in whose nature cold pre- 
vails, as opposed to heat, and which occupies the 
orbit highest and farthest from the luminaries, 
were assigned the signs opposite Cancer and Leo, 
namely Capricorn and Aquarius,’ with the additional 
reason that these signs are cold and wintry, and 
further that their diametrical aspect is not con- 
sistent with beneficence. To Jupiter, which is 
moderate and below Saturn’s sphere, were assigned 
the two signs next to the foregoing, windy and 
fecund, Sagittarius and Pisces, in triangular aspect * 
to the luminaries, which is a harmonious and bene- 
ficent configuration. Next, to Mars, which is dry 
in nature and occupies a sphere under that of 
Jupiter, there were assigned again the two signs, 
contiguous to the former, Scorpio and Aries, having 
a similar nature, and, agreeably to Mars’ destructive 
and inharmonious quality, in quartile aspect ὃ to the 
luminaries. To Venus, which is temperate and be- 
neath Mars, were given the next two signs, which 
are extremely fertile, Libra and Taurus. These 

1 That is, they are in the order of their distance from the 
centre of the universe, the earth. 

2 CfaCw as 

3 Capricorn opposes Cancer and Aquarius Leo. 

4 Sagittarius is triangular to Leo, the sun’s house, and 
Pisces to Cancer. Cf. c. 13 on the “‘ harmonious ”’ nature 
of the trine and sextile, in contrast with quartile and op- 

5 Aries is quartile to the moon’s house, Cancer, and 
Scorpio to the sun’s house, Leo. They are, however, also 
triangular to these houses, Aries to Leo and Scorpio to 



διαστάσεως, Kal ἐπειδήπερ οὐ πλέον δύο δωδεκα- 
τημορίων 6 ἀστὴρ οὗτος ἐφ᾽ ἑκάτερον τὸ πλεῖστον 
3 ΄ ~ i? ͵7 TPN / \ ~ mre ~ 
ἀφίσταται τοῦ ἡλίου: ἐπὶ τέλει δὲ TH τοῦ “Eppod 
μηδέποτε πλέον ἑνὸς δωδεκατημορίου τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ 
ὁλί eet RG / ὃ / / ως Φ \ \ 
ἡλίου ἐφ᾽ ἑκάτερα διάστασιν ποιουμένῳ Kal ὑπὸ μὲν 
τοὺς ἄλλους ὄντι. σύνεγγυς δὲ μᾶλλόν πως ἀμφοτέ- 
ρων τῶν φωτῶν, τὰ λοιπὰ καὶ συνεχῆ τοῖς ἐκείνων 
οἴκοις ἐδόθη δύο δωδεκατημόρια τό τε τῶν 4ιδύ- 
μων καὶ τὸ τῆς Παρθένου. 
«ἢ.) Περὶ τριγώνων 

Ἢ δὲ πρὸς τὰ τρίγωνα συνοικείωσις τοιαύτη τις 
οὖσα τυγχάνει. ἐπειδὴ γὰρ τὸ τρίγωνον καὶ 
ἰσόπλευρον σχῆμα συμφωνότατόν ἐστιν ἑαυτῷ καὶ 
ὁ ζωδιακὸς ὑπὸ τριῶν κύκλων ὁρίζεται, τοῦ τε 
ἰσημερινοῦ καὶ τῶν δύο τροπικῶν, διαιρεῖται δὲ τὰ 

/ > ~ ΄ > , > / λ δ΄ 1 \ \ 
ιβ΄ αὐτοῦ μέρη εἰς τρίγωνα ἰσόπλευρα 6’, τὸ μὲν 

5 ἐστι διά τε τοῦ Κριοῦ καὶ τοῦ Λέοντος 

πρῶτον, ὅ 
\ ~ / > ~ > ~ / 
καὶ tod Τοξότου, ἐκ τριῶν ἀρρενικῶν ζῳδίων 
συγκείμενον, καὶ οἴκους ἔχον ἡλίου τε καὶ Ἄρεως 

\ / > / ~ ¢€ / \ \ \ \ - 
καὶ Διός͵ ἐδόθη τῷ ἡλίῳ καὶ Au παρὰ τὴν αἵρεσιν 
€ A / \ 
τὴν ἡλιακὴν ὄντος ἃ τοῦ “Apews. λαμβάνει δὲ 
~ ¢ A ς 
αὐτοῦ τὴν πρώτην οἰκοδεσποτίαν ἡμέρας μὲν ὁ 

Ld \ \ « ~ / \ ἮΝ AF \ K; i 
ἥλιος, νυκτὸς δὲ 6 τοῦ Atos, καὶ ἔστιν ὁ μὲν Kptos 
μᾶλλον πρὸς τῷ ἰσημερινῷ, 6 δὲ Aéwv μᾶλλον 
'‘ dv post δ΄ add NCam. 

26 VAD; om. cett. Cam. 
8 ὄντος libri Cam.!; ὑπάρχοντος Proc. ; ἐξωσθέντος Cam.? 



preserve the harmony of the sextile aspect ;' another 
reason is that this planet at most is never more than 
two signs removed from the sun in either direction. 
Finally, there were given to Mercury, which never 
is farther removed from the sun than one sign in 
either direction and is beneath the others and closer 
in a way to both of the luminaries, the remaining 
signs, Gemini and Virgo, which are next to the 
houses of the luminaries. 

18. Of the Triangles. 

The familiarity by triangles is as follows. Inas- 
much as the triangular and equilateral form is most 
harmonious with itself,? the zodiac also is bounded 
by three circles, the equinoctial and the two tropies, 
and its twelve parts are divided into four equilateral 
triangles. The first of these, which passes through 
Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, is composed of three 
masculine signs and includes the houses of the sun, 
of Mars, and of Jupiter. This triangle was assigned 
to the sun and Jupiter, since Mars is not of the solar 
sect.” The sun assumes first governance of it by 
day and Jupiter by night. Also, Aries is close to 
the equinoctial circle, Leo to the summer solstice and 

1 Taurus is sextile to Cancer and Libra to Leo. 

2 This statement savours of Neo-Pythagoreanism; cf., for 
example, the demonstration by Nicomachus (Introduction 
to Arithmetic, li. 7. 4) of the proposition that the triangle 
is the most elementary plane figure, which is also Platonic 
doctrine (T’imaeus 53C ff.); note likewise the much re- 
peated statement that the number 3 is the first plane sur- 
face ; Theon of Smyrna, p. 46, 14 (ed. Hiller), Macrobius, 
Somnium Scipionis, i. 6. 22, ete. 

3 See c. 7. 



\ ~ Ae ~ « δὲ ΤᾺ ξό A ~ ~ 
πρὸς τῷ θερινῷ, ὁ δὲ Τοξότης πρὸς τῷ χειμερινῷ. 
/ \ \ / \ ~ \ , 
γίνεται δὲ καὶ προηγουμένως μὲν τοῦτο τὸ τρίγωνον 
βόρειον, διὰ τὴν τοῦ Atos συνοικοδεσποτίαν, ἐπει- 
δήπερ οὗτος γόνιμός τέ ἐστι καὶ πνευματώδης 
,ὔ cal a“ 
οἰκείως τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ἄρκτων ἀνέμοις. διὰ δὲ 
τὸν τοῦ Ἄρεως οἶκον λαμβάνει μῖξιν τοῦ λιβὸς 
\ ~ 
καὶ συνίσταται! βορρολιβυκόν, ἐπειδήπερ ὁ τοῦ 
Ἄρεως τοιούτων ἐστὶ πνευμάτων ποιητικός, διά 
\ ~ / ~ ~ 
τε τὴν τῆς σελήνης αἵρεσιν Kal τὸ τῶν δυσμῶν 
’ 4 , ΄ > i} ~ 
To τε δεύτερον τρίγωνον, 6 ἐστι διά τε TOD 
4 \ , A 5 / / 
Ταύρου καὶ [Π]αρθένου καὶ Αἰγόκερω, συγκείμενον 
> ~ ~ > / > / / 
ἐκ τριῶν θηλυκῶν, ἀκολούθως ἐδόθη σελήνῃ τε 
Ns δί > ὃ /, 3 a2 ‘ A 
καὶ Adpoditn, οἰκοδεσποτούσης αὐτοῦ 5 νυκτὸς μὲν 
~ AnH ¢€ / δὲ ~ ~ "A δί 
407THS σελήνης, ἡμέρας δὲ τοῦ τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης. 
Ud “ “ ~ 
καὶ ἔστιν ὁ μὲν Ταῦρος πρὸς τῷ θερινῷ κύκλῳ 
~ ¢ \ / \ ~ ? ~ e A 
μᾶλλον, ἡ δὲ Παρθένος πρὸς τῷ ἰσημερινῷ, ὁ δὲ 
Αἰγόκερως πρὸς τῷ χειμερινῷ. γίνεται δὲ καὶ 
τοῦτο τὸ τρίγωνον προηγουμένως μὲν νότιον διὰ 
Ἁ “ ϑ. / > , >? / ε 
τὴν τῆς ‘Adpoditns οἰκοδεσποτίαν, ἐπειδήπερ ὁ 
A - ~ \ A 
ἀστὴρ οὗτος τῶν ὁμοίων ἐστὶ πνευμάτων διὰ TO 
“ / 
θερμὸν καὶ ἔνικμον τῆς δυνάμεως ποιητικός. 
\ \ a > lA \ δ \ ~ 
προσλαβὼν δὲ μῖξιν ἀπηλιώτου διὰ τὸ τὸν τοῦ 
Κρόνου οἶκον ἐν αὐτῷ τυγχάνειν τὸν Αἰγόκερων 
συνίσταται καὶ αὐτὸ νοταπηλιωτικὸν κατ᾽ ἀντίθεσιν 
τοῦ πρώτου, ἐπειδήπερ καὶ ὁ τοῦ Κρόνου τοιούτων 
ἐστὶ πνευμάτων ποιητικὸς οἰκειούμενος καὶ αὐτὸς 
A a \ σ 
ταῖς ἀνατολαῖς διὰ τὴν πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον αἵρεσιν. 
1 συνίσταται) γίνεται VDProc. 
2 αὐτοῦ PLMA, αὐτῶν VDNECam. 


Sagittarius to the winter solstice. This triangle is 
preéminently northern because of Jupiter’s share in 
its government, since Jupiter is fecund and windy,! 
similarly to the winds from the north. However, 
because of the house of Mars it suffers an admixture 
of the south-west wind? and is constituted Borro- 
libycon, because Mars causes such winds and also 
because of the sect of the moon and the feminine 
quality of the occident.* 

The second triangle, which is the one drawn 
through Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, is composed 
of three feminine signs, and consequently was as- 
signed to the moon and Venus; the moon governs 
it by night and Venus by day. Taurus lies toward 
the summer tropic, Virgo toward the equinox, and 
Capricorn toward the winter tropic. This. triangle 
is made preéminently southern because of the 
dominance of Venus, since this star through the 
heat and moisture of its power produces similar 
winds ; but as it receives an admixture of Apeliotes 
because the house of Saturn, Capricornus, is included 
within it, it is constituted Notapeliotes 4 in contrast 
to the first triangle, since Saturn produces winds of 
this kind and is related to the east through sharing 
in the sect of the sun. 

1 Of. c. 4. 2 Africus, Lips. 
3In c. 10 the west is characterized as moist, which is 
regarded as a feminine quality (cf. ο. 6). 

47.6.6. south-east. 


Τὸ δὲ , / a > 1 ‘ / 
ὁ δὲ τρίτον τρίγωνον 6 ἐστι! τὸ διά τε 
΄ \ ~ \ « ΄ > ~ 
Διδύμων καὶ Χηλῶν καὶ “Ydpoxdov, ἐκ τριῶν 
ἀρρενικῶν ζῳδίων συγκείμενον, καὶ πρὸς μὲν τὸν 
τοῦ Ἄρεως μηδένα λόγον ἔχον, πρὸς δὲ τὸν τοῦ 
Κρόνου καὶ τὸν τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ διὰ τοὺς οἴκους, 
τούτοις ἀπενεμήθη," πάλιν οἰκοδεσποτοῦντος ἡμέρας 
“ Q ~ 
μὲν τοῦ Κρόνου διὰ τὴν αἵρεσιν, νυκτὸς δὲ τοῦ 
«ς ~ \ uv \ \ ~ / 
Eppotd. καὶ ἔστι τὸ μὲν τῶν Διδύμων δωδε- 
κατημόριον πρὸς τῷ θερινῷ, τὸ δὲ τῶν Χηλῶν πρὸς 
~ > ~ \ \ ~ € / \ ~ 
τῷ ἰσημερινῷ, τὸ δὲ τοῦ Ὑδροχόου πρὸς τῷ 
“ / Ὁ ~ ‘ 
χειμερινῷ. συνίσταται δὲ καὶ τοῦτο TO τρίγωνον 
προηγουμένως μὲν ἀπηλιωτικὸν διὰ τὸν τοῦ Κρόνου - 
κατὰ δὲ τὴν μῖξιν βορραπηλιωτικὸν διὰ τὴν τοῦ 
Διὸς αἵρεσιν τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου πρὸς τὸ τὸν ἡμερινὸν 
λόγον συνοικειοῦσθαι. 
\ \ ΄ , Ψ' Ὁ / ,ὔ 
41 To δὲ τέταρτον τρίγωνον, 6 ἐστι διά τε Καρκίνου 
καὶ Σικορπίου καὶ ᾿Ιχθύων, κατελείφθη μὲν ὃ λοιπῷ 
ὄντι τῷ τοῦ "Apews καὶ λόγον ἔχοντι πρὸς αὐτὸ διὰ 
τὸν οἶκον τὸν Σκορπίον᾽ συνοικοδεσποτοῦσι δὲ 
αὐτῷ διά τε τὴν αἵρεσιν καὶ τὸ θηλυκὸν τῶν 
/ ~ 
ζῳδίων νυκτὸς μὲν ἡ σελήνη, ἡμέρας δὲ ὁ τῆς 
3 / \ ” ¢ \ Ki / A ~ 
Adpoditns, καὶ ἔστιν ὃ μὲν Kapkivos πρὸς τῷ 
θερινῷ κύκλῳ, ὁ δὲ Σ'κορπίος πρὸς τῷ χειμερινῷ 
μᾶλλον, οἱ δὲ ἰχθῦς πρὸς τῷ ἰσημερινῷ. καὶ τοῦτο 
δὲ τὸ τρίγωνον συνίσταται προηγουμένως μὲν 
λιβυκὸν διὰ τὴν τοῦ Ἄἄρεως καὶ τῆς σελήνης 
> / ἈΝ - A \ A \ 
οἰκοδεσποτίαν, κατὰ μῖξιν δὲ νοτολιβυκὸν διὰ τὴν 
τῆς Αφροδίτης οἰκοδεσποτίαν. 
1 τρίτον δὲ τρίγωνόν ἐστι PLNCam. 
2 ἀπενεμήθη VPMADE, om. L, ἀπονεμηθέν NCam. 


The third triangle is the one drawn through 
Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, composed of three 
masculine signs, and having no relation to Mars 
but rather to Saturn and Mercury because of their 
houses. It was assigned in turn to these, with Saturn 
governing during the day on account of his sect and 
Mercury by night. The sign of Gemini lies toward 
the summer tropic, Libra toward the equinox, and 
Aquarius toward the winter tropic. This triangle 
also is primarily of eastern constitution, because of 
Saturn, but by admixture north-eastern, because the 
sect of Jupiter has familiarity with Saturn, inasmuch 
as it is diurnal. 

The fourth triangle, which is the one drawn through 
Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, was left to the only re- 
maining planet, Mars, which is related to it through 
his house, Scorpio ; and along with him, on account 
of the sect and the femininity of the signs, the moon 
by night and Venus by day are co-rulers. Cancer 
is near the summer circle, Scorpio lies close to the 
winter one, and Pisces to the equinox. This triangle 
is constituted preéminently western, because it is 
dominated by Mars and the moon; but by ad- 
mixture it becomes south-western through the domi- 
nation of Venus. 

3 μὲν VD, om. PL, μόνῳ MNAECam. 



«ιθ.. Περὶ ὑψωμάτων 

\ \ / ~ ΄ e 7 
Ta δὲ καλούμενα τῶν πλανωμένων ὑψώματα 
λόγον ἔχει τοιόνδε. ἐπειδὴ γὰρ ὁ ἥλιος ἐν μὲν τῷ 
Κριῷ γενόμενος τὴν εἰς τὸ ὑψηλὸν καὶ βόρειον 
ἡμικύκλιον μετάβασιν ποιεῖται, ἐν δὲ ταῖς Χηλαῖς 
τὴν εἰς τὸ ταπεινὸν καὶ νότιον, εἰκότως ' τὸν μὲν 
᾿ ες a > , ὧν ὃς > a 
Κριὸν ws ὕψωμα ἀνατεθήκασιν αὐτῷ καθ᾽ ὃν 
ἄρχεται καὶ τὸ τῆς ἡμέρας μέγεθος καὶ τὸ τῆς 
͵ὔ ΕῚ fol \ ” A \ \ 
φύσεως αὐτοῦ θερμαντικὸν αὔξεσθαι, τὰς δὲ Χηλὰς 
ὡς ταπείνωμα διὰ τὰ ἐναντία. 
Ὃ δὲ τοῦ Kpovov πάλιν ἵνα πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον διά- 
μετρον στάσιν ἔχῃ, ὥσπερ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν οἴκων, τὸν 
A A > ͵ e Ld Μ ‘ A 
μὲν Ζυγὸν ἀντικειμένως ws ὕψωμα ἔλαβε, τὸν δὲ 
Κριὸν ὡς ταπείνωμα. ὅπου γὰρ τὸ θερμὸν αὔξεται, 
μειοῦται ἐκεῖ τὸ ψυχρόν, καὶ ὅπου ἐκεῖνο μειοῦται, 
\ \ ” 2 , >? \ 3 ? ~ ¢ 7 
42 τὸ ψυχρὸν αὔξεται. πάλιν ἐπειδὴ ἐν τῷ ὑψώ- 
ματι τοῦ ἡλίου ἐν τῷ Κριῷ συνοδεύουσα ἡ σελήνη 
πρώτην ποιεῖται φάσιν καὶ ἀρχὴν τῆς τοῦ φωτὸς 
αὐξήσεως καὶ ὡσπερεὶ ὑψώσεως ἐν τῷ τοῦ ἰδίου 
τριγώνου πρώτῳ ζῳδίῳ τῷ Ταύρῳ, τοῦτο μὲν 
ΕῚ ~ Ὁ“ > / ‘ \ / \ ~ 
αὐτῆς ὕψωμα ἐκλήθη, τὸ δὲ διάμετρον τὸ τοῦ 
Skoptiov ταπείνωμα. 
‘ ~ \ c ‘ ~ \ ~ ’ \ 
Μετὰ ταῦτα δὲ ὁ μὲν τοῦ Atos τῶν βορείων Kat 
τῶν γονίμων πνευμάτων ἀποτελεστικὸς ὧν ἐν 
Καρκίνῳ μάλιστα βορειότατος γινόμενος αὔξεται 

1 εἰκότως VMADE, οἰκείως (οἰκίως) PLNCam. 

Ξ καὶ ὅπου αὔξεται NMAECam. (αὐξάνει NECam.); 
k. ὅπου τὸ ψυχρὸν αὔξεται, ἐκεῖ ἐκμειοῦται τὸ θερμόν VD; 
k. ὅπου ἐκείνω μειοῦτε, τὸ θερμὸν αὔξεται Ῥ. 



19. Of Exaltations. 

The so-called exaltations ! of the planets have the 
following explanation. Since the sun, when he is 
in Aries, is making his transition to the northern 
and higher semicircle, and in Libra is passing into 
the southern and lower one, they have fittingly 
assigned Aries to him as his exaltation, since there 
the length of the day and the heating power of his 
nature begin to increase, and Libra as his depression 
for the opposite reasons. 

Saturn again, in order to have a position oppo- 
site to the sun, as also in the matter of their houses,” 
took, contrariwise, Libra as his exaltation and Aries 
as his depression. For where heat increases there 
cold diminishes, and where the former diminishes 
cold on the contrary increases. And since the moon, 
coming to conjunction in the exaltation of the sun, 
in Aries, shows her first phase and begins to increase 
her light and, as it were, her height, in the first sign 
of her own triangle, Taurus, this was called her 
exaltation, and the diametrically opposite sign, 
Scorpio, her depression. 

Then Jupiter, which produces the fecund north 
winds, reaches farthest north in Cancer and brings 

1 These have nothing to do with aphelion or perihelion ; 
the planets are exalted or depressed in power in these 
positions: Boll-Bezold-Gundel, p. 59; Bouché-Leclereq 
pp. 192-199. 

ΞΟ. e. 17; the houses of Saturn are the signs in 
opposition to the houses of the sun and moon. 

3 πάλιν ἐπειδὴ VADE; πάλιν ἐπὶ δεῖ P; πάλιν. ἐπεὶ δὲ libri 
alii Cam. 



tA \ Ἂ - \ ἰὃ ‘ ὃ ΄ Σ 50 ~ 
πάλιν καὶ πληροῖ τὴν ἰδίαν δύναμιν - ὅθεν τοῦτο 
μὲν τὸ δωδεκατημόριον ὕψωμα πεποιήκασιν αὐτοῦ, 
τὸν δὲ Αἰγόκερων ταπείνωμα. 

Ὃ δὲ τοῦ Ἄρεως φύσει καυσώδης ὧν καὶ μᾶλλον 
ἐν Αἰγόκερῳ διὰ τὸ νοτιώτατον γίνεσθαι καυστικώ- 
τερος γινόμενος, καὶ αὐτὸς μὲν εἰκότως ἔλαβεν 
“ > > 0 ~ ~ A ‘ ‘ > / 
ὕψωμα κατ᾽ ἀντίθεσιν τῷ τοῦ Atos tov Αἰγόκερων, 
ταπείνωμα δὲ τὸν Καρκίνον. 

Tih 1A ς \ 1 ~ *4 ὃ / ε A Ἅ , 

άλιν ὁ μὲν ' τῆς Adpoditns ὑγραντικὸς ὧν φύσει 
καὶ μᾶλλον ἐν τοῖς ᾿ΪΙχθύσι, ἐν οἷς ἡ τοῦ ὑγροῦ ἔαρος 
ἀρχὴ προσημαίνεται, καὶ αὐτὸς αὐξάνων τὴν οἰκείαν 
δύναμιν, τὸ μὲν ὕψωμα ἔσχεν ἐν τοῖς ᾿ΪΙχθύσι, τὸ δὲ 
ταπείνωμα ἐν τῇ Παρθένῳ. 

Ὃ δὲ τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ τὸ ἐναντίον μᾶλλον " ὑπόξηρος 
ὧν εἰκότως καὶ κατὰ τὸ ἀντικείμενον ἐν μὲν τῇ 
Παρθένῳ͵ καθ᾽ ἣν τὸ ξηρὸν μετόπωρον προση- 
μαίνεται." καὶ αὐτὸς ὥσπερ ὑψοῦται͵ κατὰ δὲ τοὺς 
᾿Ιχθῦς ταπεινοῦται. 

43 «κ.. Περὶ ὁρίων διαθέσεως 

Περὶ δὲ τῶν ὁρίων δισσοὶ μάλιστα φέρονται 
τρόποι, καὶ ὁ μέν ἐστιν Αἰγυπτιακός, ὁ πρὸς τὰς 
τῶν οἴκων ws ἐπὶ πᾶν κυρίας " ὁ δὲ Χαλδαϊκός, o 
πρὸς τὰς τῶν τριγώνων οἰκοδεσποτίας. ὁ μὲν οὖν 
Αἰγυπτιακὸς ὁ τῶν κοινῶς φερομένων ὁρίων οὐ πάνυ 
τοι σῴζει τὴν ἀκολουθίαν οὔτε τῆς τάξεως οὔτε τῆς 
καθ᾽ ἕκαστον ποσότητος. πρῶτον μὲν yap ἐπὶ τῆς 

' πάλιν ὁ μὲν PLME; πάλιν ὁ VAD; πάλιν. ὁ μέντοι NCam. 

ξμᾶλλον VP (μᾶλον) AD, πάλιν MNECam., πάλιν ἢ μᾶλλον 1,. 


his own power to fullness ; they therefore made this 
sign his exaltation and Capricorn his depression. 

Mars, which by nature is fiery and becomes all 
the more so in Capricorn because in it he is farthest 
south, naturally received Capricorn as his exaltation, 
in contrast to Jupiter, and Cancer as his depression. 

Venus, however, as she is moist by nature and 
increases her own proper power all the more in 
Pisces, where the beginning of the moist spring is 
indicated, has her exaltation in Pisces and her 
depression in Virgo. 

Mercury, on the contrary, since he is drier, by 
contrast naturally is exalted, as it were, in Virgo, 
in which the dry autumn is signified, and is depressed 
in Pisces. 

20. Of the Disposition of Terms. 

With regard to the terms two systems are most 
in circulation ; the first is the Egyptian,’ which is 
chiefly based on the government of the houses, and 
the second the Chaldaean, resting upon the govern- 
ment of the triplicities. Now the Egyptian system 
of the commonly accepted terms does not at all 
preserve the consistency either of order or of in- 
dividual quantity. For in the first place, in the 

1 Probably the system of the mythical Nechepso and 
Petosiris ; it is the system of Dorotheus of Sidon, Firmicus 
Maternus, and Paulus Alexandrinus. Cf. Bouché-Leclereq, 
pp- 206-210, who discusses Ptolemy’s criticism of the 
Egyptian termini. 

3 προσημαίνεται NCam.; ampoonpaive VLMADE; προση- 

on P ony poonp on 
μένη P. 

*Sic VADEProc. ; Π. τῶν ὁρίων NCam. ; I]. ὁρίων PLM. 



τάξεως πὴ μὲν τοῖς τῶν οἴκων κυρίοις τὰ πρωτεῖα 
δεδώκασιν, πὴ δὲ τοῖς τῶν τριγώνων ἐνίοτε δὲ 
καὶ τοῖς τῶν ὑψωμάτων. ἐπεὶ παραδείγματος 
, 5 ~ ‘ ~ 
everev,! εἴ γε" Tots οἴκοις ἠκολουθήκασι, διὰ Ti τῷ 
τοῦ Κρόνου εἰ τύχοι πρώτῳ δεδώκασιν ἐν Ζυγῷ 
καὶ οὐ τῷ τῆς Αφροδίτης, καὶ διὰ τί ἐν Κριῷ τῷ 
τοῦ Διὶ καὶ οὐ τῷ τοῦ "Apews ; εἴτε τοῖς τριγώνοις͵ 
διὰ τί τῷ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ δεδώκασιν ἐν Αἰγόκερῳ καὶ 
.« DA Pg 
> a a ae? , ” \ A ε ΄, \ 
οὐ τῷ τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης ; εἴτε καὶ τοῖς ὑψώμασι, διὰ 
τί τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως ἐν Καρκίνῳ καὶ οὐ τῷ τοῦ Avos ; 
t t + ’ 
” a δὴ a 4 ” 
εἴτε τοῖς Ta πλεῖστα τούτων ἔχουσι, διὰ τί ἐν 
« ~ ~ « ~ ΄ 
YSpoxyow τῷ τοῦ ‘Eppod δεδώκασι, τρίγωνον 
ἔχοντι μόνον, καὶ οὐχὶ τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου : τούτου 
γὰρ καὶ οἶκός ἐστι καὶ τρίγωνον. ἢ διὰ τί ὅλως ὃ 
ἐν Αἰγόκερῳ τῷ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ πρώτῳ " δεδώκασι 
/ / 3 Ww 4 A A 4 ἐς ͵ 
δένα λόγον ἔχοντι πρὸς τὸ ζῴδιον οἰκοδεσποτίας ; 
ι > 
9: »Νἡ “ λ ~ ὃ ΄ 5 \ > \ > x / 6 
Kal ἐπὶ τῆς λοιπῆς διατάξεως ὃ τὴν αὐτὴν ἀναλογίαν 
ἄν τις εὕροι. 
¢ A ͵΄ 
Δεύτερον δὲ καὶ ἡ ποσότης τῶν ὁριων οὐδεμίαν 
ἀκολουθίαν ἔχουσα φαίνεται. ὁ γὰρ καθ᾽ ἕνα 
ἕκαστον ἀστέρα ἐπισυναγόμενος ἐκ πάντων ἀριθ- 
ἡἁ4μός, πρὸς ὅν φασιν αὐτῶν τὰ χρονικὰ ἐπιμερί- 
ζεσθαι, οὐδένα οἰκεῖον οὐδὲ εὐαπόδεκτον ἔχει λόγον. 

1 ἐπεὶ παραδείγματος ἕνεκεν VD; ἐπὶ παρ. δὲ ἕν. PL, ἐπὶ παρ. 
μ ρ ap 

τοῦ (τό E) ye ἕν. ME, παραδείγματος δὲ ἕνεκεν NCam. 
2 εἴ ye ME, εἴτε VD, εἴπερ yap A, ὅτε PLNCam. 
3 ὅλως VMNDE, ὅλο P, ὅλου L, ὅλος ACam. 
4 πρώτῳ VMADE, -ov PLNCam. 
δ διατάξεως P (-Ea-) L, δὲ τάξεως alii Cam. 
ὁ ἀναλογίαν libri, ἀνακολουθίαν Cam. 



matter of order, they have sometimes assigned the 
first place to the lords of the houses and again to 
those of the triplicities, and sometimes also to the 
lords of the exaltations. For example, if it is true 
that they have followed the houses, why have they 
assigned precedence to Saturn, say, in Libra,! and not 
to Venus, and why to Jupiter in Aries and not to Mars? 
And if they follow the triplicities, why have they 
given Mercury, and not Venus,” first place in Capri- 
corn? Or if it be exaltations, why give Mars, and 
not Jupiter, precedence in Cancer*; and if they 
have regard for the planets that have the greatest 
number of these qualifications, why have they given 
first place in Aquarius to Mercury, who has only his 
triplicity there, and not to Saturn, for it is both the 
house and the triplicity of Saturn? Or why have 
they given Mercury first place in Capricorn at all, 
since he has no relation of government to the sign ? 
One would find the same kind of thing in the rest 
of the system. 

Secondly, the number of the terms manifestly has 
no consistency ; for the number derived for each 
planet from the addition of its terms in all the signs, 
in accordance with which they say the planets 
assign years of life,4 furnishes no suitable or ac- 
ceptable argument. But even if we rely upon the 

1 Libra is the solar house of Venus ; Saturn’s houses are 
Capricorn and Aquarius. Similarly Mars is at home in 
Aries, Jupiter’s houses being Pisces and Sagittarius. 

2 Of. c. 18; Venus and the moon govern the second 
triangle. 3 Of. c. 19; Mars’ exaltation is in Capricorn. 

4For the doctrine that the sum of the terms of each 
planet determines the life-time of those born under its in- 
fluence, cf. Bouché-Leclercq, p. 408. 



ἐὰν δὲ Kal τούτῳ τῷ κατὰ τὴν ἐπισυναγωγὴν ἀριθμῷ 
πιστεύσωμεν, ὡς ἄντικρυς ὑπ᾽ Αἰγυπτίων ὁμολο- 
γουμένῳ, πολλαχῶς μὲν καὶ ἄλλως τῆς κατὰ τὸ 
ζῴδιον ποσότητος ἐναλλασσομένης, ὁ αὐτὸς ἀριθμὸς 
ἂν συναγόμενος εὑρεθείη. καὶ ὃ πιθανολογεῖν δὲ 
καὶ σοφίζεσθαί τινες ἐπιχειροῦσι περὶ αὐτῶν, ὅτι 
κατὰ παντὸς κλίματος ἀναφορικὸν λόγον οἱ καθ᾽ 
ἕκαστον ἀστέρα συσχηματιζόμενοί πως χρόνοι 
τὴν αὐτὴν ἐπισυνάγουσι ποσότητα, ψεῦδός ' ἐστι. 
πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ ἀκολουθοῦσι 3 τῇ κοινῇ πραγ- 
ματείᾳ καὶ τῇ πρὸς ὁμαλὰς ὑπεροχὰς τῶν ἀνα- 
φορῶν συνισταμένῃ, μὴ κατὰ μικρὸν ἐγγὺς οὔσῃ 
τῆς ἀληθείας. καθ᾽ ἣν ἐπὶ τοῦ διὰ τῆς κάτω 
χώρας τῆς Αἰγύπτου παραλλήλου τὸ μὲν τῆς 
Παρθένου καὶ τῶν Χηλῶν δωδεκατημόριον ἐν λη΄ 
χρόνοις ἑκάτερον καὶ ἔτι τρίτῳ θέλουσιν ἀνα- 
φέρεσθαι, τὸ δὲ τοῦ Λέοντος καὶ τοῦ Σκορπίου 
ἑκάτερον ἐν λε΄, δεικνυμένου διὰ τῶν γραμμῶν ὅτι 
ταῦτα μὲν ἐν πλείοσι τῶν λε΄ χρόνων ἀναφέρεται, 
τὸ δὲ τῆς Πᾳαρθένου καὶ τὸ τῶν Χηλῶν ἐν ἐλάττοσιν * 
ἔπειτα καὶ οἱ τοῦτο ἐπιχειρήσαντες κατασκευάζειν 
οὐκέτι φαίνονται κατηκολουθηκότες οὐδ᾽ οὕτω 
τῇ παρὰ τοῖς πλείστοις φερομένῃ ποσότητι τῶν 
ὁρίων, κατὰ ὃ πολλὰ διηναγκασμένοι καταψεύσα- 
4 σθαι: καί που καὶ μορίοις μορίων ἐχρήσαντο, 
τοῦ σῶσαι τὸ προκείμενον αὐτοῖς ἕνεκεν, οὐδ᾽ 
avtois,! ὡς ἔφαμεν, ἀληθοῦς ἐχομένοις ὃ σκοποῦ. 
1 ψεῦδος VMADEProc., ψευδές PLNCam. 

Σ ἠκολουθήκασι NCam. 
8 κατὰ PL, καὶ τὰ VMDE, καίτοι NACam. 



number derived from this summation, in accordance 
with the downright claim of the Egyptians, the sum 
would be found the same, even though the amounts, 
sign by sign, be frequently changed in various ways. 
And as for the specious and sophistic assertion ὦ 
about them that some attempt to make, namely that 
the times assigned to each single planet by the 
schedule of ascensions in all the climes add up 
to this same sum, it is false. For, in the first place, 
they follow the common method, based upon evenly 
progressing increases in the ascensions, which is not 
even close to the truth. By this scheme they would 
have each of the signs Virgo and Libra, on the 
parallel which passes through lower Egypt, ascend 
in 381 times,” and Leo and Scorpio each in 35, 
although it is shown by the tables 3 that these latter 
ascend in more than 35 times and Virgo and 
Libra in less. Furthermore, those who have en- 
deavoured to establish this theory even so do not 
seem to follow the usually accepted number of 
terms, and are compelled to make many false state- 
ments, and they have even made use of fractional 
parts of fractions in the effort to save their hypothesis, 
which, as we said, is itself not a true one. 

1This perhaps means that the sum of the times of 
ascension of the two signs assigned as houses to each planet 
gave, according to the theory of these unnamed astrologers, 
the number of years of life which they assigned to those 
born under them ; cf. Bouché-Leclereq, p. 209. 

2A “time” is the period taken by one degree of the 
equator to rise above the horizon. 

3 In Almagest, ii. 8. 

4 αὐτοῖς VMDE, αὐτῆς APL, αὐτό NCam. 
5 ἐχομένοις VDE, -ης Μ, -ov NACam., ἔχομεν L, ἔχωμεν P. 



A ‘ / A aA - 4 A 
Ta μέντοι φερόμενα παρὰ τοῖς πολλοῖς διὰ τὴν 
τῆς ἐπάνωθεν παραδόσεως ἀξιοπιστίαν τοῦτον ὑπό- 
κειται τὸν τρόπον. 

σ > ? , 2 
ὅρια kat Αἰγυπτίους 

Κριοῦ Ταύρου Διδύμων 
1 Sa ζ΄ φ n η΄ 8 Ss σ΄ 
2 ς΄ ιβ΄ % ς΄ ιδ' y ς΄ ιβ΄ 
ῃ η΄ "τῷ y η΄ Kp’ 9 εἶ γῆς 
ὅς ΕΠ, ΚΕ h ἘΠΕ Kes 3 COD 
h e’ λ' é γ΄ Ne h oa ne 

Καρκίνου Λέοντος Παρθένου 
4 ie ζέ Ύ ς΄ oe 8 ζω ζ΄ 
φ Se ts g ΤΥ ἢ φ ΚΣ ule 
Et Sa be Gar ee, uw δ΄ xa’ 
γ { Ks’ ¥ ς΄ ἐδ) 3 Zz κη΄ 
h δ΄ λ' 4 Se V4 h β΄ Χχ' 

Ζυγοῦ Σκορπίου Τοξότου 
πε ir sr” 9 Vicia &% y ιβ ιβ’ 
Sins ΕΠ δ: φ Ot atta, 2 ἜΤ τ 
1 ἀξ κα, San ued 8 δ΄ κα΄ 
φ ζ΄ Ky u Go ΚΟ, h ee 
Cit Sais a ete sal le, τι δ΄ ΤΕλΓ 

Αἰγόκερω γδροχόου Ιχθύων 
διώμηζήορᾳ ot Bhi pboemis abe = of oY 
»" Sadar tO CLES een revs 2 EY OY 
φ η΄ κβ΄ 9) [44 κ΄ 8 y 10’ 
h OnKSH 4 εἰ.}.... KES 4 Cami 
4 δ' v h ε΄ >‘ h β΄ ἊΣ 

1Post hance lineam add. VMPLADProc. haec aut 
similia: συνάγεται δὲ ἑκάστου αὐτῶν ὁ ἀριθμὸς οὕτως - Κρόνου 
μὲν μοῖραι νζ΄, Διὸς 06’, "Apews ἐς", ᾿Αφροδίτης πβ΄, ᾿ΕἙρμοῦ ος" 
γίνονται τξ΄. 



However, the terms most generally accepted on 
the authority of ancient tradition are given in the 
following fashion :— 

Terms according to the Egyptians. 

Aries 46 26 38 35 h5 
Taurus 28 36 7X8 h5 apa 
Gemini 36 16 25 37 h6 
Cancer 37 26 36 U7 h4 
Leo 26 25 h7 36 46 
Virgo 37 210 γ4 ΚΙ "»2 
Libra 56 38 17 ον 42 
Scorpio 47 φ4 38 2 h6 
Sagittarius 1712 95 34 h5 o4 
Capricornus ᾧ 7 Y7 28 "4 4 
Aquarius 5.7 26 Y7 35 bb 
Pisces 212 y4 33 49 h2 

1The Greek tables on p. 96 show also, within each sign, 
the cumulative totals up to 30°; these have been omitted 
in the translation. Cf. p. 107, n. 1, and for the symbols 
Ρ. XXv. 

*Tabulas codicis Vat. gr. 1453 (Procli Paraphrasin 
continentis) secutus sum, cum illis quae ab Camerario im- 
pressae sunt congruentes solis lineis 26 et 28 (sub Alyoxepw) 
exceptis ubi Cam. ? ζ΄ et ¢ ε΄ offert. Tabulae in PLMNAD 
inventae sunt; om. VE. 



«xa.» Κατὰ Χαλδαίους 

Ὃ δὲ Χαλδαϊκὸς τρόπος ἁπλῆν μέν τινα ἔχει καὶ 
μᾶλλον πιθανήν, οὐχ οὕτω δὲ αὐταρκῆ πρός Te? 
τὰς τῶν τριγώνων δεσποτίας ἀκολουθίαν 3 καὶ τὴν 
τῆς ποσότητος τάξιν, ὥστε μέντοι καὶ χωρὶς ava- 

αφῆ ὃ mn θ « δέ x 4 > r ~ > - 
γραφῆς δύνασθαι ῥαδίως twat ἐπιβαλεῖν αὐταῖς. 
ἐν μὲν γὰρ τῷ πρώτῳ τριγώνῳ Κριῷ καὶ Λέοντι 

40 καὶ Τοξότῃ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχοντι παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς κατὰ 
ζῴδιον διαίρεσιν, πρῶτος μὲν λαμβάνει ὁ τοῦ 
’ὔ / iy ~ / 52} tea ¢ ~ 
τριγώνου κύριος, ὁ τοῦ Atos, εἶθ᾽ ἑξῆς 6 τοῦ 
ἐφεξῆς τριγώνου, λέγω δὴ τὸν τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης, 
> ~ δὲ ε ~ ΄ 5 “ ~ / bay 
ἐφεξῆς δὲ ὁ τῶν διδύμων," 6 τε τοῦ Kpovov καὶ 6 
τοῦ “Ερμοῦ - τελευταῖος δὲ 6 τοῦ λοιποῦ τριγώνου 
κύριος, ὃ τοῦ "Apews. ἐν δὲ τῷ δευτέρῳ τριγώνῳ 
ΤΠ ΄ὔ \ TT θέ \ A? / vA \ 
avpw καὶ IlapPévw καὶ Αἰγόκερῳ πάλιν τὴν 
αὐτὴν κατὰ ζῴδιον ἔχοντι διαίρεσιν ὁ μὲν τῆς 
Adpoditns πρῶτος, εἶθ᾽ 6 τοῦ Κρόνου, πάλιν καὶ 
6 τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ, μετὰ ταῦτα δὲ ὁ τοῦ “Apews, 

1 τήν τε post αὐταρκῆ add. PNCam., τῆς re L, om. VMDE, 
τὴν ἀκολουθίαν A. 

2 zpos τε VMADE, τε om. PLNCam. 

3 τὴν ἀκολουθίαν VMDE. 

4 τινὰ VMADE (post δύνασθαι ME): om. PLNCam. 

56 τῶν Διδύμων VPLDProc., οἱ τ. 4. ME, ὁ τοῦ τρίτου 

1This method, as Bouché-Leclercq remarks (p. 210), is 
less ‘“‘optimistic’’ than the Egyptian or the Ptolemaic 
method, because it assigned to the maleficent planets a 
larger number of terms and more first places in the various 

2The Paraphrase of Proclus, by connecting the ὥστε 



21. According to the Chaldaeans. 

The Chaldaean method! involves ἃ sequence, 
simple, to be sure, and more plausible, though not 
so self-sufficient with respect to the government of 
the triangles and the disposition of quantity, so 
that, nevertheless, one could easily understand 
them even without a diagram.” For in the first 
triplicity, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, which has with 
them the same division by signs as with the Egyp- 
tians, the lord of the triplicity, Jupiter,’ is the first 
to receive terms, then the lord of the next triangle, 
Venus, next the lord of the triangle of Gemini, 
Saturn, and Mercury, and finally the lord of the 
remaining triplicity, Mars. In the second triplicity, 
Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, which again has the 
same division by signs, Venus is first, then Saturn, 
and again Mercury, after these Mars, and finally 

clause solely with the expression οὐχ οὕτω δὲ αὐταρκὴ K.T.A., 
interprets this sentence to mean that because of the lack 
of self-sufficiency mentioned one cannot readily understand 
the Chaldaean system without a diagram. Against this 
view two considerations are to be urged: (1) the Chaldaean 
system actually is simplicity itself compared with those of 
the Egyptians and of Ptolemy; (2) the adversative μέντοι 
‘nevertheless,’ “‘in spite of all this’’) and the intrusive 
καί have no meaning in Proclus’ interpretation of the 
passage. The wore clause is really dependent upon all that 
precedes, not merely a portion of it. The anonymous 
commentator (p. 41, ed. Wolf) ayrees with the present 
interpretation. What Ptolemy misses in the Chaldaean 
system is the elaborate accompaniment of justifying 
reasons, dear to his heart even in a pseudo-science. 

3 The sun is the diurnal ruler of this triplicity (see c. 18), 
but no terms are assigned to the luminaries. Similarly the 
moon is disregarded in the second and fourth triangles. 



τελευταῖος δὲ ὁ τοῦ Aids σχεδὸν δὲ Kal ἐπὶ τῶν 
λοιπῶν δύο τριγώνων ἡ τάξις ἥδε συνορᾶται. τῶν 
μέντοι τοῦ αὐτοῦ τριγώνου δύο κυρίων, λέγω δὲ 
τοῦ τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τοῦ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ, τὸ πρωτεῖον 
τῆς κατὰ τὸ οἰκεῖον τάξεως ἡμέρας μὲν ὁ τοῦ 
Kpovov λαμβάνει, νυκτὸς δὲ ὁ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ. καὶ ἡ 
καθ᾽ ἕκαστον δὲ ποσότης ἁπλῆ τις οὖσα τυγχάνει. 
ἵνα γὰρ καθ᾽ ὑπόβασιν τῆς τῶν πρωτείων τάξεως 
καὶ ἡ ποσότης τῶν ἑκάστου ὁρίων μιᾷ μοίρᾳ 
λείπηται τῆς προτεταγμένης, τῷ μὲν πρώτῳ 
πάντοτε διδόασι μοίρας η΄, τῷ δὲ δευτέρῳ ζ΄, τῷ 
δὲ τρίτῳ ς΄, τῷ δὲ τετάρτῳ ε΄, τῷ δὲ τελευταίῳ 
δ΄, συμπληρουμένων οὕτω τῶν κατὰ τὸ ζῴδιον 2’ 
μοιρῶν. συνάγονται δὲ καὶ ἐκ τούτων τοῦ μὲν 
Κρόνου μοῖραι ἡμέρας μὲν οη΄, νυκτὸς δὲ ἕς"- 
τοῦ δὲ Διὸς of’: τοῦ δὲ “Apews E80’: τῆς δὲ 
Adpodiztns οε΄. τοῦ δὲ “Ἑρμοῦ ἡμέρας μὲν Es’, 
νυκτὸς δὲ οη΄. γίνονται μοῖραι TE’. 
Τούτων μὲν οὖν τῶν ὁρίων ἀξιοπιστότερα, ὡς 
41 ἔφαμεν, τυγχάνει ' τὰ κατὰ τὸν Αἰγυπτιακὸν τρόπον 
καὶ διὰ τὸ τὴν συναγωγὴν αὐτῶν παρὰ τοῖς Αἰγυπ- 
τίοις συγγραφεῦσιν ὡς χρησίμην ἀναγραφῆς 
ἠξιῶσθαι καὶ διὰ τὸ συμφωνεῖν αὐτοῖς ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν 
τὰς μοίρας τῶν ὁρίων ταῖς κατατεταγμέναις ὑπ᾽ 
αὐτῶν παραδειγματικαῖς γενέσεσιν. αὐτῶν μέντοι 
τούτων τῶν συγγραφέων μηδαμῆ τὴν σύνταξιν 
αὐτῶν μηδὲ τὸν ἀριθμὸν ἐμφανισάντων, ὕποπτον ἂν 
lois ἔφαμεν τυγχάνει VPLNAD, φαμεν τυγχάνειν ME, om. 



Jupiter. This arrangement in general is observed 
also in the remaining two triplicities.1 Of the two 
lords of the same triplicity, however, Saturn and 
Mercury, by day” Saturn takes the first place in the 
order of ownership, by night Mercury. The number 
assigned to each is alsoasimple matter. For in order 
that the number of terms of each planet may be less 
by one degree than the preceding, to correspond with 
the descending order in which first place is assigned, 
they always assign 8° to the first, 7° to the second, 6° 
to the third, 5° to the fourth, and 4° to the last; thus 
the 30° of asignis madeup. The sum of the number 
of degrees thus assigned to Saturn is 78 by day and 
66 by night, to Jupiter 72, to Mars 69, to Venus 75, 
to Mercury 66 by day and 78 by night; the total is 
360 degrees. 

Now of these terms those which are constituted 
by the Egyptian method are, as we said, more worthy 
of credence, both because in the form in which they 
have been collected by the Egyptian writers they 
have for their utility been deemed worthy of record. 
and because for the most part the degrees of these 
terms are consistent with the nativities which have 
been recorded by them as examples. As these very 
writers, however, nowhere explain their arrangement 
or their number, their failure to agree in an account 

1.1.6. the order of the planets is always the same, but the 
leader (or pair of leaders, in the case of Saturn and Mercury) 
in one triangle is shifted to the last position when one comes 
to the next triangle. Hence, since the number of terms 
in each sign are also always 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, the Chaldaean 
system makes the assignment of terms exactly the same in 
the corresponding signs of each triangle. 

31.6. in a diurnal nativity. 



εἰκότως καὶ εὐδιάβλητον αὐτῶν γένοιτο τὸ περὶ THY 
τάξιν ἀνομόλογον. ἤδη μέντοι περιτετυχήκαμεν 
ἡμεῖς ἀντιγράφῳ παλαιῷ καὶ τὰ πολλὰ 5 διεφθαρ- 
μένῳ, περιέχοντι φυσικὸν καὶ σύμφωνον λόγον τῆς 
τάξεως καὶ τῆς ποσότητος αὐτῶν μετὰ τοῦ τάς τε 
τῶν προειρημένων ὃ γενέσεων μοιρογραφίας καὶ τὸν 
τῶν συναγωγῶν ἀριθμὸν σύμφωνον εὑρίσκεσθαι τῇ 
τῶν παλαιῶν ἀναγραφῇ. τὸ δὲ κατὰ λέξιν τοῦ 
βιβλίου πάνυ μακρὸν ἦν καὶ μετὰ περιττῆς ἀποδεί- 
ἕξεως, ἀδιάγνωστον 4 δὲ διὰ τὸ διεφθάρθαι," καὶ μόλις 
αὐτὴν τὴν τοῦ καθ᾽ ὅλου προαίρεσιν δυνάμενον 
ἡμῖν ὑποτυπῶσαι * καὶ ταῦτα συνεφοδιαζούσης καὶ 
τῆς αὐτῶν τῶν ὁρίων ἀναγραφῆς μᾶλλόν πως διὰ 
τὸ πρὸς τῷ τέλει τοῦ βιβλίου κατατετάχθαι δια- 
σεσωσμένης. ἔχει γοῦν ὁ τύπος τῆς ὅλης αὐτῶν 
48 ἐπιβολῆς τὸν τρόπον τοῦτον" ἐπὶ μὲν γὰρ τῆς 
τάξεως τῆς καθ᾽ ἕκαστον δωδεκατημόριον παρα- 
λαμβάνεται τά τε ὑψώματα καὶ τὰ τρίγωνα καὶ οἵ 
οἶκοι. καθ᾽ ὅλου μὲν γὰρ 6 μὲν β΄ τούτων ἔχων 
ἀστὴρ οἰκοδεσποτίας ὃ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ ζῳδίῳ προ- 
τάττεται, κἂν κακοποιὸς ἢ: ὅπου δὲ τοῦτο οὐ 
συμβαίνει οἱ μὲν κακοποιοὶ πάντοτε ἔσχατοι 
τάττονται, πρῶτοι δὲ οἱ τοῦ ὑψώματος κύριοι, 
εἶτα οἱ τοῦ τριγώνου, εἶτα οἱ τοῦ οἴκου ἀκολούθως 

ι ἀνομόλογον VPLD, ἀνομολόγητον MAE, ἀνωμολόγητον Ν 

2 καὶ τὰ πολλὰ VMLAD, κατὰ πολλὰ PNECam. 

3 προειρημένων ME ; προγενομένων PLNCam. (πρω- Ρ, -γιν- 
L); om. A; τῶν γενέσεων προειρημένας μοιρ. VD. Li. 6-140m. 

4 ἀδιάγνωστον MAE, ἀδιάσωστον alii Cam. 



of the system might well become an object of sus- 
picion and a subject for criticism. Recently, how- 
ever, we have come upon an ancient manuscript, 
much damaged, which contains a natural and con- 
sistent explanation of their order and number, and at 
the same time the degrees reported in the aforesaid 
nativities and the numbers given in the summations 
were found to agree with the tabulation of the 
ancients. The book was very lengthy in expression 
and excessive in demonstration, and its damaged state 
made it hard to read, so that I could barely gain 
an idea of its general purport; that too, in spite of 
the help offered by the tabulations of the terms, 
better preserved because they were placed at the end 
of the book.! At any rate the general scheme 
of assignment of the terms is as follows. For their 
arrangement within each sign, the exaltations, tri- 
plicities, and houses are taken into consideration. 
For, generally speaking, the star that has two ruler- 
ships of this sort in the same sign is placed first, even 
though it may be maleficent. But wherever this 
condition does not exist, the maleficent planets are 
always put last, and the lords of the exaltation first, 
the lords of the triplicity next, and then those of the 

4Ptolemy’s ancient manuscript, therefore, if it really 
existed, was probably in the form of a roll, for there the 
last pages would be protected. ‘The first and last pages of 
a codex would be liable to damage, since they would be 

ὃ διὰ τὸ διεφθάρθαι VMADE, καὶ διεφθάρθαι PL, καὶ διεφθαρ- 
μένον NCam. 
ὁ οἰκοδεσποτ(ε)ίας VMADEProc. ; om. alii. 



τῇ ἐφεξῆς τάξει τῶν ζῳδίων, πάλιν δὲ ἐφεξῆς οἱ 
ἀνὰ δύο ἔχοντες οἰκοδεσποτίας προταττόμενοι τοῦ 
a a , 
μίαν ἔχοντος ἐν TH αὐτῷ Cwdiw. ὁ μέντοι Kap- 
’ὔ A ες vA 4 wy «ε ’ὔ ‘A , 
κίνος καὶ ὁ Λέων οἶκοι ὄντες ἡλίου καὶ σελήνης, 
- > -“- 
ἐπεὶ οὐ δίδοται τοῖς φωσὶ ὅρια, ἀπονέμονται τοῖς 
~ > ~ ~ 
κακοποιοῖς διὰ τὸ ἐν TH τάξει πλεονεκτεῖσθαι, ὃ 
A Κι / ~ ~ "A e ὃ \ A ὔ ~ ~ 
μὲν Kapkivos τῷ τοῦ “Apews, ὁ δὲ Aéwv τῷ τοῦ 
/ > τ \ « 4 5 - « ε td 4 
Κρόνου, ἐν ois καὶ ἡ τάξις αὐτοῖς ἡ οἱκεία φυλάτ- 
~ / ~ ,ὔ 
τεται. ἐπὶ δὲ τῆς ποσότητος τῶν ὁρίων, ws μὲν 
μηδενὸς εὑρισκομένου κατὰ δύο τρόπους κυρίου 
” > > ~ ~ ,ὔ an“ 1 3 A > ~ 4 
ἤτοι ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ ζῳδίῳ ἢ καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἐφεξῆς μέχρι 
τεταρτημορίου, τοῖς μὲν ἀγαθοποιοῖς, τουτέστι τῷ 
~ A A A ~ nn "Ad OL ξ / δί- 
τε τοῦ Διὸς καὶ τῷ τῆς ροδίτης ἑκάστῳ, δί 
δονται μοῖραι ζ΄, τοῖς δὲ κακοποιοῖς, τουτέστι τῷ 
~ ~ ~ « 4 - ’ὔ 
τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τῷ τοῦ Ἄρεως ἑκάστῳ μοῖραι εἴ, 
- ~ ~ ΕΣ - te 
τῷ δὲ τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ ἐπικοίνῳ ὄντι μοῖραι ς΄, εἰς 
,ὔ ~ rw 1 > ‘A ὃ δὲ 90. , . ame ὃ v4 
συμπλήρωσιν τῶν λ΄. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἔχουσί τινες ἀεὶ δύο 
- / > 
λόγους, 6 yap τῆς ‘Adpodityns μόνος γίνεται οἶκο- 
49 δεσπότης τοῦ κατὰ τὸν Ταῦρον τριγώνου τῆς 
\ , 
σελήνης εἰς τὰ ὅρια μὴ παραλαμβανομένης, προσ- 
~ > 
δίδοται μὲν ἑκάστῳ τῶν οὕτως ἐχόντων ἄν TE ἐν 
“ ~ ~ ~ ,ὔ 
αὐτῷ τῷ ζῳδίῳ ἂν τε ἐν τοῖς ἐφεξῆς μέχρι τεταρ- 
a Ψ 
τημορίου μοῖρα μία, οἷς καὶ παρέκειντο στιγμαί. 
“- ~ ~ > A 
ἀφαιροῦνται δὲ at προστιθέμεναι τῆς διπλῆς ἀπὸ 
~ ~ ~ > ‘\ A A a3 > ‘ 
τῶν λοιπῶν καὶ μοναχῶν, ws ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ δὲ ἀπὸ 
~ ~ A ~ ~ A A 
τοῦ τοῦ Κρόνου, εἶτα καὶ τοῦ τοῦ vos, διὰ τὸ 
1 Post λ' add. glossa in marg. codicis N et Cam.? εἴ ye μὴ 
ἔχουσί τινες δύο λόγους ; om. libri omnes et Proclus. 



house, following the order of the signs.1 And again 
in order, those that have two lordships each are pre- 
ferred to the one which has but one in the same 
sign. Since terms are not allotted to the luminaries, 
however, Cancer and Leo, the houses of the sun and 
moon, are assigned to the maleficent planets because 
they were deprived of their share in the order, Cancer 
to Mars and Leo to Saturn ;? in these the order ap- 
propriate to them is preserved. As for the number 
of the terms, when no star is found with two pre- 
rogatives, either in the sign itself or in those which 
follow it within the quadrant, there are assigned to 
each of the beneficent planets, that is, to Jupiter and 
Venus, 7°; to the maleficent, Saturn and Mars, 5° 
each ; and to Mercury, which is common, 6°; so that 
the totalis 30°. But since some always have two pre- 
rogatives—for Venus alone becomes the ruler of the 
triplicity of Taurus, since the moon does not par- 
ticipate in the terms—there is given to each one of 
those in such condition, whether it be in the same 
sign or in the following signs within the quadrant, 
one extra degree; these were marked with dots.® 
But the degrees added for double prerogatives are 
taken away from the others, which have but one, 
and, generally speaking, from Saturn and Jupiter 

1.7.6. in the order Aries, Taurus, Gemini, etc., which the 
Greeks called “the order of the following signs’? and 
regarded as proceeding to the left. 

* According to the anonymous commentator (p. 42, ed. 
Wolf), this is because Mars belongs to the nocturnal sect 
and Saturn to the diurnal, the leaders of which are, re- 
spectively, the moon and the sun. 

* In Ptolemy’s ancient manuscript ; so says the anony- 
mous commentator (p. 44, ed. Wolf). 

o 105 


, > ~ ~ / ” \ \ ς 
βραδύτερον αὐτῶν τῆς κινήσεως. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ 
τούτων τῶν ὁρίων ἔκθεσις τοιαύτη. 

1 Κριοῦ Ταύρου Διδύμων 
y x ἘΠ φ η΄ η΄ % rs iy 
ie a: % EAT te BL VIM ga OORK 
8 ζ Ka’ γ ζί κβ΄ φ { κ΄ 
See ein ΚΘΗ by Bie kor 6 Sean Kst 
h δ΄ λ΄ on. Se λ' h δ΄ λ' 

Καρκίνου Λέοντος Παρθένου 

yh Sain S ΟΜ ΡΟ ας 
ΣΡ Saas ᾧ nA As Be Mets ial 
3 @ κ΄ h a ιθ΄ ΩΓ ε΄ ιη΄ 
g Gi κξζί g κε΄ h SKS’ 
Dd iy, 2 cA δ é λ' ΓΙ Ὰ λ' 

Ζυγοῦ Σκορπίου Τοξότου 
bey Suet ves Sodd S50 nts), ΟΠ τα ier 
φ ε΄ ια΄ φ ζ΄ 1, (γ΄ 2 ΦΑΡΑ cy 
% ra ted 4 7 Ka’ ῷ e ιθ΄ 
NG) Ane 8 SM ede h ewe. 
SUBISS λ' h, ety λ' 8 εἰ ΡΨ 

Αἰγόκερω γΥδροχόου ᾿Ιχθύων 
eS ἘΠ hiyeiss 5: ? 7’ 
3 ς΄ ιβ' ᾧ τ op’ 2 ζ΄ ιδ΄ 
uy (ke ιθ΄ φ η΄ κ΄ 3 Ξ΄ κ΄ 
ΠΣ ΙΝ κεῖ OT 5 Sieh lace é ε΄ κεΐ 
4 ἘΠ λ' 3 ε΄ λ΄ b «ε΄ λ΄ 

1Tabulas quae in cod. Vat. gr. 1453 (Procli Para- 
phrasin continentis) inventae sunt sequor. Hae cum illis 
quae ab Camerario impressae sunt congruunt solis ll. 4-5 
sub Αἰγόκερω exceptis ubi ordo Camerarii est: ε΄, ἢ ς΄. 
Proclus autem non nullas notitias duplices habet, viz.: 
1. 4 sub Ταύρου, Ὁ β΄ aut δ΄; 1. 2 sub Καρκίνου ᾧ aut x, 



because of their slower motion. The tabulation ! of 
these terms is as follows :— 

Terms according to Ptolemy. 

Aries 146 28 37 ὅ ὃ h4 
Taurus 28 37 47 h2 $6 
Gemini 37 16 97 46 h4 
Cancer 36 Y7 37 97 53 
Leo γη0 57 h6 26 $5 
Virgo 37 26 Y5 h6 36 
Libra h6 φῦ 35 γ8 46 
Scorpio 46 97 ὃ 36 3 

Sagittarius Y8 26 35 h6 $5 
Capricornus 9 6 36 ΠῚ h6 4 ὃ 
Aquarius h6 36 28 γ ὃ 88 
Pisces 28 u6 36 a5 45) hb 

1 The Greek tables contain, under each sign, (1) the name 
of the planet, (2) the number of its terms in this sign, and 
(3) the cumulative totals of terms, up to the 30° of the sign. 
The third detail has been omitted in the English tables. 
The anonymous commentator (pp. 44—47, ed. Wolf) demon- 
strates in detail how the assignment of terms is made. 

1. 3 y% aut 3; 1. 3 sub Μέοντος ἢ aut 2; 1. 3 sub Ζυγοῦ 
¥ aut γ, «aut 7’, 1. 4 Ἢ aut ¥, η΄ aut ε΄; 1. 2 sub Lkopmiov 
9 aut 4, 2’ aut 7’, 1. 3 % aut 2, 7’ aut ¢’; 1. 4 sub 
Alyoxepw h aut 4,1. ὃ 3 aut hk; 1. 4 sub ᾿Ιχθύων 4 εἴ 
aut ¢’, 1. 5, kh ε' aut δ΄. 



«κβ.)» Περὶ τόπων καὶ μοιρῶνϊ 

Διεῖλον δέ τινες καὶ εἰς ἔτι τούτων λεπτομερέ- 
στερα τμήματα" τῆς οἰκοδεσποτίας, τόπους καὶ 
μοίρας ὀνομάσαντες, καὶ τόπον μὲν ὑποτιθέμενοι 
τὸ τοῦ δωδεκατημορίου δωδεκατημόριον, τουτέστι 

δ0 μοίρας β΄ ἥμισυ," καὶ διδόντες αὐτῶν τὴν κυρίαν 
τοῖς ἐφεξῆς ζῳδίοις. ἄλλοι δὲ καὶ κατ᾽ ἄλλας τινὰς 
ἀλόγους τάξεις, μοῖραν δὲ ἑκάστην πάλιν ἀπ᾽ 
ἀρχῆς ἑκάστῳ 5 διδόντες τῶν ἀστέρων ἀκολούθως 
τῇ τάξει τῶν Χαλδαϊκῶν ὁρίων. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν 
πιθανὸν καὶ οὐ φυσικὸν ἀλλὰ κενόδοξον ἔχοντα 
λόγον παρήσομεν. ἐκεῖνο δὲ ἐπιστάσεως ἀξιον 
τυγχάνον οὐ παραλείψομεν, ὅτι καὶ τὰς τῶν δωδε- 
κατημορίων ἀρχὰς ἀπὸ τῶν ἰσημερινῶν καὶ τῶν 
τροπικῶν σημείων εὔλογόν ἐστι ποιεῖσθαι, καὶ 
τῶν συγγραφέων τοῦτό πως ἐμφανισάντων, καὶ 
μάλιστα διότι τὰς φύσεις καὶ τὰς δυνάμεις καὶ τὰς 
συνοικειώσεις αὐτῶν ὁρῶμεν ἐκ τῶν προαποδε- 
δειγμένων ἀπὸ τῶν τροπικῶν καὶ ἰσημερινῶν ἀρχῶν 

1Post tabulas add. VMDProc. haec aut similia: γίνεται 
δὲ καὶ τούτων ἐκ τῆς ἐπισυνθέσεως Κρόνου μοῖραι νζ΄, Διὸς 08’, 
"Apews Es’, ᾿Αφροδίτης πβ΄, “Eppot os’: γίνονται τξ΄. Titulum 
habent VPLMADEProc.; om. NCam. 

5 τὰ τμήματα PLNCam. 

3 ἀρχόμενοι ἀπὸ τοῦ δωδεκατημορίου καθ᾽ ὅ ἐστιν ὃ ἀστὴρ add. 
NCam.; om. VPLMDEProc.; ἀρχόμενοι ἀπὸ τοῦ {{{|| καὶ 
διδόντες Α. 4 ἑκάστην VMADE, τῳ PLNCam. 

δ ἑκάστῳ VPLMADE, -ov NCam. 

1 After the tables and before this chapter-heading some 
of the MSS. have: “There result from the addition of 



22. Of Places and Degrees.} 

Some have made even finer divisions of rulership 
than these, using the terms “ places ” and “ degrees.” 
Defining “ place ” as the twelfth part of a sign, or 
24°, they 2 assign the domination over them to the 
signs in order. Others follow other illogical orders ; 
and again they assign each “ degree”’ from the 
beginning to each of the planets of each sign in 
accordance with the Chaldaean order of terms. 
These matters, as they have only plausible and not 
natural, but, rather, unfounded, arguments in their 
favour, we shall omit. The following, however, 
upon which it is worth while to dwell, we shall not 
pass by, namely, that it is reasonable to reckon the 
beginnings of the signs also from the equinoxes and 
solstices,* partly because the writers make this quite 
clear, and particularly because from our previous 
demonstrations we observe that their natures, powers, 
and familiarities take their cause from the solstitial 

these, of Saturn, 57°; of Jupiter, 79°; of Mars, 66°; of 
Venus, 82°; of Mercury, 76°; the total is 360°.” 

2 One MS. and the printed editions insert here, “‘ begin 
with the sign in which the star is and”’ ; cf. the critical note. 

3 That is, Ptolemy’s zodiac, made up of 12 divisions of 
30° each, measured on the ecliptic from one of the solstices 
or equinoxes, is entirely different from the zodiac made up 
of signs determined by the actual constellations. Because 
of the precession of the equinoxes the two by no means 
coincide ; and because the powers of the signs are derived 
from their relations to the solstitial and equinoctial points, 
says Ptolemy, the former definition of the zodiac is pre- 
ferable. 10-11, and the distinction between solstitial, 
equinoctial, solid, and bicorporeal signs, as an example of 
what he means. 





καὶ οὐκ am ἄλλου τινὸς ἐχούσας ' τὴν αἰτίαν. 
ἄλλων μὲν γὰρ ἀρχῶν ὑποτιθεμένων ἢ μηκέτι 
συγχρῆσθαι ταῖς φύσεσιν αὐτῶν εἰς τὰς προτελέ- 
σεις ἀναγκασθησόμεθα ἢ συγχρώμενοι διαπίπτειν, 
παραβάντων καὶ ἀπαλλοτριωθέντων" τῶν τὰς 
δυνάμεις αὐτοῖς ἐμπεριποιησάντων τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ 

«κγ.) Περὶ προσώπων καὶ λαμπηνῶν 
\ ~ 
καὶ τῶν τοιούτων 

ς s ~ ~ 

Ai μὲν οὖν συνοικειώσεις τῶν ἀστέρων Kal τῶν 

δωδεκατημορίων σχεδὸν ἂν εἶεν τοσαῦται. λέγονται 

δὲ καὶ ἰδιοπρόσωποι μὲν ὅταν ἕκαστος αὐτῶν 
\ > \ / \ σ Ἃ \ / 

τὸν αὐτὸν διασώζῃ πρὸς ἥλιον ἢ καὶ σελήνην 

σχηματισμὸν ὅνπερ καὶ ὁ οἶκος αὐτοῦ πρὸς τοὺς 
᾽ ͵ ” e “ ς mle / , 

ἐκείνων οἴκους - οἷον ὅταν ὁ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης λόγου 

/ ~ ~ / 

ἕνεκεν é€dywvov ποιῇ πρὸς τὰ φῶτα διάστασιν, 
> \ \ “ \ ε / ” ‘ / 

ἀλλὰ πρὸς ἥλιον μὲν ἑσπέριος wy, πρὸς σελήνην 

δὲ ἑῶος, ἀκολούθως τοῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς οἴκοις + λαμπή- 

> a 
vais δὲ ἐν ἰδίαις εἶναι καὶ θρόνοις καὶ τοῖς τοιούτοις 
ὅταν κατὰ δύο ἢ καὶ πλείους τῶν προεκτεθειμένων 
' ἔχοντας NCam. 

2 ἀπαλλοτριωθέντων VPLD. ἀλλοτριωθέντων MNAECam. 
(aAAw- Cam.). 

1 Just as, with the precession of the equinoxes, the fictive 
sign Aries is now almost entirely in Pisces. 

2 The scholiast on Ptolemy says that, in addition to the 
conditions laid down by Ptolemy, a planet, to be in proper 
face, must also be in its own house and must be in the 
necessary aspect with both the luminaries (not with one of 
them, as Ptolemy says). 



and equinoctial starting-places, and from no other 
source. For if other starting-places are assumed. we 
shall either be compelled no longer to use the natures 
of the signs for prognostications or, if we use them, to 
be in error, since the spaces of the zodiac which 
implant their powers in the planets would then pass 
over to others ! and become alienated. 

23. Of Faces, Chariots. and the Like. 

Such, then, are the natural affinities of the stars 
and the signs of the zodiac. The planets are said 
to be in their “ proper face”? when an individual 
planet keeps to the sun or moon the same aspect 
which its house has to their houses ; as, for example, 
when Venus is in sextile to the luminaries, provided 
that she is occidental] to the sun and oriental to the 
moon, in accordance with the original arrangement 
of their houses.? They are said to be in their own 
“chariots ” and “ thrones” 4 and the like when they 

3 Venus’ solar house, Libra, is sextile dexter (1.6. toward 
the west) to Leo, the sun’s house, and her lunar house, 
Taurus, is sextile sinister (7.e. toward the east) to the moon’s 
house, Cancer. 

‘Ptolemy pays little attention to the thrones and 
chariots, which were apparently, as Bouché-Leclercq 
(p. 244) asserts, not to his taste as a scientific astrologer. 
In the Michigan astrological roll (P. Mich. 149, col. 3A, 
22-34) the “‘ thrones’ are identified with the (astrological) 
exaltations and the depressions of the planets are called 
their “‘ prisons ᾿᾿ (φυλακαί) ; upon the thrones the planets 
have “royal power,” in their prisons they ‘‘ are abased 
and oppose their own powers.’ Sarapion (CCAG. viii. 
4, p. 228, 25, and p. 231, 13) and Balbillus (cbid., p. 237, 
8) use the word ἰδιοθρονεῖν. 




τρόπων συνοικειούμενοι τυγχάνωσι τοῖς τόποις ἐν 
οἷς καταλαμβάνονται, τότε! μάλιστα τῆς δυνάμεως 
αὐτῶν αὐξανομένης πρὸς ἐνέργειαν διὰ τὸ ὅμοιον 
καὶ συμπρακτικὸν τῆς τῶν περιεχόντων δωδεκα- 
τημορίων ὁμοφυοῦς οἰκειότητος. 2 Χαίρειν δέ φασιν 
αὐτοὺς ὅταν κἂν μὴ πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἢ ἡ συνοικείωσις 
τῶν περιεχόντων ζῳδίων ἀλλὰ μέντοι πρὸς τοὺς τῶν 
αὐτῶν αἱρέσεων, ἐκ μακροῦ μᾶλλον οὕτω γινομένης 
τῆς συμπαθείας. κοινωνοῦσι δὲ ὅμως καὶ κατὰ τὸν 
αὐτὸν τρόπον τῆς ὁμοιότητος " “ὥσπερ ὅταν ἐν τοῖς 
ἠλλοτριωμένοις καὶ τῆς ἐναντίας αἱρέσεως τόποις 
καταλαμβάνωνται, πολὺ παραλύεται τὸ τῆς οἰκείας 
αὐτῶν δυνάμεως, ἄλλην τινὰ φύσιν μικτὴν ἀποτε- 
λούσης τῆς κατὰ τὸ ἀνόμοιον τῶν περιεχόντων 
ζῳδίων κράσεως. 

«κδ.». Περὶ συναφειῶν καὶ ἀπορροιῶν 
καὶ τῶν ἄλλων δυνάμεων 

\ > “ \ 4 A / a 

Kai καθ᾽ ὅλου δὲ συνάπτειν μὲν λέγονται τοῖς 

« ς ’ὔ > is \ « 

ἑπομένοις οἱ προηγούμενοι, ἀπερρυηκέναι δὲ οἱ 

ἑπόμενοι τῶν προηγουμένων, ἐφ᾽ ὅσον ἂν μὴ μακρὸν 

7) τὸ μεταξὺ αὐτῶν διάστημα. παραλαμβάνεται δὲ 

1 τότε yap ΜΝ AECam. ; yap om. VPLD. 
2 ἰδιοθρονεῖν Kat Δ ΕΣ λέγονται add. MNAECam.; om. 

1 Vettius Valens uses this word several times in a broader 
sense than that of this definition. 

2.7.6. are more occidental. 

3 συνάπτειν, applicare (noun συναφή, applicatio) is used 
of planets which are on or are closely approaching the same 
meridian. κόλλησις is a similar term. ‘‘ Separation,’ 



happen to have familiarity in two or more of the afore- 
said ways with the places in which they are found ; for 
then their power is most increased in effectiveness 
by the similarity and co-operation of the kindred 
property of the signs which contain them. They say 
they “ rejoice 1 when, even though the containing 
signs have no familiarity with the stars themselves, 
nevertheless they have it with the stars of the same 
sect ; in this case the sympathy arises less directly. 
They share, however, in the similarity in the same 
way ; just as, on the contrary, when they are found 
in alien regions belonging to the opposite sect, a 
great part of their proper power is paralysed, because 
the temperament which arises from the dissimilarity 
of the signs produces a different and adulterated 

24. Of Applications and Separations and the Other 


In general those which precede? are said to 
“apply ” * to those which follow, and those that 
follow to “be separated” from those that precede, 
when the interval between them is not great. Such 

ἀπόρροια, defluxio, on the contrary, refers to the movement 
apart of two bodies after “‘ application.’’ ἀπόρροια is also 
used by astrologers to designate the ‘‘ emanations ’”’ of the 
heavenly bodies which affect the earth and its inhabitants, 
as for example in Vettius Valens, p. 160, 6-7; 249, 3; 
270, 24 ff.; 330, 19 ff. 

4 Ashmand says this is generally understood to mean, 
when the heavenly bodies are within each other’s orbs 
(Saturn 10°, Jupiter 12°, Mars 7° 30’, sun 17°, Venus 8°, 
Mercury 7° 30’, moon 12° 30’). The anonymous com- 
mentator mentions 15° as the maximum distance (p. ὅδ], 
ed, Wolf). 

Ξ 113 


TO τοιοῦτον ἐάν TE σωματικῶς ἐάν TE καὶ κατά τινα 
τῶν παραδεδομένων σχηματισμῶν συμβαίνῃ, πλὴν 
ὅτι γε πρὸς μὲν τὰς 60 αὐτῶν τῶν σωμάτων 
συναφὰς καὶ ἀπορροίας καὶ τὰ πλάτη παρατηρεῖν 
αὐτῶν χρήσιμον εἰς τὸ μόνας τὰς ἐπὶ τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη 
τοῦ διὰ μέσων εὑρισκομένας παρόδους παραδέχεσ- 
θαι. πρὸς δὲ τὰς διὰ τῶν συσχηματισμῶν | περιττόν 
ἐστι τὸ τοιοῦτον, πασῶν ἀεὶ τῶν ἀκτίνων ἐπὶ ταὐτά, 
τουτέστιν ἐπὶ τὸ κέντρον τῆς γῆς, φερομένων καὶ 
ὁμοίως πανταχόθεν συμβαλλουσῶν. 

Ἔκ δὴ τούτων ἁπάντων εὐσύνοπτον ὅτι τὸ μὲν 
ποιὸν ἑκάστου τῶν ἀστέρων ἐπισκεπτέον ἔκ τε τῆς 
ἰδίας αὐτῶν φυσικῆς ἰδιοτροπίας καὶ ἔτι τῆς τῶν 
περιεχόντων δωδεκατημορίων, ἢ καὶ τῆς τῶν πρός 
τε τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὰς γωνίας σχηματισμῶν κατὰ 
τὸν ἐκτεθειμένον ἡμῖν περὶ πάντων τούτων τρόπον " 
τὴν δὲ δύναμιν πρῶτον μὲν ἐκ τοῦ ἤτοι ἀνατολικοὺς 
αὐτοὺς εἶναι καὶ προσθετικοὺς ταῖς ἰδίαις κινήσεσι, 

1 τὰς διὰ τῶν συσχηματισμῶν) τὸν γινόμενον σχηματισμὸν 


1 That is, when the planets themselves come to the same 
meridian, as opposed to the conjunction of one planet with 
the ray projected by another from the sextile, quartile, or 
trine aspect. 

? The ecliptic bisects the zodiac longitudinally. Planets, 

o “apply ’”’ in the “‘ bodily”? sense, must both be to the 
north, or the south, of it; that is, in the same latitude. 
Cf. the anonymous commentator (pp. 50-51, ed. Wolf). 

3 See the note on iii. 10 concerning the projection of rays 

(ἀκτινοβολία). To judge from the remarks of the anonymous 



a relation is taken to exist whether it happens by 
bodily conjunction ! or through one of the traditional 
aspects, except that with respect to the bodily ap- 
plications and separations of the heavenly bodies 
it is of use also to observe their latitudes, in order 
that only those passages may be accepted which are 
found to be on the same side of the ecliptic.2_ In 
the case of applications and separations by aspect, 
however, such a practice is superfluous, because all 
rays always fall and similarly converge from every 
direction upon the same point, that is, the centre of 
the earth.* 

From all this, then, it is easy to see that the quality 
of each of the stars must be examined with reference 
both to its own natural character and that also of the 
signs that include it, or likewise from the character of 
its aspects to the sun and the angles, in the manner 
which we have explained. Their power must be de- 
termined, in the first place, from the fact that they 
are either oriental and adding to their proper motion # 

commentator, the thought is that, while the rays of planets 
closely approaching each other but in different latitudes 
would miss each other, the rays of those in aspect in any 
case mingle at their common meeting-place, the centre of 
the earth. 

4 The theory of epicycles assigns to each planet at least 
one epicycle, on which it moves from west to east, while 
the centre of the epicycle likewise moves from west to east 
on the orbit, or deferent. Thus when the planet is in the 
outer semicircle of its epicycle (away from the earth) both 
motions will be in the same direction and the planet will 
be “ adding to its motion ’’ ; conversely on the inner semi- 
circle (toward the earth) the motion on the epicycle is in 
the opposite direction to that on the deferent and the 
apparent speed of the planet is diminished. 



΄ 4 ᾽ὔ ,ὔ > > / Ἅ 4 ‘ 
τότε yap μάλιστά εἰσιν ἰσχυροί: ἢ δυτικοὺς καὶ 
3 4 A 
ἀφαιρετικούς, τότε yap ἀσθενεστέραν ἔχουσι τὴν 
> uj >? ~ 
ἐνέργειαν * ἔπειτα Kal ἐκ τοῦ πως ἔχειν πρὸς TOV 
Ὁ A Ἃ > 
ὁρίζοντα, μεσουρανοῦντες μὲν yap ἢ ἐπιφερόμενοι 
τῷ μεσουρανήματι μάλιστά εἰσι δυναμικοί- δεύ- 
\@ rye] > ~ mee ψΨι > bal > 
τερον δὲ ὅταν ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῦ τοῦ ὁρίζοντος ὦσιν ἢ ἐπ- 
,ὕ \ ~ hid ? \ - 5 ~ 
αναφέρωνται, Kai μᾶλλον ὅταν ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀνατολικοῦ, 
e Cweet2 « \ ~ ~ Ἃ a” 
ἧττον δὲ ὅταν ὑπὸ γῆν μεσουρανῶσιν ἢ ἄλλως συ- 
/ A > / / A Ls \ 
σχηματίζωνται τῷ ἀνατέλλοντι τόπῳ * μὴ οὕτω δὲ 
, > 4 ~ 
ἔχοντες ἀδύναμοι παντελῶς τυγχάνουσιν. 

<a.> Προοίμιον 

Τὰ μὲν δὴ κυριώτερα τῶν πινακικῶς προεκτεθει- 
μένων νῦν εἰς τὴν τῶν κατὰ μέρος προρρήσεων 
ἐπίσκεψιν ὡς ἐν κεφαλαίοις μέχρι τοσούτων ἡμῖν 
ἐφοδευέσθω, συνάψωμεν δὲ ἤδη κατὰ τὸ ἑξῆς τῆς 
ἀκολουθίας τὰς καθ᾽ ἕκαστα τῶν εἰς τὸ δυνατὸν τῆς 
τοιαύτης προρρήσεως ἐμπιπτόντων πραγματείας, 
ἐχόμενοι πανταχῆ τῆς κατὰ τὸν φυσικὸν τρόπον 

Εἰς δύο τοίνυν τὰ μέγιστα καὶ κυριώτατα μέρη 
διαιρουμένου τοῦ δι᾿ ἀστρονομίας προγνωστικοῦ, 
καὶ πρώτου μὲν ὄντος καὶ γενικωτέρου τοῦ καθ᾽ 



—for then they are most powerful—or occidental and 
diminishing in speed, for then their energy is weaker. 
Second, it is to be determined from their position 
relative to the horizon ; for they are most powerful 
when they are in mid-heaven or approaching it, 
and second when they are exactly on the horizon 
or in the succedent place ;! their power is greater 
when they are in the orient, and less when they cul- 
minate beneath the earth or are in some other aspect 
to the orient ; if they bear no aspect 5 at all to the 
orient they are entirely powerless. 

1. Introduction. 

Let it be considered that thus far we have furnished 
in brief the most important details of the tabular 
exposition needful for the inquiry into particular 
prognostications. Let us now addin proper sequence 
the procedures for dealing in detail with those matters 
which lie within the limits of possibility of this kind 
of prognostication, holding everywhere to the natural 
method of exposition. 

Since, then, prognostication by astronomical means 
is divided into two great and principal parts, and 
since the first and more universal is that which 

‘That is, the space of 30° (‘* place,”’ or ‘ house ᾽᾽) im- 
mediately following, or rising next after, the horoscopic 
sign (cf. ili. 10, p. 273). This place is called the ἐπαναφορά of 
the horoscope. 

* That is, if they are disjunct (cf. ο. 16). 



540Aa ἔθνη Kal χώρας Kai πόλεις λαμβανομένου, 6 



καλεῖται καθολικόν, δευτέρου δὲ Kal εἰδικωτέρου 
τοῦ καθ᾽ ἕνα ἕκαστον τῶν ἀνθρώπων͵ ὃ καὶ αὐτὸ 
καλεῖται γενεθλιαλογικόν, προσήκειν ἡγούμεθα περὶ 
τοῦ καθολικοῦ πρῶτον ποιήσασθαι τὸν λόγον, ἐπει- 
δήπερ ταῦτα μὲν κατὰ μείζους καὶ ἰσχυροτέρας 
αἰτίας τρέπεσθαι πέφυκε μᾶλλον τῶν μερικῶς ἀπο- 
τελουμένων. ὑποπιπτουσῶν δὲ ἀεὶ τῶν ἀσθενεστέ- 
ρων φύσεων ταῖς δυνατωτέραις καὶ τῶν κατὰ μέρος 
ταῖς καθ᾽ ὅλου, παντάπασιν ἀναγκαῖον ἂν εἴη τοῖς 
προαιρουμένοις περὶ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου σκοπεῖν πολὺ πρό- 
τερον περὶ τῶν ὁλοσχερεστέρων περιειληφέναι. 

Καὶ αὐτῆς δὲ τῆς καθολικῆς ἐπισκέψεως τὸ μὲν 
πάλιν κατὰ χώρας ὅλας λαμβάνεται, τὸ δὲ κατὰ 
πόλεις. καὶ ἔτι τὸ μὲν κατὰ μείζους καὶ περι- 
οδικωτέρας περιστάσεις, οἷον πολέμων ἢ λιμῶν ἢ 
λοιμῶν ἢ σεισμῶν ἢ κατακλυσμῶν καὶ τῶν 
τοιούτων * τὸ δὲ κατὰ ἐλάττους καὶ καιρικωτέρας," 
οἷαί εἰσιν al τῶν ἐτησίων ὡρῶν καὶ κατὰ τὸ 
μᾶλλον καὶ ἧττον ἀλλοιώσεις, περί τε ἀνέσεις ἢ 
ἐπιτάσεις χειμώνων καὶ καυμάτων καὶ πνευμάτων 
εὐφορίας τε καὶ ἀφορίας καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα. προ- 
ἡγεῖται δὲ καὶ τούτων εἰκότως ἑκατέρου τό τεῦ 
κατὰ χώρας ὅλας καὶ τὸ κατὰ μείζους περι- 
στάσεις διὰ τὴν αὐτὴν αἰτίαν τῇ προειρημένῃ " 

1 τὸ δὲ κατὰ χώρας καὶ κατὰ πόλεις NCam.Proc.; κατὰ χώρας 
καὶ om. libri alii. 

27) λιμῶν ἢ λοιμῶν VMD; καὶ λοιμ. καὶ Ay. Proc. ; ἢ λοιμ. 
ἢ λιμ. A; ἢ λοιμ. ἢ λοιμ. E, 7 λοιμῶν PLNCam. 

8 καιρικωτέρας VAD, καιριωτέρας MEX, cf. Proc. ; μικροτέρας 



relates to whole races, countries, and cities, which 
is called general, and the second and more specific 
is that which relates to individual men, which is 
ealled genethlialogical, we believe it fitting to treat 
first of the general division, because such matters 
are naturally swayed by greater and more power- 
ful causes than are particular events. And since 
weaker natures always yield to the stronger, and 
the particular always falls under the general,! it 
would by all means be necessary for those who 
purpose an inquiry about a single individual long 
before to have comprehended the more general 

Of the general inquiry itself, a part, again, is 
found to concern whole countries, and a part to 
concern cities;* and further, a part deals with the 
greater and more periodic conditions, such as wars, 
famines, pestilences, earthquakes, deluges, and the 
like; and another with the lesser and more oc- 
casional, as for example the changes in temperature ® 
in the seasons of the year, and the variations of the 
intensity of storms, heat, and winds, or of good 
and bad crops, and so on. But in each of these 
cases, as is reasonable, procedure by entire countries 
and by more important conditions is preferred, for the 
same reason as before. And since in the examination 

1 Of. i. 3. 

?Or, as the variant reading has it, “‘to concern both 

countries and cities.’’ See the er. n. 
3 Literally, “‘ variations of more and less.”’ 

47 εὐφορίας PLMNAECam, ἢ om. VD. 
5 σκοπεῖν ἢ τὸ λαμβάνεσθαι add. post τό re Cam.*, om. libri 



πρὸς δὲ τὴν τούτων ἐπίσκεψιν μάλιστα παρα- 
λαμβανομένων δύο τούτων, τῆς τε τῶν δωδεκατη- 
μορίων τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ καὶ ἔτι τῆς τῶν ἀστέρων 
πρὸς ἕκαστα τῶν κλιμάτων συνοικειώσεως καὶ τῶν 
ἐν τοῖς οἰκείοις μέρεσι κατὰ καιροὺς γινομένων 
ἐπισημασιῶν, κατὰ μὲν τὰς συζυγίας ἡλίου καὶ 
σελήνης τῶν ἐκλειπτικῶν, κατὰ δὲ τὰς τῶν πλανω- 
μένων παρόδους τῶν περὶ τὰς ἀνατολὰς καὶ τοὺς 
στηριγμούς, προεκθησόμεθα τὸν τῶν εἰρημένων 
συμπαθειῶν φυσικὸν λόγον, ἅμα παριστάντες ἐξ 
ἐπιδρομῆς ' καὶ τὰς καθ᾽ ὅλα ἔθνη θεωρουμένας ὡς 
ἐπὶ πᾶν σωματικάς τε καὶ ἠθικὰς ἰδιοτροπίας, οὐκ 
ἀλλοτρίας τυγχανούσας τῆς τῶν συνοικειουμένων 
ἀστέρων τε καὶ δωδεκατημορίων φυσικῆς περιστά- 

<B.>» ITepi tv cal ora KrAipata? 

Τῶν τοίνυν ἐθνικῶν ἰδιωμάτων τὰ μὲν καθ᾽ 
ὅλους παραλλήλους καὶ γωνίας ὅλας διαιρεῖσθαι 
/ « A ~ \ \ \ / ~ / 
συμβέβηκε ὑπὸ τῆς πρὸς τὸν διὰ μέσων τῶν ζῳδίων 
κύκλον καὶ τὸν ἥλιον αὐτῶν σχέσεως. τῆς γὰρ 
καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς οἰκουμένης ἐν ἑνὶ τῶν βορείων τεταρ- 
τημορίων οὔσης, οἱ μὲν ὑπὸ τοὺς νοτιωτέρους 
/ / \ Ἁ > \ ~ > ~ 
παραλλήλους, λέγω δὲ τοὺς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἰσημερινοῦ 
1 ἐπιδρομῆς VPLNDE, ὑποδρομῆς MA, περιδρομῆς Cam. 
2 κλίματα VPLMADProce., ἔθνη NCam.; tit. om. E. 


of these questions these two things particularly 
are taken into consideration, the familiarity of the 
signs of the zodiac and also of the stars with the 
several climes,’ and the significances of heavenly 
bodies in their own proper regions 2 at a given time, 
manifested through the ecliptical conjunctions of 
the sun and moon and the transits 3 of the planets 
at rising and at their stationary periods, we shall 
first explain the natural reason for the aforesaid 
sympathies, and at the same time briefly survey the 
bodily and ethical peculiarities generally observed 
to belong to whole nations, which are not alien to 
the natural character of the stars and signs that are 
familiar to them. 

2. Of the Characteristics of the Inhabitants of the 
General Climes. 

The demarcation of national characteristics 5. is 
established in part by entire parallels and angles,° 
through their position relative to the ecliptic and 
the sun. For while the region which we inhabit is in 
one of the northern quarters, the people who live 
under the more southern parallels, that is, those 

1 Latitudes, or general regions determined by latitude. 

2 Such as houses (i. 17) or terms (i. 20-21). 

5 πάροδοι ; the passage of a heavenly body through the 

4 In the astrological ethnography which follows Ptolemy 
probably depends upon the Stoic Posidonius. Boll, 
Studien, pp. 181-238, enumerates many details in which, 
for this reason, Ptolemy here diverges from views expressed 
in the Geography. 

5“ Parallels’’ relate to latitude, 7.e. position north or 
south; “angles’’ to position east or west. 



μέχρι τοῦ θερινοῦ τροπικοῦ, κατὰ κορυφὴν Aap- 
56 βανόντες τὸν ἥλιον καὶ διακαιόμενοι, μέλανες τὰ 
σώματα καὶ τὰς τρίχας οὖλοί τε καὶ δασεῖς καὶ 
τὰς μορφὰς συνεσπασμένοι καὶ τὰ μεγέθη συν- 
τετηγμένοι καὶ τὰς φύσεις θερμοὶ καὶ τοῖς ἤθεσιν 
ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν ἄγριοι τυγχάνουσι διὰ τὴν ὑπὸ καύματος 
συνέχειαν τῶν οἰκήσεων, οὗς δὴ καλοῦμεν κοινῶς } 
Αἰθίοπας. καὶ οὐ μόνον αὐτοὺς ὁρῶμεν οὕτως 
ἔχοντας ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ περιέχον αὐτοὺς τοῦ ἀέρος 
κατάστημα καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ζῷα καὶ τὰ φυτὰ παρ᾽ 
αὐτοῖς ἐμφανίζοντα τὴν διαπύρωσιν.5 

Οἱ δὲ ὑπὸ τοὺς βορειοτέρους παραλλήλους, λέγω 
δὲ τοὺς ὑπὸ τὰς ἄρκτους τὸν κατὰ κορυφὴν ἔχοντες 
τόπον, πολὺ τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ καὶ τῆς τοῦ ἡλίου θερ- 
μότητος ἀφεστῶτες, κατεψυγμένοι μέν εἰσι διὰ 
τοῦτο, δαψιλεστέρας δὲ μεταλαμβάνοντες τῆς 
ὑγρᾶς οὐσίας, θρεπτικωτάτης οὔσης καὶ ὑπὸ μηδενὸς 
ἀναπινομένης "θερμοῦ, λευκοί τε τὰ χρώματά εἰσι 
καὶ τετανοὶ τὰς τρίχας τά τε σώματα μεγάλοι καὶ 
εὐτραφεῖς τοῖς μεγέθεσι καὶ ὑπόψυχροι τὰς φύσεις, 
ἄγριοι δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ τοῖς ἤθεσι διὰ τὴν ὑπὸ τοῦ 
κρύους συνέχειαν τῶν οἰκήσεων. ἀκολουθεῖ δὲ 
τούτοις καὶ ὁ τοῦ περιέχοντος αὐτοὺς ἀέρος χειμὼν 
καὶ τῶν φυτῶν τὰ μεγέθη καὶ τὸ δυσήμερον τῶν 
ζῴων. καλοῦμεν δὲ καὶ τούτους ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν Σκύθας. 

Oi δὲ μεταξὺ τοῦ θερινοῦ τροπικοῦ καὶ τῶν 
ἄρκτων, μήτε κατὰ κορυφὴν γινομένου παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς 

1 κοιῶς VMADEProc., om. alii Cam. 

2 διαπύρωσιν VDP(-mp-)L(-mov-), τὸ διάπυρον Proc., διάθεσιν 



from the equator to the summer tropic, since they 
have the sun over their heads and are burned by it, 
have black skins and thick, woolly hair, are con- 
tracted in form and shrunken in stature, are sanguine 
of nature, and in habits are for the most part savage 
because their homes are continually oppressed by 
heat ; we call them by the general name Ethiopians. 
Not only do we see them in this condition, but we 
likewise observe that their climate and the animals 
and plants of their region plainly give evidence of 
this baking by the sun. 

Those who live under the more northern parallels, 
those, I mean, who have the Bears over their heads, 
since they are far removed from the zodiac and the 
heat of the sun, are therefore cooled; but because 
they have a richer share of moisture, which is most 
nourishing and is not there exhausted by heat, 
they are white in complexion, straight-haired, tall and 
well-nourished, and somewhat cold by nature; these 
too are savage in their habits because their dwelling- 
places are continually cold. The wintry character 
of their climate, the size of their plants, and the 
wildness of their animals are in accord with these 
qualities. We call these men, too, by a general 
name, Scythians. 

The inhabitants of the region between the summer 
tropic and the Bears, however, since the sun is 

3 ἀφεστῶτες VD, -τα A, διεστηκότες NLCam., διεστηκῶτες P, 
-κότα ME; οἷ. ἀπέχει Proc. 
4 δαψιλεστέρας VMDE, -pws LNACam., δαψηλέσταιρος. 


δ] τοῦ ἡλίου μήτε πολὺ κατὰ Tas μεσημβρινὰς παρ- 
ὅδους ἀφισταμένου, τῆς τε τῶν ἀέρων εὐκρασίας 
μετειλήφασι, καὶ αὐτῆς μὲν διαφερούσης ἀλλ᾽ οὐ 
σφόδρα μεγάλην τὴν παραλλαγὴν τῶν καυμάτων 
πρὸς τὰ ψύχη λαμβανούσης. ἔνθεν τοῖς χρώμασι 
μέσοι καὶ τοῖς μεγέθεσι μέτριοι καὶ ταῖς φύσεσιν 
εὔκρατοι καὶ ταῖς οἰκήσεσι συνεχεῖς καὶ τοῖς ἤθεσιν 
ἥμεροι τυγχάνουσι. τούτων δὲ οὗ πρὸς νότον ὡς 
ἐπὶ πᾶν ἀγχινούστεροι καὶ εὐμήχανοι μᾶλλον καὶ 
περὶ τὴν τῶν θείων ἱστορίαν ἱκανώτεροι διὰ τὸ 
συνεγγίζειν αὐτῶν τὸν κατὰ κορυφὴν τόπον τοῦ 
ζωδιακοῦ καὶ τῶν περὶ αὐτὸν πλανωμένων ἀστέρων," 
οἷς οἰκείως καὶ αὐτοὶ τὰς ψυχικὰς κινήσεις εὐεπη- 
βόλους 2 τε ἔχουσι καὶ διερευνητικὰς καὶ τῶν ἰδίως 
καλουμένων μαθημάτων περιοδευτικάς. καὶ τούτων 
δὲ πάλιν οἱ μὲν πρὸς ἕω μᾶλλόν εἰσιν ἠρρενωμένοι καὶ 
εὔτονοι τὰς ψυχὰς ὃ καὶ πάντα ἐκφαίνοντες, ἐπειδὴ 
τὰς ἀνατολὰς av τις εἰκότως τῆς ἡλιακῆς φύσεως 
ὑπολάβοι" καὶ τὸ μέρος ἐκεῖνο ἡμερινόν τε καὶ 
ἀρρενικὸν καὶ δεξιόν, καθ᾽ ὃ κἀν τοῖς ζῴοις ὁρῶμεν 
τὰ δεξιὰ μέρη μᾶλλον ἐπιτηδειότητα ἔχοντα πρὸς 
ἰσχὺν καὶ εὐτονίαν. οἱ δὲ πρὸς ἑσπέραν τεθηλυσ- 
μένοι μᾶλλόν εἰσι καὶ τὰς ψυχὰς ἁπαλώτεροι καὶ 
τὰ πολλὰ κρύπτοντες, ἐπειδὴ πάλιν τοῦτο τὸ μέρος 

δδ σεληνιακὸν τυγχάνει, πάντοτε τῆς σελήνης τὰς 

17 ζωδιακῷ καὶ τοῖς πλανωμένοις περὶ αὐτὸν ἀστράσιν NCam, 
2 εὐεπιβούλους VPLD. 

ὃ ταῖς ψυχαῖς PLNCam. 
4 διὰ τοῦτο post ὑπολάβοι add. NACam. 



neither directly over their heads nor far distant at 
its noon-day transits, share in the equable tem- 
perature of the air, which varies, to be sure, but has 
no violent changes from heat to cold. They are 
therefore medium in colouring, of moderate stature, 
in nature equable, live close together, and are 
civilized in their habits. The southernmost of them! 
are in general more shrewd and inventive, and better 
versed in the knowledge of things divine because 
their zenith is close to the zodiac and to the planets 
revolving about it. Through this affinity the men 
themselves are characterized by an activity of the soul 
which is sagacious, investigative, and fitted for pursu- 
ing the sciences specifically called mathematical. Of 
them, again, the eastern group are more masculine, 
vigorous of soul, and frank in all things,” because one 
would reasonably assume that the orient partakes 
of the nature of the sun.? This region therefore 
is diurnal, masculine, and right-handed, even as 
we observe that among the animals too their 
right-hand parts are better fitted for strength and 
vigour. Those to the west are more feminine, 
softer of soul, and secretive, because this region, 
again, is lunar, for it is always in the west that the 

'The anonymous commentator (p. ὅθ, ed. Wolf) says 
that he means the Egyptians and the Chaldaeans, and is 
referring to the fact that they discovered astrology. 

This phrase (πάντα ἐκφαίνοντες) is contrasted with ra 
πολλὰ κρύπτοντες, below. The anonymous commentator 
says that some understood it to refer to the freedom of 
speech of the eastern group; others, to their gift of 
felicitous expression. 

80. i. 6; not only the sun, but also the oriental 
quadrant, is masculine. 


/ > r \ \ 1 3 \ "ὃ , > ‘ 
πρώτας ἐπιτολὰς Kal! ἀπὸ συνόδου φαντασίας ἀπὸ 
A ~ a 
λιβὸς ποιουμένης. διὰ δὴ τοῦτο νυκτερινὸν δοκεῖ 
/ \ 2 \ o) ae, > / ~ 
κλίμα θηλυκὸν 5 καὶ εὐώνυμον ἀντικειμένως τῷ 
Μ , \ > ε i) ΄ ~ Ὁ 
δὴ δέ τινες καὶ ἐν ἑκάστοις τούτοις τῶν ὅλων 
μερῶν 8 ἰδιότροποι περιστάσεις ἠθῶν καὶ νομίμων 
φυσικῶς ἐξηκολούθησαν. ὥσπερ γὰρ ἐπὶ τῶν τοῦ 
/ A “- 
περιέχοντος καταστημάτων καὶ ἐν τοῖς 4 ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν 
aA ” a Ἅ ΄ὔ 
κατειλεγμένοις θερμοῖς ἢ ψυχροῖς ἢ εὐκράτοις καὶ 
/ ~ ~ 
κατὰ μέρος ἰδιάζουσι τόποι καὶ χῶραί τινες ἐν τῷ 
“΄“" Ἃ Ἐν » A 0 /, 4é n” “ a 
μᾶλλον ἢ ἧττον ἤτοι διὰ θέσεως τάξιν ἢ ὕψος ἢ 
ταπεινότητα ἢ διὰ παράθεσιν : ἔτι δὲ ὡς ἱππικοί 
τινες μᾶλλον διὰ τὸ τῆς χώρας πεδινόν, καὶ ναυτικοὶ 
~ \ 
διὰ τὴν τῆς θαλάττης ἐγγύτητα, καὶ ἥμεροι διὰ τὴν 
τῆς χώρας εὐθηνίαν, οὕτω καὶ ἐκ τῆς πρὸς τοὺς 
ἀστέρας κατὰ τὰ δωδεκατημόρια φυσικῆς τῶν κατὰ 
μέρος κλιμάτων ὃ συνοικειώσεως ἰδιοτρόπους ἄν τις 
τ 3 lol 
εὕροι φύσεις Tap ἑκάστοις, καὶ αὐτὰς δὲ ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν 
οὐχ ὡς καὶ καθ᾽ ἕνα ἕκαστον πάντως ἐνυπαρχούσας. 
A > re ie) 
ἀναγκαῖον οὖν ἐφ᾽ ὧν ἂν εἴη χρήσιμον πρὸς τὰς 
A / b ,ὔ Ἃ ὃ ~ 9) AO ~ 6 
κατὰ μέρος ἐπισκέψεις κεφαλαιωδῶς ἐπελθεῖν. 

1 καὶ om. NAECam. 

2 κλίμα θηλυκὸν om. Cam. 

ὃ ὅλων μερῶν VMADHE, δώδεκα μερῶν PL, δωδεκατημορίων 

4 τοῖς VD, αὐτοῖς PMNAECam., om. L. 

5 κλιμάτων VLMADE, λημμάτων PNCam. 

ὃ Post ἐπελθεῖν capitis titulum habent VMADProc. 



moon emerges and makes its appearance after con- 
junction. For this reason it appears to be a nocturnal 
clime, feminine, and, in contrast with the orient, left- 

And now in each of these general regions certain 
special conditions of character and customs! natur- 
ally ensue. For as likewise, in the case of the 
climate, even within the regions that in general are 
reckoned as hot, cold, or temperate, certain localities 
and countries have special peculiarities of excess or 
deficiency by reason of their situation, height, low- 
ness, or adjacency ; and again, as some peoples are 
more inclined to horsemanship because theirs is a 
plain country, or to seamanship because they live 
close to the sea, or to civilization because of the 
richness of their soil, so also would one discover special 
traits in each arising from the natural familiarity 
of their particular climes with the stars in the signs 
of the zodiac. These traits, too, would be found 
generally present, but not in every individual. We 
must, then, deal with the subject summarily, in so far 
as it might be of use for the purpose of particular 

11... variations from the norma! or general char- 
acteristics of the whole region. 


iF \ ~ ~ ~ ‘ \ [4 
<y.> Περὶ ΤῊ" τῶν χώρων TPOS TA TPt- 
ywva καὶ τοὺς ἀστέρας συνοικειώσεως 

Τεττάρων δὴ τριγωνικῶν σχημάτων ἐν τῷ 
59 ζωδιακῷ θεωρουμένων, ὡς δέδεικται διὰ τῶν ἔμ- 
[2 - [2 ‘ Ν \ ‘ \ / 
προσθεν ἡμῖν, ὅτι TO μὲν κατὰ Κριὸν καὶ Λέοντα 
\ f /, 7 > \ > 
καὶ Τοξότην βορρολυβυκόν τέ ἐστι καὶ οἰκοδεσπο- 
τεῖται μὲν προηγουμένως ὑπὸ τοῦ τοῦ Διὸς διὰ 
τὸ βόρειον, συνοικοδεσποτεῖται δὲ καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ 
Ἄρεως διὰ τὸ λιβυκόν: τὸ δὲ κατὰ τὸν Ταῦρον 
\ ‘\ , \ \ > , 
καὶ τὴν Παρθένον καὶ τὸν Αἰγόκερων νοταπηλι- 
ωὠτικόν τέ ἐστι καὶ οἰκοδεσποτεῖται πάλιν προ- 
’ὔ \ ΙΘ. ‘ ~ ~ > / ‘A A / 
ηγουμένως μὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης διὰ TO νότιον, 
συνοικοδεσποτεῖται δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ Κρόνου διὰ τὸ 
5 / ‘ A ‘A \ / \ ἡ 
ἀπηλιωτικόν " τὸ δὲ κατὰ τοὺς Διδύμους καὶ τὰς 
\ ‘ 4 “VS ,ὔ λ ’, ᾽ὔ 
Χηλὰς καὶ τὸν ροχόον βορραπηλιωτικόν τέ 
ἐστι καὶ οἰκοδεσποτεῖται προηγουμένως μὲν ὑπὸ 
τοῦ Κρόνου διὰ τὸ ἀπηλιωτικόν, συνοικοδεσποτεῖται 
\ ε \ ~ A ‘A ‘ ’ A \ ‘A εὖ 
δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ Διὸς διὰ τὸ βόρειον τὸ δὲ κατὰ τὸν 
Καρκίνον καὶ τὸν Σκορπίον καὶ τοὺς ἰχθῦς νοτο- 
λιβυκόν τέ ἐστι καὶ οἰκοδεσποτεῖται προηγουμένως 
μὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ τοῦ "Apews διὰ τὸ λιβυκόν, συνοικο- 
- \ ¢ ‘ ~ ~ > /, A ‘ 
δεσποτεῖται δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ τῆς Adpoditns διὰ τὸ 
4 A a > ; , ~ 
Τούτων δὲ οὕτως ἐχόντων διαιρουμένης τε τῆς 
καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς οἰκουμένης εἰς τέτταρα τεταρτημόρια, 
τοῖς τριγώνοις ἰσάριθμα, κατὰ μὲν πλάτος ὑπό τε 
~ > « ~ / > | ~ € / 
τῆς Kal? ἡμᾶς θαλάττης ἀπὸ τοῦ ᾿Ηρακλείου 
~ a? ~ - ~ 
πορθμοῦ μέχρι τοῦ ᾿Ϊσσικοῦ κόλπου Kai τῆς ἐφεξῆς 


3. Of the Familiarities between Countries and the 
Triplicities and Stars. 

Now of the four triangular formations recognized 
in the zodiac, as we have shown above,! the one which 
consists of Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius is north- 
western, and is chiefly dominated by Jupiter on 
account of the north wind, but Mars joins in its 
government because of the south-west wind. That 
which is made up of Taurus, Virgo, and Capricornus 
is south-eastern, and again is governed primarily 
by Venus on account of the south wind, but con- 
jointly by Saturn because of the east wind. The 
one consisting of Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius is 
north-eastern and is governed primarily by Saturn 
because of the east wind, and conjointly by Jupiter 
because of the north wind. The triangle of Cancer, 
Scorpio, and Pisces is south-western and is governed 
primarily, because of the west wind, by Mars, who is 
joined by Venus as co-ruler on account of the south 

As this is so, and since our inhabited world is 
divided into four quarters,” equal in number to the 
triangles, and is divided latitudinally by our sea 
from the Straits of Hercules * to the Gulf of Issus 
and the mountainous ridge adjacent on the east,' 

1 Of. i. 18. 

2Cardanus, p. 181, diagrammatically figures the ‘“ in- 
habited world’”’ as a trapezium, narrower at the top 
(north) than the bottom, and bounded by arcs; this is 
divided into quadrants by north-south and east-west lines. 
The ‘‘ parts closer to the centre’ are then marked off by 
lines joining the ends of the two latter, dividing each quad- 

rant and producing 4 right-angled triangles at the centre. 
3 Straits of Gibraltar. 4 Probably the Taurus range. 



A > r \ > ~ eZ 1 4ι. 4.9 Lal / 
πρὸς ἀνατολὰς ὀρεινῆς ῥάχεως, ὑφ᾽ ὧν χωρίζεται 
τό τε νότιον καὶ τὸ βόρειον αὐτῆς μέρος, κατὰ δὲ 
μῆκος ὑπὸ τοῦ Αραβικοῦ κόλπου, διὰ καὶ τοῦ 

> ~ 
60 Aliyaiov πελάγους καὶ Πόντου καὶ τῆς Μαιώτιδος 
, ΝΣ 
λίμνης, ὑφ᾽ ὧν χωρίζεται τό τε ἀπηλιωτικὸν καὶ 
τὸ λιβυκὸν μέρος, γίνεται τεταρτημόρια τέτταρα, 
σύμφωνα τῇ θέσει τῶν τριγώνων. ἕν μὲν πρὸς 
βορρολίβα 3 τῆς ὅλης οἰκουμένης κείμενον, τὸ κατὰ 
\ / a“ A ~ > / ~ 
τὴν Κελτογαλατίαν, 6 δὴ κοινῶς Εὐρώπην καλοῦμεν - 
τούτῳ δὲ ἀντικείμενον καὶ πρὸς τὸν νοταπηλιώτην 
‘ A \ wit. He} / “a \ ~ / 
TO κατὰ τὴν EWaV Αἱ ιοπιαν, O δὴ Τῆς μεγάλης 
“A U / / Ἃ - \ / \ \ 
σίας νότιον μέρος av καλοῖτο - καὶ πάλιν τὸ μὲν 
πρὸς βορραπηλιώτην τῆς ὅλης οἰκουμένης τὸ κατὰ 
τὴν Σκυθίαν, ὃ δὴ καὶ αὐτὸ βόρειον μέρος τῆς με- 
γάλης ᾿Ασίας γίνεται: τὸ δὲ ἀντικείμενον τούτῳ 
καὶ πρὸς λιβόνοτον ἄνεμον τὸ κατὰ τὴν ἑσπερίαν 
> / “a ΝΜ ~ Λ ~ 
Αἰθιοπίαν, ὃ δὴ κοινῶς Λιβύην καλοῦμεν. 

ΠΙάλιν δὲ καὶ ἑκάστου τῶν προκειμένων τεταρτη- 
μορίων τὰ μὲν πρὸς τὸ μέσον μᾶλλον ἐσχηματισ- 
μένα τῆς ὅλης οἰκουμένης τὴν ἐναντίαν λαμβάνει 
θέσιν 3 πρὸς αὐτὸτὸ περιέχον τεταρτημορίον, ὥσπερ 4 
ἐκεῖνο πρὸς ὅλην τὴν οἰκουμένην, τοῦ τε κατὰ τὴν 
Εὐρώπην πρὸς βορρολίβα κειμένου τῆς ὅλης οἰκου- 
μένης τὰ περὶ τὸ μέσον αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀντιγώνια πρὸς 
νοταπηλιώτην τοῦ αὐτοῦ τεταρτημορίου τὴν θέσιν 
ἔχοντα φαίνεται. καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὁμοίως, ὡς 

1 ῥάχεως VMADE, ῥαχείας NCam., ῥαχαίας PL. 

2 Boppav καὶ λίβα NMECam. 

3 θέσιν VMADE, φύσιν PNCam., om. L. 

4 ὥσπερ VD, ἤπερ NCam., ἥνπερ PLMAE. ΟἿ. Proc.: ἐναν- 

τίως κεῖται πρὸς . . . . καθ᾽ ὥσπερ ἐκεῖνο. . . κεῖται κτλ. 



and by these its southern and northern portions are 
separated, and in longitude by the Arabian Gulf, the 
Aegean Sea, the Pontus,’ and the Lake Maeotis, 
whereby the eastern and western portions are 
separated, there arise four quarters, and these agree 
in position with the triangles. The first quarter lies 
in the north-west of the whole inhabited world ; it 
embraces Celtic Gaul? and we give it the general 
name Europe. Opposite this is the south-eastern 
quarter ; this includes eastern Ethiopia,® which would 
be called the southern part of Greater Asia. Again, 
the north-eastern quarter of the whole inhabited 
world is that which contains Scythia, which like- 
wise is the northern part of Greater Asia; and the 
quarter opposite this and toward the south-west 
wind, the quarter of western Ethiopia, is that which 
we call by the general term Libya. 

Again, of each of the aforesaid quarters the 
parts which are placed closer to the centre of the 
inhabited world are placed in a contrary fashion 
with respect to the surrounding quarters, just as are 
the latter in comparison with the whole world ; 
and since the European quarter lies in the north- 
west of the whole world, the parts about the centre, 
which are allied to the opposite angle, obviously are 
situated in the south-east part of the quarter. The 

1 The Pontus Euxinus, or Black Sea. The Lake Maeotis 
is the Sea of Azov. 

2 As opposed to Galatia in Asia Minor. 

3 The designation of India as “ Eastern Ethopia’’ is 
at variance with Ptolemy’s Geography, and a mark of the 
influence of Posidonius (Boll, Studien, pp. 211-212). The 
distinetion of two Ethiopias rests on the well-known 
Homeric passage, Odyssey, i. 22-24. 



ἐκ τούτων ἕκαστον τῶν τεταρτημορίων δυσὶ τοῖς 
ἀντικειμένοις τριγώνοις συνοικειοῦσθαι: τῶν μὲν 
ἄλλων μερῶν πρὸς τὴν καθ᾽ ὅλου πρόσνευσιν ἐφ- 
αρμοζομένων, τῶν δὲ περὶ τὸ μέσον πρὸς τὴν κατ᾽ 
αὐτὸ τὸ μέρος ἀντικειμένην συμπαραλαμβανομένων 
πρὸς τὴν οἰκείωσιν, καὶ τῶν ἐν τοῖς οἰκείοις 
τριγώνοις τὴν nin eee ἐχόντων ἀστέρων, ἐπὶ 
μὲν τῶν ἄλλων οἰκήσεων πάλιν αὐτῶν μόνων,' ἐπὶ 
δὲ τῶν περὶ τὸ μέσον τῆς οἰκουμένης κἀκείνων καὶ 
ἔτι τοῦ τοῦ “μοῦ διὰ τὸ μέσον καὶ κοινὸν αὐτὸν 
ὑπάρχειν τῶν αἱρέσεων. 

Ἔκ δὴ τῆς 5 τοιαύτης διατάξεως τὰ μὲν ἄλλα μέρη 
τοῦ πρώτου τῶν τεταρτημορίων, λέγω δὲ τοῦ κατὰ 
τὴν Εὐρώπην, πρὸς βορρολίβα κείμενα τῆς ὅλης 3 
οἰκουμένης, συνοικειοῦται μὲν τῷ βορρολιβυκῷ τρι- 
γώνῳ τῷ κατὰ τὸν Κριὸν καὶ A€ovta καὶ Τοξότην, 
οἰκοδεσποτεῖται δὲ εἰκότως ὑπὸ τῶν κυρίων τοῦ 
τριγώνου Διὸς καὶ Ἄρεως ἑσπερίων. ἔστι δὲ ταῦτα 
καθ᾽ ὅλα ἔθνη λαμβανόμενα Βρεττανία, Γαλατία, 
Γερμανία, Βασταρνία, ᾿Ιταλία, Γαλλία, ᾿Απουλία, 

1 μόνων VPLNE, -ov MADCam. 

2 ἐκ δὴ τῆς κτλ. VPLMADE;; cf. Proc.; ἐν δὲ τῇ κτλ. NCam. 
8 ὅλης VMADEProce. ; om. PLNCam. 

1Cardanus (p. 182) gives four reasons why Mercury 
governs these central portions; that he may have some 
dominion in the world; because the inhabitants of the 
central regions are more given to the arts and sciences, 
of which Mercury is the patron ; because they are addicted 
to commerce, likewise in Mercury’s field; and because 
Mercury’s nature lies midway between those of the other 
four planets. 

2 That Jupiter and Mars must be in the occidental 



same holds of the other quarters, so that each of 
them is related to two oppositely situated triangles ; 
for while the other parts are in harmony with the 
general inclination of the quarter, the portions at 
the centre [of the world] share in familiarity with 
the opposite inclination, and, again, of the stars that 
govern in their own triangles, in all the other 
domiciles they alone govern, but in the parts about 
the centre of the world likewise the other group, and 
Mercury besides,! because he is mid-way between 
and common to the two sects. 

Under this arrangement, the remainder of the 
first quarter, by which I mean the European quarter, 
situated in the north-west of the inhabited world, 
is in familiarity with the north-western triangle, 
Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, and is governed, as one 
would expect, by the lords of the triangle, Jupiter 
and Mars, occidental.2 In terms of whole nations 
these parts consist of Britain, (Transalpine) Gaul, 
Germany, Bastarnia,’ Italy, (Cisalpine) Gaul, Apulia, 

position is an additional requirement which does not ap- 
pear in the original statement of the government of the 
triangles. Cardanus, p. 182, points out that in Ptolemy’s 
scheme Jupiter governs the whole north, Venus the south, 
Saturn the east, and Mars the west, but in the first quad- 
rant Mars and Jupiter dominate non simpliciter, sed occt- 
dentales, in the second, Saturn and Venus, not absolutely, 
but in oriental aspects, and so on. This, he says, is to 
display the variety of the customs of the nations, for a 
planet in oriental aspect is so different from the same planet 
occidental that practically it is two planets instead of one. 
8 The south-western part of Russia and southern Poland. 
Boll, op. cit., p. 197, n. 2, points out that Hephaestion, 
who follows Ptolemy closely, and Proclus do not mention 
Bastarnia, and that the name may not have been in 

Ptolemy’s original text. 


Σικελία, Tuppnvia, Κελτική, ‘Iomavia. εἰκότως 
δὲ τοῖς προκειμένοις ἔθνεσιν ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν συνέπεσε, 
διά τε τὸ ἀρχικὸν τοῦ τριγώνου καὶ τοὺς συνοικο- 
δεσποτήσαντας ἀστέρας, ἀνυποτάκτοις 5 τε εἶναι καὶ 
φιλελευθέροις καὶ φιλόπλοις καὶ φιλοπόνοις καὶ 
πολεμικωτάτοις καὶ ἡγεμονικοῖς καὶ καθαροῖς καὶ 
μεγαλοψύχοις - διὰ μέντοι τὸν ἑσπέριον σχηματισ- 
μὸν Atos καὶ Ἄρεως, καὶ ἔτι διὰ τὸ τοῦ προκειμένου 
S2Tprywvov τὰ μὲν ἐμπρόσθια ἠρρενῶσθαι, τὰ δὲ 
ὀπίσθια τεθηλύσθαι, πρὸς μὲν τὰς γυναῖκας ἀζήλοις 
αὐτοῖς εἶναι συνέπεσε ἃ καὶ καταφρονητικοῖς τῶν 
ἀφροδισίων, πρὸς δὲ τὴν τῶν ἀρρένων συνουσίαν 
κατακορεστέροις τε καὶ μᾶλλον ζηλοτύποις " αὐτοῖς 
δὲ τοῖς διατιθεμένοις μήτε αἰσχρὸν ἡγεῖσθαι τὸ 
γινόμενον μήτε ὡς ἀληθῶς ἀνάνδροις διὰ τοῦτο καὶ 
μαλακοῖς ἀποβαίνειν, ἕνεκεν τοῦ μὴ παθητικῶς 
διατίθεσθαι, συντηρεῖν δὲ τὰς ψυχὰς ἐπάνδρους καὶ 
κοινωνικὰς καὶ πιστὰς καὶ φιλοικείους καὶ εὐεργε- 
τικάς. καὶ τούτων δὲ αὐτῶν τῶν χωρῶν Βρεττανία 
μὲν καὶ Γαλατία καὶ Γερμανία καὶ Βασταρνία 
μᾶλλον τῷ Kpid συνοικειοῦνται καὶ τῷ τοῦ 
Ἄρεως. ὅθεν ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν οἱ ἐν αὐταῖς ἀγριώτεροι 
καὶ αὐθαδέστεροι καὶ θηριώδεις τυγχάνουσιν. 
᾿Ιταλία δὲ καὶ ᾿Απουλία, Γαλλία καὶ Σικελία τῷ 
Λέοντι καὶ τῷ ἡλίῳ διόπερ ἡγεμονικοὶ μᾶλλον 
1 συνέπεσε VADE, συνέπεται alii Cam. 

2 ἀνυποτάκτοις κτλ. VMADE, -ovs PLN Cam. 
8 συνέπεσε(ν) VADE, συνέπεται PLN, om. MCam. 

1 Tuscany. 
2 Probably western Spain (Boll, op. cit., p. 205). 



Sicily, Tyrrhenia,! Celtica,2 and Spain. As one 
might expect, it is the general characteristic of 
these nations, by reason of the predominance 
of the triangle and the stars which join in its 
government, to be independent, liberty-loving, fond 
of arms, industrious, very warlike, with qualities of 
leadership, cleanly, and magnanimous. However, 
because of the occidental aspect of Jupiter and 
Mars, and furthermore because the first parts of the 
aforesaid triangle are masculine and the latter parts 
feminine,® they are without passion for women‘ and 
look down upon the pleasures of love, but are better 
satisfied with and more desirous of association with 
men. And they do not regard the act as a disgrace to 
the paramour, nor indeed do they actually become 
effeminate and soft thereby, because their disposition 
is not perverted, but they retain in their souls man- 
liness, helpfulness, good faith, love of kinsmen, and 
benevolence. Of these same countries Britain, 
(Transalpine) Gaul, Germany, and Bastarnia are in 
closer familiarity with Aries and Mars. Therefore for 
the most part their inhabitants are fiercer, more head- 
strong, and bestial. But Italy, Apulia, (Cisalpine) 
Gaul, and Sicily have their familiarity with Leo and the 

Γαλατία is used to designate Gaul proper, between the 
Rhine and the Pyrenees, and Γαλλία for northern Italy. 

§ All the signs of this triangle are masculine ; ef. i. 17. 
Perhaps Ptolemy merely means that when Aries is rising 
Sagittarius will be occidental and therefore feminine ; 
so Ashmand. 

‘This preference of the northern barbarians is charged 
against them by Aristotle and following him by Posidonius, 
Diodorus, Strabo, Athenaeus, Sextus Empiricus and others ; 
ef. the instances collected by Bouché-Leclercq, p. 340, n. 2, 
and the discussion in Boll, Studien, pp. 207-208. 



οὗτοι καὶ evepyeTiKol καὶ κοινώνικοι. Tuppnvia 
\ \ \ wes / ~ / \ ~ 
δὲ καὶ Κελτικὴ καὶ “Ισπανία τῷ Τοξότῃ καὶ τῷ 
τοῦ Ais: ὅθεν τὸ φιλελεύθερον ' αὐτοῖς 5 καὶ τὸ 
ς ~ \ / A \ 2? P A 
ἁπλοῦν και τὸ φιλοκάθαρον. τὰ δὲ ἐν τούτῳ μὲν 
ὄντα τῷ τεταρτημορίῳ, περὶ δὲ τὸ μέσον ἐσχη- 
ματισμένα τῆς οἰκουμένης, Θρᾷκη τε καὶ Μακεδονία 
καὶ ᾿Ϊλλυρία καὶ ᾿Ελλὰς καὶ ᾿Αχαία καὶ Κρήτη, ἔτι 
ΑἹ a / \ A / ~ ~ > / 
δὲ αἵ τε Κυκλάδες καὶ τὰ παράλια τῆς μικρᾶς ᾿Ασίας 
καὶ Κύπρου ὃ πρὸς νοταπηλιώτην κείμενα τοῦ ὅλου 
63 τεταρτημορίου, προσλαμβάνει τὴν συνοικείωσιν τοῦ 
νοταπηλιωτικοῦ τριγώνου, τοῦ κατὰ τὸν Ταῦρον 
\ \ / \ A > / ” A 
καὶ τὴν Π]αρθένον καὶ τὸν Αἰγόκερων, ἔτι δὲ συν- 
οικοδεσπότας τόν τε τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης καὶ τὸν τοῦ 
Κρόνου καὶ τὸν τοῦ ᾿ Ἑρμοῦ - ὅθεν οἱ κατοικοῦντες 
τὰς χώρας συγκατεσχηματισμένοι μᾶλλον ἀπ- 
ἔβησαν καὶ κεκραμένοι τοῖς τε σώμασι καὶ ταῖς 
ψυχαῖς - ἡγεμονικοὶ μὲν καὶ αὐτοὶ τυγχάνοντες καὶ 
γενναῖοι καὶ ἀνυπότακτοι διὰ τὸν τοῦ Ἄρεως, 
΄ \ \ > / ‘ A 
φιλελεύθεροι δὲ Kal αὐτόνομοι Kat δημοκρατικοὶ 
\ θ \ ὃ A \ ~ A / λό 5 de 
Kal νομοθετικοὶ διὰ τὸν τοῦ Aids, φιλόμουσοι ὃ δὲ 
καὶ φιλομαθεῖς καὶ φιλαγωνισταὶ καὶ καθάριοι ταῖς 
/ 6 \ ‘ ~ > 7, \ A 
διαίταις ὃ διὰ τὸν τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης, κοινωνικοὶ δὲ 
καὶ φιλόξενοι καὶ φιλοδίκαιοι καὶ φιλογράμματοι 
καὶ ἐν λόγοις πρακτικώτατοι διὰ τὸν τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ, 
μυστηρίων δὲ μάλιστα συντελεστικοὶ διὰ τὸν τῆς 
3 δί ς / / LA δὲ A 
Adpoditns ἑσπέριον σχηματισμόν. πάλιν δὲ κατὰ 
μέρος καὶ τούτων οἱ μὲν περὶ τὰς Κυκλάδας καὶ τὰ 

170 φιλελεύθερον. . . ἁπλοῦν καὶ om. Cam. 
2 αὐτοῖς VD, -ῶν PLMNAE. 
ὃ Κύπρου VDProc. ; Κύπρον al..Cam. 



sun; wherefore these peoples are more masterful, 
benevolent, andco-operative. Tyrrhenia, Celtica, and 
Spain are subject to Sagittarius and Jupiter, whence 
their independence, simplicity, and love of cleanliness. 
The parts of this quarter which are situated about 
the centre of the inhabited world, Thrace, Macedonia, 
Illyria, Hellas, Achaia, Crete, and likewise the 
Cyclades, and the coastal regions of Asia Minor and 
Cyprus, which are in the south-east portion of the 
whole quarter, have in addition familiarity with the 
south-east triangle, Taurus, Virgo, and Capricornus, 
and its co-rulers Venus, Saturn, and Mercury. As 
a result the inhabitants of those countries are 
brought into conformity with these planets and 
both in body and soul are of a more mingled 
constitution. They too have qualities of leadership 
and are noble and independent, because of Mars ; 
they are liberty-loving and self-governing, demo- 
cratic and framers of law, through Jupiter ; lovers of 
music and of learning, fond of contests and clean 
livers, through Venus ; social, friendly to strangers, 
justice-loving, fond of letters, and very effective 
in eloquence, through Mercury ; and they are par- 
ticularly addicted to the performance of mysteries, 
because of Venus’s occidental aspect. And again, 
part by part, those of this group who live in the 

' Hellas is northern Greece and Achaia the Peloponnesus. 

4 ἐκείνας post χώρας add. MNAECam. 
5 φιλόμουσοι. . . φιλομαθεῖς post “Apews ins. NCam. 
8 καθάριοι ταῖς διαίταις VMADE, καθ. τὰς διαγωγὰς Proc. ; 
φιλοκάθαροι ταῖς καρδίαις PLNCam. 



tA ~ - “A / i Kod 1 ~ 

παράλια τῆς μικρᾶς Ασίας καὶ Κύπρου! τῷ τε 
Ταύρῳ καὶ τῷ τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης μᾶλλον συνοικειοῦν- 
ται" ὅθεν ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ τρυφηταί τέ εἰσι καὶ 
καθάριοι καὶ τοῦ σώματος ἐπιμέλειαν ποιούμενοι. 

μῇ \ \ \ « ἣν \ ‘3 > / \ \ 
of δὲ περὶ τὴν ᾿Ελλάδα καὶ τὴν “Ayatay καὶ τὴν 
, ~ / \ ~ τὰ ~ ‘ 
Κρήτην τῇ τε Llapbévw καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Eppod, διὸ 
~ \ / \ ~ \ aN 
μᾶλλον λογικοὶ τυγχάνουσι καὶ φιλομαθεῖς καὶ τὰ 
τῆς ψυχῆς ἀσκοῦντες πρὸ τοῦ σώματος. οἱ δὲ περὶ 
τὴν Μακεδονίαν καὶ Θράκην καὶ ᾿Ϊλλυρίδα τῷ τε 

ν ree Ls \ A A 7 \ , 

64 Αἰγόκερῳ καὶ τῷ τοῦ Kpovov: διὸ φιλοκτήματοι 
μέν, οὐχ ἥμεροι δὲ οὕτως, οὐδὲ κοινωνικοὶ τοῖς 

~ \ , , “- ‘ ‘ 
Τοῦ δὲ δευτέρου τεταρτημορίου τοῦ κατὰ TO 
, , Ξ , > , \ NO ey : 
νότιον μέρος τῆς μεγάλης ᾿Ασίας τὰ μὲν ἄλλα μέρη 
\ / > /, > / / 
τὰ περιέχοντα ᾿Ϊνδικήν, "Apravynv, Γεδρωσίαν, Ilap- 
θίαν, Μηδίαν, [Π]ερσίδα, Βαβυλωνίαν, εσοποτα- 
μίαν, ᾿Ασσυρίαν, καὶ τὴν θέσιν ἔχοντα πρὸς νοταπ- 
ηλιώτην τῆς ὅλης οἰκουμένης, εἰκότως καὶ αὐτὰ 
συνοικειοῦται μὲν τῷ νοταπηλιωτικῷ τριγώνῳ τοῦ 
Ταύρου καὶ Π]αρθένου καὶ Αἰγόκερω, οἰκοδεσπο- 
lod ὃ δι. \ 2 ~ ~ "A δί \ ~ K; / 
τοῦνται δὲ ὑπὸ " τοῦ τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης καὶ τοῦ Κρόνου 
ἐπὶ ἑῴων σχηματισμῶν " διόπερ καὶ τὰς φύσεις τῶν 
ἐν αὐτοῖς ἀκολούθως ἄν τις εὕροι τοῖς ὑπὸ τῶν 
οὕτως οἰκοδεσποτησάντων ἀποτελουμένας - σέβουσί 
\ \ \ ~ > / Μ > / 
Te yap τὸν μὲν τῆς “Adpodityns “Iow ὀνομάζοντες, 
“ , 
τὸν δὲ τοῦ Κρόνου Μίθραν ἥλιον. καὶ προθεσπί- 
~ > 
Covow οἱ πολλοὶ τὰ μέλλοντα - καθιεροῦνταΐ Te παρ 

1 Κύπρου VPLDProce. ; Κύπρον al. Cam. 
2 οἰκοδεσποτοῦνται δὲ ὑπὸ κτλ. PLMNAECam. (οἰκοδεσποτεῖ- 
ται MAL, -οὔντα L) ; συνοικειοῦται δὲ τῷ τῆς ᾿Αφρ. VD, ef. Proc. 



Cyclades and on the shores of Asia Minor and Cyprus 
are more closely familiar to Taurus and Venus. For 
this reason they are, on the whole, luxurious, clean, and 
attentive to their bodies. The inhabitants of Hellas, 
Achaia, and Crete, however, have a familiarity with 
Virgo and Mercury, and are therefore better at reason- 
ing, and fond of learning, and they exercise the soul in 
preference to the body. The Macedonians, Thracians, 
and Illyrians have familiarity with Capricorn and 
Saturn, so that, though they are acquisitive, they are 
not so mild of nature, nor social in their institutions. 

Of the second quarter, which embraces the southern 
part of Greater Asia, the other parts, including India, 
Ariana, Gedrosia,! Parthia, Media, Persia, Babylonia, 
Mesopotamia, and Assyria, which are situated in the 
south-east of the whole inhabited world, are, as we 
might presume, familiar to the south-eastern triangle, 
Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, and are governed by 
Venus and Saturn in oriental aspects. Therefore 
one would find that the natures of their inhabitants 
conform with the temperaments governed by such 
rulers ; for they revere the star of Venus under the 
name of Isis,2 and that of Saturn as Mithras Helios. 
Most of them, too, divine future events; and among 

1 Gedrosia is modern Baluchistan, and Ariana lay north 
of it, between Parthia and the Indus. 

2 For this region it would have been more accurate to 
identify Venus with Astarte or Istar. It was, of course, 
the original home of the worship of Mithras. 

3 Μίθραν ἥλιον VPLMDE, Μιθρανήλιον Proc., om. ἥλιον A, 
Μίθραν δὲ τὸν ἥλιον NCam. 



αὐτοῖς τὰ γεννητικὰ μόρια διὰ TOV τῶν προκειμένων 
ἀστέρων συσχηματισμὸν σπερματικὸν ὄντα φύσει. 
ἔτι δὲ θερμοὶ καὶ ὀχευτικοὶ καὶ καταφερεῖς πρὸς 
τὰ ἀφροδίσια τυγχάνουσιν: ὀρχηστικοί τε καὶ 
\ ᾿ / \ A ‘ ~ > ’ 
πηδηταὶ καὶ φιλόκοσμοι μὲν διὰ τὸν τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης, 
ἁβροδίαιτοι! δὲ διὰ τὸν τοῦ Κρόνου. ἀναφανδὸν 
δὲ ποιοῦνται καὶ οὐ κρύβδην τὰς πρὸς τὰς γυναῖκας 
,ὔ ‘ A ca ~ ~ Ἁ \ 
συνουσίας διὰ TO ἑῷον τοῦ σχηματισμοῦ, Tas δὲ 
\ \ »Μ / ~ 
65 πρὸς τοὺς ἄρρενας ὑπερεχθραίνουσι. διὰ ταῦτα 
δὲ καὶ τοῖς πλείστοις αὐτῶν συνέπεσεν ἐκ τῶν 
μητέρων τεκνοῦν," καὶ τὰς προσκυνήσεις τῷ στήθει 
- Ὁ; ~ 
ποιεῖσθαι διὰ Tas ἑῴας ἀνατολὰς Kal TO τῆς καρδίας 
ἡγεμονικὸν οἰκείως ἔχον πρὸς τὴν ἡλιακὴν δύναμιν. 
Ὄπ δὲ € > \ ~ \ LAA \ 3 ‘ A \ 
εἰσὶ δὲ ws ἐπὶ πᾶν καὶ τἄλλα μὲν 5 τὰ περὶ Tas 
στολὰς καὶ κόσμους ὁ καὶ ὅλως τὰς σωματικὰς 
σχέσεις τρυφεροὶ καὶ τεθηλυσμένοι διὰ τὸν τῆς 
> δί \ δὲ ‘ \ A / 
Adpodi7yns, τὰς δὲ ψυχὰς Kal τὰς προαιρέσεις 
a A 
μεγαλόφρονες καὶ γενναῖοι καὶ πολεμικοὶ διὰ τὸ 
οἰκείως ἔχειν τὸν τοῦ Κρόνου πρὸς τὸ τῶν ἀνατολῶν 
~ ~ 7, ‘ 
σχῆμα. κατὰ μέρος δὲ πάλιν τῷ μὲν Ταύρῳ καὶ 
~ ~ > / ~ ~ σ 
τῷ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης μᾶλλον συνοικειοῦται ἥ τε 
Παρθία καὶ ἡ Μηδία καὶ ἡ Περσίς -5 ὅθεν οἱ ἐνταῦθα 
στολαῖς τε ἀνθίναις ὃ χρῶνται κατακαλυπτόντες 
¢ A o \ ~ / \ ν + Jems 
ἑαυτοὺς ὅλους πλὴν τοῦ στήθους, Kai ὅλως εἰσὶν 
« , \ 7 ~ \ / \ ~ 
ἁβροδίαιτοι καὶ καθάριοι. τῇ δὲ Παρθένῳ καὶ τῷ 
ay ~ \ \ \ ~ \ 
τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ τὰ περὶ τὴν Βαβυλῶνα καὶ Μεσοπο- 
ταμίαν καὶ ᾿Ασσυρίαν - διὸ καὶ παρὰ τοῖς ἐνταῦθα 

‘ ἁβροδίαιτοι MNAECam. Anon. (ed. Wolf, p. 61); ἁπλοδί- 
aro. VLPD; ἁπλῶς... διάγοντες Proc. 
2 τεκνοῦν VMADE, τέκνα PLNCam., τεκνοποιοῦσι Proc. 



them there exists the practice of consecrating the 
genital organs because of the aspect of the afore- 
said stars, which is by nature generative. Further, 
they are ardent, concupiscent, and inclined to the 
pleasures of love; through the influence of Venus 
they are dancers and leapers and fond of adornment, 
and through that of Saturn luxurious livers. They 
carry out their relations with women! openly and 
not in secret, because of the planets’ oriental aspect, 
but hold in detestation such relations with males. 
For these reasons most of them beget children by 
their own mothers, and they do obeisance to the 
breast, by reason of the morning rising of the planets 
and on account of the primacy of the heart, which is 
akin to the sun’s power. As for the rest, they are 
generally luxurious and effeminate in dress, in adorn- 
ment, and in all habits relating to the body, because 
of Venus. In their souls and by their predilection 
they are magnanimous, noble, and warlike, be- 
cause of the familiarity of Saturn oriental. Part 
by part, again, Parthia, Media, and Persia are more 
closely familiar to Taurus and Venus; hence their 
inhabitants use embroidered clothing, which covers 
their entire body except the breast, and they are as 
a general thing luxurious and clean. Babylonia, 
Mesopotamia, and Assyria are familiar to Virgo and 

1 Here again see the citations collected by Bouché- 
Leclereq, p. 341, n. 2, of the charges of sexual immorality 
and incest made in antiquity against these peoples. 

3 τἄλλα μὲν VD, τὰ μὲν ἄλλα PLMAER, om. NCom. 

4 καὶ κόσμους VMAI) (κόσμος) E, κατά τε τοὺς κόσμους 
NCam., ἀνατολλὰς καὶ κόσμους P, ἀνατολικὰς καὶ κόσκου L. 

5 Περσική NCam. δ ἀνθηραῖς NCam. 



τὸ μαθηματικὸν Kal παρατηρητικὸν τῶν mévre} 
ἀστέρων ἐξαίρετον συνέπεσε τῷ δὲ Alyoxepw 
καὶ τῷ τοῦ Κρόνου τὰ περὶ τὴν ᾿Ϊνδικὴν καὶ 
3 \ \ / o \ \ “- 
᾿Αριανὴν καὶ Iedpwotav, ὅθεν καὶ τὸ τῶν νεμο- 
μένων" τὰς χώρας ἄμορφον καὶ ἀκάθαρτον καὶ 
θηριῶδες. τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ τοῦ τεταρτημορίου μέρη 
\ / > ~ 
περὶ TO μέσον ἐσχηματισμένα τῆς ὅλης οἰκουμένης 
᾿Ιδουμαία, KoiAn Συρία, ᾿Ιουδαία, Φοινίκη, Xardai- 
> / > 
66 κή, ᾿Ορχηνία, ‘Apapia Εὐδαίμων, τὴν θέσιν ἔχοντα 
/ ~ 
πρὸς βορρολίβα τοῦ ὅλου τεταρτημορίου προσλαμ- 
βάνει πάλιν τὴν συνοικείωσιν τοῦ βορρολιβυκοῦ 
/ ~ / / » \ 
τριγώνου, Κριοῦ, A€ovros, Τοξότου, ἔτι δὲ συνοικο- 
δεσπότας τόν τε τοῦ Atos καὶ τὸν τοῦ "Apews καὶ 
ΝΜ \ a ¢ ~ \ -“ - ~ Mv 
ἔτι τὸν τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ - διὸ μᾶλλον οὗτοι τῶν ἄλλων 
ἐμπορικώτεροι καὶ συναλλακτικώτεροι, Tavoupyo- 
τεροι δὲ καὶ δειλοκαταφρόνητοι καὶ ἐπιβουλευτικοὶ 
καὶ δουλόψυχοι καὶ ὅλως ἀλλοπρόσαλλοι διὰ τὸν 
τῶν προκειμένων ἀστέρων συσχηματισμόν. καὶ 
7 \ , « \ \ \ , / 
τούτων δὲ πάλιν οἱ μὲν περὶ τὴν Κοίλην Συρίαν 
Ἐν / Δ. 3 / ~ ~ \ ~ 
καὶ ᾿Ιδουμαίαν καὶ ᾿ΪΙουδαίαν τῷ τε Kpi@ καὶ τῷ 
τοῦ "Apews μᾶλλον συνοικειοῦνται " διόπερ ὡς ἐπὶ 
πᾶν θρασεῖς τέ εἰσι καὶ ἄθεοι καὶ ἐπιβουλευτικοί. 
Φοίνικες δὲ καὶ Χαλδαῖοι καὶ ᾿᾽Ορχήνιοι τῷ “έοντι 

1 πέντε VProc., om. alii Cam. 

2 συνέπεσε VMADE, συνέπεται NCam., συνέπεστι P, συνε- 
τίεται L. 

8 τὸ τῶν νεμομένων κτλ.] of νεμόμενοι... . ἄμορφοι κτλ. 


i [dumaea is the region around the south end of the Dead 
Sea; Coelé Syria, north of Palestine and between Lebanon 
and Anti-Libanus ; Judaea, between the Dead Sea and the 



Mercury, and so the study of mathematics and the 
observation of the five planets are special traits of 
these peoples. India, Ariana, and Gedrosia have 
familiarity with Capricorn and Saturn; therefore 
the inhabitants of these countries are ugly, unclean, 
and bestial. The remaining parts of the quarter, 
situated about the centre of the inhabited world, 
Idumaea, Coelé Syria, Judaea, Phoenicia, Chaldaea, 
Orchinia, and Arabia Felix,! which are situated 
toward the north-west of the whole quarter, have ad- 
ditional familiarity with the north-western triangle, 
Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, and, furthermore, have as 
co-rulers Jupiter, Mars, and Mercury. Therefore these 
peoples are, in comparison with the others, more 
gifted in trade and exchange; they are more un- 
scrupulous, despicable cowards, treacherous, servile, 
and in general fickle, on account of the aspect 
of the stars mentioned. Of these, again, the in- 
habitants of Coelé Syria, Idumaea, and Judaea are 
more closely familiar to Aries and Mars, and there- 
fore these peoples are in general bold, godless,” and 
scheming. The Phoenicians, Chaldaeans, and Orchi- 
nians have familiarity with Leo and the sun, so that 

coast ; Phoenicia the coastal strip north of Judaea and 
Samaria; Chaldaea, south-west of the Euphrates and 
north of the Arabian peninsula; what is meant by 
Orchinia is somewhat doubtful; and Arabia Felix is the 
south-western coastal region of the Arabian peninsula. In 
the Geography, v. 20, Chaldaea is treated merely as a part 
of Babylonia, not an entirely separate country, as here 
(cf. Boll, Studien, p. 205). 

2 The Jews, because of their monotheism and disregard 
of all pagan gods, were generally branded as atheists by 
their neighbours. 



Kal τῷ ἡλίῳ, διόπερ ἁπλούστεροι καὶ φιλάνθρωποι 

καὶ φιλαστρόλογοι καὶ μάλιστα πάντων σέβοντες 
‘ “ « \ \ \ > ‘ \ > 7 

τὸν ἥλιον. ot δὲ κατὰ τὴν ApaPiav τὴν Εὐδαίμονα 

τῷ ἸΤοξότη καὶ τῷ τοῦ Atos: ὅθεν ἀκολούθως τῇ 

Ἷ Η / : / ” ,ὔ Ξ τῇ 

προσηγορίᾳ τό τε τῆς χώρας εὔφορον συνέπεσε καὶ 

τὸ τῶν ἀρωμάτων πλῆθος καὶ τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων 

εὐάρμοστον πρός τε διαγωγὰς ἐλεύθερον καὶ συναλ- 

λαγὰς καὶ πραγματείας. 

Τοῦ δὲ τρίτου τεταρτημορίου τοῦ κατὰ τὸ βόρειον 

͵ ~ iA Al / A \ ἄλλ /, A 

μέρος τῆς μεγάλης ᾿Ασίας τὰ μὲν α μέρη τὰ 

€ 3 / 
περιέχοντα τὴν Ὑρκανίαν, ‘Appeviav, Ματιανήν, 

67 Βακτριανήν, Kaornpiav,' Σηρικήν, Σαυροματικήν, 
> / ὃ ἐφ \ \ \ λ ’ὔ 

Οξειανήν, Σουγδιανήν, καὶ τὰ πρὸς βορραπηλιώτην 

~ / ~ ΄- 

κείμενα τῆς ὅλης οἰκουμένης συνοικειοῦνται μὲν τῷ 
~ 4 ~ 

βορραπηλιωτικῷ τριγώνῳ, Διδύμων καὶ Ζυγοῦ καὶ 

ΕῚ A \ > / ε / ~ 

“Ὑδροχόου, οἰκοδεσποτεῖται δὲ εἰκότως ὑπό τε τοῦ 

~ > ~ 
Κρόνου καὶ τοῦ Διὸς ἐπὶ σχημάτων ἀνατολικῶν. 

διόπερ of ταύτας ἔχοντες Tas χώρας σέβουσι μὲν 

/ ‘ Κ ,ὔ 2 Xr ’ὔ ὃ La > ‘ Xr 4 

Δία καὶ Kpovov,? πλουσιώτατοι δέ εἰσι Kat πολύ- 

, \ 

Xpvaot, περί τε Tas διαίτας καθάριοι καὶ εὐδιάγωγοι, 
A \ ” / 

σοφοί τε ἐπὶ Ta θεῖα καὶ μάγοι καὶ τὰ ἤθη δίκαιοι 

’ ‘ - 
καὶ ἐλεύθεροι καὶ τὰς ψυχὰς μεγάλοι καὶ γενναῖοι, 

μισοπόνηροί τε καὶ φιλόστοργοι καὶ ὑπεραποθνή- 

σκοντες ἑτοίμως τῶν οἰκειοτάτων ἕνεκεν τοῦ καλοῦ 

/ / ‘ 

καὶ ὁσίου, πρός τε τὰς ἀφροδισίους χρήσεις σεμνοὶ 

1 Κασπειρίαν VD, -ηρίαν NMAE, -ιρίαν Proc., -ἰαν Cam., 

om. PL. 
2 ἥλιον VMADEProc., Κρόνον PLNCam. 

1 Astrology indeed began in the ancient Babylonian and 
Assyrian kingdoms. 



they are simpler, kindly, addicted to astrology,! and 
beyond all men worshippers of the sun. The in- 
habitants of Arabia Felix are familiar to Sagittarius 
and Jupiter; this accounts for the fertility of the 
country, in accordance with its name, and its multi- 
tudes of spices, and the grace of its inhabitants and 
their free spirit in daily life, in exchange, and in 

Of the third quarter, which includes the northern 
part of Greater Asia, the other parts, embracing 
Hyrcania, Armenia, Matiana, Bactriana, Casperia, 
Serica, Sauromatica, Oxiana, Sogdiana, and the 
regions in the north-east of the inhabited world,? 
are in familiarity with the north-eastern triangle, 
Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, and are, as might be 
expected, governed by Saturn and Jupiter in oriental 
aspect. Therefore the inhabitants of these lands wor- 
ship Jupiter and Saturn, have much riches and gold, 
and are cleanly and seemly in their living, learned 
and adepts in matters of religion, just and liberal 
in manners, lofty and noble in soul, haters of evil, 
and affectionate, and ready to die for their friends 
in a fair and holy cause. They are dignified and 

2 Of these Armenia lies south of the Caucasus between 
the Black Sea and the Caspian; Matiana and Hyrcania 
are around the south end of the Caspian, the former to the 
east and the latter to the west; Bactriana, Oxiana, and 
Sogdiana are still further east, around the upper courses 
of the Oxus; by Casperia is probably meant the region 
around the northern part of the Caspian Sea; Serica is 
China, or its western portion, and Sauromatica (called 
Sarmatia by the Romans) is the general name for Russia, 
here used of its Asiatic part. In the Geography, vi. 12, 
Ptolemy treats Oxiana as but one part of Sogdiana (Boll, 
Studien, p. 205). 



\ / \ ‘ ᾿ >? ~ a 
καὶ καθάριοι καὶ περὶ tas ἐσθῆτας πολυτελεῖς, 
χαριστικοί τε καὶ μεγαλόφρονες, ἅπερ ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν 
6 τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ 6 τοῦ Διὸς ἀνατολικῶν συσχη- 
ματισμὸς ἀπεργάζεται. καὶ τούτων δὲ πάλιν τῶν 
30 ~ δ) \ \ \ «ς ,ὔ ἌΡ- Ψ \ 
ἐθνῶν τὰ μὲν περὶ τὴν “Ὑρκανίαν καὶ ‘Appeviav καὶ 
Ματιανὴν μᾶλλον συνοικειοῦται τοῖς τε Διδύμοις 

\ ~ ma ¢ ~ / 2) / ~ 
Kal τῷ τοῦ ᾿Ερμοῦ : διόπερ εὐκινητότερα μᾶλλον 
καὶ ὑποπόνηρα. τὰ δὲ περὶ τὴν Βακτριανὴν 

\ \ ~ ~ ~ 

καὶ Κασπηρίαν καὶ Σηρικὴν τῷ τε Ζυγῷ καὶ τῷ 

~ ¢ \ 4 
τῆς Adpoditns: ὅθεν οἱ κατέχοντες τὰς χώρας 
πλουσιώτατοι καὶ φιλόμουσοι καὶ μᾶλλον aBpo- 
δίαιτοι. τὰ δὲ περὶ τὴν Σαυροματικὴν καὶ τὴν 
᾿Οἕξειανὴν καὶ Σουγδιανὴν τῷ τε “YSpoxow καὶ τῷ 
ay (sie earalel nate pone ΤΩ 
~ / A \ ~ Δ, ΩΝ, a > / 

68 τοῦ Kpovov - διὸ καὶ ταῦτα τὰ ἔθνη μᾶλλον ἀνήμερα 
καὶ αὐστηρὰ καὶ θηριώδη. τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ τούτου 
τοῦ τεταρτημορίου καὶ περὶ τὸ μέσον κείμενα τῆς 

/ / 
ὅλης οἰκουμένης, Βιθυνία, Φρυγία, ΚΚολχική, Συρία, 
/ / / / 
Κομμαγηνή, Καππαδοκία, Avdia, Λυκία," Κιλικία, 
,ὔ \ / ” \ / > ~ 
Παμφυλία, τὴν θέσιν ἔχοντα πρὸς λιβόνοτον αὐτοῦ 
τοῦ τεταρτημορίου, προσλαμβάνει τὴν συνοικείωσιν 
τοῦ νοτολιβυκοῦ τεταρτημορίου Καρκίνου καὶ 
Σκορπίου καὶ ᾿Ιχθύων, καὶ συνοικοδεσπότας τόν τε 

““»Ὑ» ἘΝ \ “-“ > , \ \ ~ 
τοῦ "Apews καὶ ἔτι τὸν τῆς “Adpodityns καὶ τὸν τοῦ 
“Ἑρμοῦ: διόπερ οἱ περὶ τὰς χώρας ταύτας σέβουσι 
μὲν ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν τὴν ‘Adpoditny ὡς μητέρα θεῶν, 
ποικίλοις καὶ ἐγχωρίοις ὀνόμασι προσαγορεύοντες, 

\ A aM ε ” an Μ ,ὔ 
καὶ τὸν τοῦ "Apews ὡς Ἄδωνιν ἢ ἄλλως πως πάλιν 

~ > 
ὀνομάζοντες * Kal μυστήριά τινα μετὰ θρηνῶν ἀπο- 

1 ἀνατολικῶν συσχηματισμὸς ἀπεργάζεται VD, -ὁς -ὁς -εται 
MAE, -ὁν -ov -εται PL, κατὰ -ὁν -ὁν -ονται NCam. 



pure in their sexual relations, lavish in dress, gracious 
and magnanimous; these things in general are 
brought about by Saturn and Jupiter in eastern 
aspects. Of these nations, again, Hyrcania, Ar- 
menia, and Matiana are more closely familiar to 
Gemini and Mercury ; they are accordingly more easily 
stirred and inclined to rascality. Bactriana, Casperia, 
and Serica are akin to Libra and Venus, so that their 
peoples are rich and followers of the Muses, and more 
luxurious. The regions of Sauromatica, Oxiana, and 
Sogdiana are in familiarity with Aquarius and Saturn ; 
these nations therefore are more ungentle, stern, 
and bestial. The remaining parts of this quarter, 
which lie close to the centre of the inhabited world, 
Bithynia, Phrygia, Colchica, Syria, Commagené, 
Cappadocia, Lydia, Lycia, Cilicia, and Pamphylia,! 
since they are situated in the south-west of the 
quarter, have in addition familiarity with the south- 
western quarter, Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, and 
their co-rulers are Mars, Venus, and Mercury ; there- 
fore those who live in these countries generally 
worship Venus as the mother of the gods, calling her 
by various local names, and Mars as Adonis,” to 
whom again they give other names, and they cele- 
brate in their honour certain mysteries accompanied 

1 These are all parts of Asia Minor. 

2 Ptolemy identifies Venus and Mars, who are coupled in 
Greek mythology, with the female and male divinities of 
this region worshipped under various names as the Mother 
of the Gods, Magna Mater, ete., and Attis, Adonis, ete. 

2 Λυκία VD Proc., om. alii Cam. 



,ὔ > - ‘ / > \ / 
διδόντες αὐτοῖς. περίκακοι δέ εἰσι καὶ δουλόψυχοι 
καὶ πονικοὶ καὶ πονηροὶ καὶ ἐν μισθοφόροις στρατεί- 
aus καὶ ἁρπαγαῖς καὶ αἰχμαλωσίαις γινόμενοι, κατα- 
δουλούμενοί τε αὑτοὺς καὶ πολεμικαῖς ἀπωλείαις 
περιπίπτοντες. διά τε τὸν τοῦ "Apews καὶ τὸν τῆς 
> / A > s , σ » 
Adpoditns κατὰ ἀνατολικὴν συναρμογήν, ὅτι ἐν 

lol ~ > ~ ~ 

μὲν τῷ τῆς "Adpoditns τριγωνικῷ Cwdiw τῷ 

~ ~ ~ ὦ 

Αἰγόκερῳ ὁ τοῦ "Apews, ἐν δὲ τῷ τοῦ “Apews 
~ , A > , « “-“ > , 

τριγωνικῷ ζῳδίῳ τοῖς ᾿Ιχθύσι ὁ τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης 
~ ~ A / ~ 

ὑψοῦται, διὰ τοῦτο τὰς γυναῖκας συνέβη πᾶσαν 
» ‘ \ Μ > ,ὔ , 

εὔνοιαν πρὸς τοὺς ἀνδρας ἐνδείκνυσθαι, φιλοστόρ- 

yous τε οὔσας καὶ οἰκουροὺς καὶ ἐργατικὰς καὶ 

69 ὑπηρετικὰς καὶ ὅλως πονικὰς καὶ ὑποτεταγμένας. 

/ \ / ¢€ \ ‘ \ , \ 
τούτων δὲ πάλιν οἱ μὲν περὶ τὴν Βιθυνίαν καὶ 
Φρυγίαν καὶ Κολχικὴν συνοικειοῦνται μᾶλλον τῷ 
τε Καρκίνῳ καὶ τῇ σελήνῃ - διόπερ οἱ μὲν ἄνδρες 
ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν εἰσιν εὐλαβεῖς καὶ ὑποτακτικοί, τῶν δὲ 

~ - ~ > 
γυναικῶν αἱ πλεῖσται διὰ τὸ τῆς σελήνης avaTo- 
λικὸν καὶ ἠρρενωμένον! σχῆμα ἔπανδροι καὶ 
> A \ \ δ « 3 ’, 
ἀρχικαὶ καὶ πολεμικαὶ καθάπερ αἱ ᾿Αμαζόνες, 
φεύγουσαι 5 μὲν τὰς τῶν ἀνδρῶν συνουσίας, φιλόπλοι 
δὲ οὖσαι καὶ ἀρρενοποιοῦσαι τὰ θηλυκὰ πάντα 8 
~ ~ ~ ~ ΄ 
ἀπὸ βρέφους, ἀποκοπῇ τῶν δεξιῶν μαστῶν χάριν 
τῶν στρατιωτικῶν χρειῶν καὶ ἀπογυμνοῦσαι ταῦτα 
‘ / \ 5 ‘\ 4 6 wi > “ὃ 7 
τὰ μέρη κατὰ τὰς παρατάξεις δ πρὸς ἐπίδειξιν 
a > 4, ~ / « \ ‘ A δ 
τοῦ ἀθηλύντου τῆς φύσεως. οἱ δὲ περὶ τὴν Συρίαν 
- , 
καὶ Κομμαγηνὴν καὶ Καππαδοκίαν τῷ τε Σ'κορπίῳ 
1 ἠρ(ρ)ενωμένον PLME, -ων N, ἠρρωμένον alii Cam., 

ἀρσενικὸν Proc. 2 φεύγουσι(ν) PLMA. 
374 θηλυκὰ πάντα VD, τὸ θῆλυ (aut θύλη) PLNCam., τὸ 



by lamentations. They are exceedingly depraved 
servile, laborious, rascally, are to be found in mer- 
cenary expeditions, looting and taking captives, en- 
slaving their own peoples, and engaging in destructive 
wars. And because of the junction of Mars and Venus 
in the Orient, since Mars is exalted in Capricorn, 
a sign of Venus’s triangle, and Venus in Pisces, a sign 
of Mars’s triangle, it comes about that their women 
display entire goodwill to their husbands ; they are 
affectionate, home-keepers, diligent, helpful, and in 
every respect laborious and obedient. Of these 
peoples, again, those who live in Bithynia, Phrygia, 
and Colchica are more closely familiar to Cancer and 
the moon; therefore the men are in general cau- 
tious and obedient, and most of the women, through 
the influence of the moon’s oriental and masculine 
aspect, are virile,’ commanding, and warlike, like 
the Amazons, who shun commerce with men, love 
arms, and from infaney make masculine all their 
female characteristics, by cutting off their right 
breasts for the sake of military needs and baring 
these parts in the line of battle, in order to display 
the absence of femininity in their natures. The 
people of Syria, Commagené, and Cappadocia are 

' Cf. the myth of Medea, the Colchian princess. 

θῆλυ πᾶν ME, τοῦ θήλεος παντὸς A; cf. τῶν θηλυκῶν βρεφῶν 

4 χρειῶν VP (xpn-) LMAEProc., χρήσεων NDCam. 

δ kara VMADE, διὰ PLNCam. 

6 παρατάξεις VMADE, -ης P, -ews L, πράξεις NCam.; ἐν ταῖς 
maparafeow Proc, 

7 πρὸς ἐπίδειξιν VD, εἰς ἐ. MAE, ὡς ἐπιδείξην P, ὡς ἐπίδειξιν 
L, ὡς ἐπιδείκνυσθαι NCam. 



‘ ~ aw / ‘ > > a 
Kal τῷ τοῦ "Apews διόπερ πολὺ παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς συν- 
ἔπεσε τὸ θρασὺ καὶ πονηρὸν καὶ ἐπιβουλευτικὸν καὶ 
> / ¢€ \ ‘ \ / ‘ ,ὔ ‘ 
ἐπίπονον. ot δὲ περὶ τὴν Λυδίαν καὶ Κιλικίαν Kat 
/ ~ . / A ~ ~ / 
Παμφυλίαν τοῖς te ᾿Ιχθύσι καὶ τῷ τοῦ Διός: 
ὅθεν οὗτοι μᾶλλον πολυκτήμονές τε καὶ ἐμπορικοὶ 
καὶ κοινωνικοὶ καὶ ἐλεύθεροι καὶ πιστοὶ περὶ τὰς 
Tod δὲ λοιποῦ τεταρτημορίου τοῦ κατὰ τὴν 
~ A\ 4 l A / ‘ \ LAA \ 
κοινῶς καλουμένην ' Λιβύην, Ta μὲν ἄλλα τὰ περι- 
έχοντα Νουμηδίαν," ΚΚαρχηδονίαν, Adpixjv, Φαζα- 
νίαν, Νασαμονῖτιν, [ ἀραμαντικήν, Μαυριτανίαν, 
᾽ὔ, - " ‘ \ / Μ 
70 Γαιτουλίαν, Μεταγωνῖτιν, καὶ τὰ τὴν θέσιν ἔχοντα 
πρὸς λιβόνοτον τῆς ὅλης οἰκουμένης, συνοικειοῦται 
μὲν τῷ νοτολιβυκῷ τριγώνῳ Καρκίνου καὶ Lkop- 
, NAS 4 > A \ > / « ,ὔ 
πίου καὶ ᾿Ιχθύων, οἰκοδεσποτεῖται δὲ εἰκότως ὑπό 
aM \ ~ ~ > / pean / 
te τοῦ Ἄρεως καὶ τοῦ τῆς ‘Adpoditns ἐπὶ σχήματος 
ἑσπερίου - διόπερ συνέπεσε τοῖς πλείστοις αὐτῶν 
~ ~ ~ ‘4 
ἕνεκεν τῆς εἰρημένης τῶν ἀστέρων συναρμογῆς ὑπὸ 
- 3 ~ 
ἀνδρὸς Kal γυναικός," δυοῖν ὁμομητρίων ἀδελφῶν, 
βασιλεύεσθαι, τοῦ μὲν ἀνδρὸς τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἄρχοντος, 
τῆς δὲ γυναικὸς τῶν γυναικῶν, συντηρουμένης τῆς 
/ ~ \ / > / τὴ 
τοιαύτης διαδοχῆς. θερμοὶ δέ εἰσι σφόδρα καὶ 
A ~ ~ e 
Katadepeis πρὸς τὰς τῶν γυναικῶν συνουσίας, ws 
1 καλουμένην om. NCam. 2 Νουμιδίαν ACam. 

3 Φυζανίαν NCam. 
4 Post γυναικός add. 7 PLNCam., om. VMADEProc. 

1 Here used of the continent in general; Africa is the 
Roman province. 



familiar to Scorpio and Mars; therefore much bold- 
ness, knavery, treachery, and laboriousness are found 
among them. The people of Lydia, Cilicia, and 
Pamphylia have familiarity with Pisces and Jupiter ; 
these accordingly are more wealthy, commercial, 
social, free, and trustworthy in their compacts. 

Of the remaining quarter, which includes what is 
called by the common name Libya,! the other parts, 
including Numidia, Carthage, Africa, Phazania, Nasa- 
monitis, Garamantica, Mauritania, Gaetulia, Meta- 
gonitis,” and the regions situated in the south-west 
of the inhabited world, are related by familiarity to 
the south-western triangle, Cancer, Scorpio, and 
Pisces, and are accordingly ruled by Mars aud Venus 
in occidental aspect. For this reason it befalls most 
of the inhabitants, because of the aforesaid junction 
of these planets, to be governed by a man and wife 
who are own brother and sister,® the man ruling the 
men and the woman the women; and a succession of 
this sort is maintained. ‘They are extremely ardent 
and disposed to commerce with women, so that even 

* Along the Mediterranean coast, eastward from the 
Straits of Gibraltar, the regions are, first, Mauritania (of 
which Metagonitis is the portion east from the Straits), 
then Numidia, Africa (the Roman province, which in- 
cludes Carthage), Tripolitana, Cyrenaica, Marmarica, and 
Egypt. The other nations mentioned are further inland 
and south of these, Gaetulia in the west, Garamantica 
and Phazania south of Tripoli, and Nasamonitis near 
Cyrenaica and Marmarica. 

3 Marriage between those of the same blood was a 
common practice in Hellenistic Egypt, including the royal 
family of the Ptolemies. Cf. Curmont, L’ Byypte des 
Astrologues (Brussels, 1937), pp. 177-179. 





‘ ‘ / ὃ > « ~ a θ 1 \ λ 
καὶ τοὺς γάμους δι᾽ ἁρπαγῶν ποιεῖσθαι 1 καὶ πολ- 
λαχῆ ταῖς γαμουμέναις τοὺς βασιλέας πρώτους 2 
συνέρχεσθαι, παρ᾽ ἐνίοις δὲ καὶ κοινὰς εἶναι τὰς 
γυναῖκας πάντων. ὠφιλοκαλλωπισταὶ δὲ τυγχά- 
νουσι καὶ κόσμους γυναικείους περιζώννυνται διὰ 
τὸν τῆς Αφροδίτης, ἔπανδροι μέντοι ταῖς ψυχαῖς 


Kal ὑποπόνηροι καὶ μαγευτικοί, νοθευταὶ δὲ Kal 
7 \ ε / μὰ A ~ MW 

παράβολοι καὶ ῥιψοκίνδυνοι διὰ τὸν τοῦ “Apews. 

’ὔ ‘ / ¢ \ \ \ / ‘ 
τούτων δὲ πάλιν ot μὲν περὶ τὴν Νουμηδίαν Kat 
Κ' δόνα καὶ “A ὴ ῦ GAA 

apxndova* καὶ ᾿Αφρικὴν συνοικειοῦνται μᾶλλον 
τῷ τε Καρκίνῳ καὶ τῇ σελήνῃ - διόπερ οὗτοι κοινω- 

νικοί TE καὶ ἐμπορικοὶ τυγχάνουσι Kal ἐν εὐθηνίᾳ 
πάσῃ διατελοῦντες, of δὲ περὶ τὴν Μεταγωνῖτιν 

\ / \ / ~ / 
καὶ Μαυριτανίαν καὶ Γαιτουλίαν τῷ τε Σ'κορπίῳ 
καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Apews - ὅθεν οὗτοι θηριωδέστεροί τέ 
εἰσι καὶ μαχιμώτατοι: καὶ κρεοφάγοι καὶ σφόδρα ® 

~ ~ A 
ῥιψοκίνδυνοι καὶ καταφρονητικοὶ τοῦ ζῆν, ὡς μηδὲ 
> / > ,ὔ « \ ‘ \ / ‘ 
ἀλλήλων ἀπέχεσθαι. οἱ δὲ περὶ τὴν Φαζανίαν Kat 

a a / 
Νασαμωνῖτιν καὶ Γαραμαντικὴν τοῖς τε ᾿Ϊχθύσι 

\ ~ ~ / / > 4, / \ «ς -“ 
καὶ τῷ τοῦ Aids: διόπερ ἐλεύθεροί τε καὶ ἁπλοῖ 

A » / 
τοῖς ἤθεσι καὶ φιλεργοὶ καὶ εὐγνώμονες καθάριοί 
τε καὶ ἀνυπότακτοί εἰσιν ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν καὶ τὸν τοῦ 
A \ ec "A 7 θ ΄ \ ὃ \ r A ~ 

wos ws "Aupwva? θρησκεύοντες. τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ τοῦ 

τεταρτημορίου μέρη Kal πρὸς TO μέσον ἐσχηματισ- 
~ o ’ὔ ( 
μένα τῆς ὅλης οἰκουμένης, Κυρηναϊκή, Μαρμαρικὴ, 

1 ποιεῖσθαι] γίνεσθαι VAD. 

2 πρώτους VMDE, cf. Proc. ; πρῶτα PLNACam. 

8 τυγχάνουσι(ν) VMADE, ὑπάρχουσι(ν) PLNCam. 

4 Καρχηδόνα VDProc., Καρχηδονίαν P (-8w-) LMNAECam. 

5 σφόδρα VMADEProc., om. PLNCam. 
5 καὶ (post ἐπὶ πᾶν) VMADE, διὰ NCam., om. PL. 



their marriages are brought about by violent abduc- 
tion, and frequently their kings enjoy the jus primae 
noctis with the brides, and among some of them the 
women are common to all the men. They are fond 
of beautifying themselves and gird themselves with 
feminine adornments, through the influence of Venus ; 
through that of Mars, however, they are virile of 
spirit, rascally, magicians, impostors, deceivers, and 
reckless. Of these people, again, the inhabitants of 
Numidia, Carthage, and Africa are more closely 
familiar to Cancer and the moon. They therefore 
are social, commercial, and live in great abund- 
ance. Those who inhabit Metagonitis, Mauritania, 
and Gaetulia are familiar to Scorpio and Mars ; 
they are accordingly fiercer and very warlike, 
meat-eaters, very reckless, and contemptuous of life 
to such an extent as not even to spare one another. 
Those who live in Phazania, Nasamonitis, and Gara- 
mantica are familiar to Pisces and Jupiter; hence 
they are free and simple in their characters, willing 
to work, intelligent, cleanly, and independent, as a 
general rule, and they are worshippers of Jupiter as 
Ammon. The remaining parts of the quarter, which 
are situated near the centre of the inhabited world, 
Cyrenaica, Marmarica, Egypt, Thebais,! the Oasis, 

1 Upper Egypt. By ‘“‘Egypt’’ he doubtless means 
Lower Egypt. Cyrenaica and Marmarica are to the west. 
Troglodytica lies along the west coast of the Red Sea and 
Azania about where is now French Somaliland. By 
Arabia he may mean Arabia Petraea, the Sinai Peninsula 
and vicinity. Parts of Troglodytica, too, were sometimes 

called Arabia. The Greater and Lesser Oases lie west of 
the Thebais. 

7 ὡς Ἄμμωνα VMADE; cf. Proc.; τῷ “Aupou PNCam. ; 
τῷ σάμωνα L. 


Αἴγυπτος, Θηβαΐς, Θασις, Τρωγλοδυτική, ‘ApaBia, 
Alavia, μέση Αἰθιοπία, πρὸς βορραπηλιώτην τε- 
τραμμένα τοῦ ὅλου τεταρτημορίου, προσλαμβάνει 
τὴν συνοικείωσιν τοῦ Ξορραπηλιωτικοῦ τριγώνου 
Διδύμων, Ζυγοῦ, καὶ ᾿Ὑδροχόου, καὶ συνοικοδεσ- 
πότας διὰ τοῦτο τόν τε τοῦ Κρόνου καὶ τὸν τοῦ 
Διὸς καὶ ἔτι τὸν τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ - ὅθεν οἱ κατὰ ταύτας 
τὰς χώρας κεκοινωνηκότες σχεδὸν τῆς τῶν πέντε" 
πλανήτων οἰκοδεσποτίας ἑσπερίου φιλόθεοι μὲν 
γεγόνασι καὶ δεισιδαίμονες καὶ θεοπρόσπλοκοι 5 

φιλόθρηνοι καὶ τοὺς ἀποθνήσκοντας τῇ γῆ 
κρύπτοντες καὶ ἀφανίζοντες διὰ τὸ ἑσπέριον σχῆμα, 
παντοίοις δὲ νομίμοις καὶ ἔθεσι καὶ θεῶν παντοίων 
θρησκείαις χρώμενοι, καὶ ἐν μὲν ταῖς ὑποταγαῖς 
ταπεινοὶ καὶ δειλοὶ 8 καὶ μικρολόγοι καὶ ὑπομονητι- 
12 κοί, ἐν δὲ ταῖς ἡγεμονίαις εὔψυχοι καὶ μεγαλό- 
φρονες, πολυγύναιοι δὲ καὶ πολύανδροι καὶ κατα- 
φερεῖς καὶ ταῖς ἀδελφαῖς συναρμοζόμενοι, καὶ πολύ- 
σποροι μὲν οἱ ἄνδρες, εὐσύλληπτοι δὲ αἱ γυναῖκες 
ἀκολούθως τῷ τῆς χώρας yoviuw.4 πολλοὶ δὲ καὶ 
τῶν ἀρρένων σαθροὶ καὶ τεθηλυσμένοι ταῖς ψυχαῖς, 
ἔνιοι δὲ καὶ τῶν γεννητικῶν μορίων καταφρονοῦντες 
διὰ τὸν τῶν κακοποιῶν μετὰ τοῦ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης 
ἑσπερίου σχηματισμόν. καὶ τούτων δὲ οἱ μὲν 
περὶ Κυρηναϊκὴν καὶ Μαρμαρικὴν καὶ μάλιστα οἵ 
περὶ τὴν κάτω χώραν τῆς Αἰγύπτου μᾶλλον συνοι- 
κειοῦνται τοῖς τε Διδύμοις καὶ τῷ τοῦ “Epos: 

1 πέντε libri Proc., μὲν Cam. 

3 θεοπρόσπλοκοι VPLD ; προσπλεκόμενοι πρὸς θεούς Proc. ; 
θεοπρόσπολοι MNAKCam. 



Troglodytica, Arabia, Azania, and Middle Ethiopia, 
which face the north-east of the whole quarter, 
have an additional familiarity with the north- 
eastern triangle Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, and 
therefore have as co-rulers Saturn and Jupiter and, 
furthermore, Mercury. Accordingly those who live in 
these countries, because they all in common, as it 
were, are subject to the occidental rulership of the five 
planets, are worshippers of the gods, superstitious, 
given to religious ceremony and fond of lamentation ; 
they bury their dead in the earth, putting them out 
of sight, on account of the occidental aspect of the 
planets; and they practice all kinds of usages, cus- 
toms, and rites in the service of all manner of gods. 
Under command they are humble, timid, penurious, 
and long-suffering, in leadership courageous and 
magnanimous ; but they are polygamous and poly- 
androus and lecherous, marrying even their own 
sisters, and the men are potent in begetting, the 
women in conceiving, even as their land is fertile. 
Furthermore, many of the males are unsound and 
effeminate of soul, and some even hold in contempt 
the organs of generation, through the influence of the 
aspect of the maleficent planets in combination with 
Venus occidental. Of these peoples the inhabitants of 
Cyrenaica and Marmarica, and particularly of Lower 
Egypt, are more closely familiar to Gemini and 
Mercury ; on this account they are thoughtful and 

3 δειλοὶ VMADEProce. ; δεινοὶ LNCam., δηνοὶ P. : 
4 γονίμῳ VDMAEN (mg., γεννήματι) Cam.t; yor) P, 
γωνίσματι L; "γεννήματι Cam.? 
δ ἑσπερίου VD; cf. Proc. γινόμενον ἐκ τῶν κακοποιῶν μετὰ 
τοῦ δυτικοῦ τῆς (’Ad.) ; ἑσπέριον libri alii Cam. 


διόπερ οὗτοι διανοητικοί τε καὶ συνετοὶ καὶ εὐεπή- 
βολοι τυγχάνουσι περὶ πάντα καὶ μάλιστα περὶ τὴν 
τῶν σοφῶν τε καὶ θείων εὕρεσιν - payevtiKoi! τε 
καὶ κρυφίων μυστηρίων ἐπιτελεστικοὶ καὶ ὅλως 
« \ \ ‘ ’ὔ Ὁ A ‘ ‘\ oh! 
ἱκανοὶ περὶ Ta μαθήματα. οἱ δὲ περὶ τὴν Θηβαΐδα 
καὶ "Oaow καὶ Τρωγλοδυτικὴν τῷ τε Ζυγῷ καὶ τῷ 
~ ΕῚ , oe A > A ’ὔ Ἷ vA > 
τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης, ὅθεν καὶ αὐτοὶ θερμότεροί τέ εἰσι 
τὰς φύσεις καὶ κεκινημένοι καὶ ἐν εὐφορίαις ἔχοντες 
\ / Θ A ‘ ‘A > / » / 
τὰς διαγωγάς ’ ot δὲ περὶ τὴν “ApaPiay καὶ ᾿Αζανίαν 
καὶ μέσην Αἰθιοπίαν τῷ ὋὙδροχόῳ καὶ τῷ τοῦ 
Κρόνου," διὸ καὶ οὗτοι κρεοφάγοι τε καὶ ἰχθυο- 
/ \ ,ὔ > / Μ A ἊΨ ἊΨ 
φάγοι καὶ νομάδες εἰσίν, ἄγριον καὶ θηριώδη βίον 
Ai μὲν οὖν συνοικειώσεις τῶν τε ἀστέρων καὶ τῶν 
73 δωδεκατημορίων πρὸς τὰ κατὰ μέρος ἔθνη καὶ τὰ 
ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν αὐτῶν ἰδιώματα κατὰ τὸ κεφαλαιῶδες 
τοῦτον ἡμῖν ὑποτετυπώσθωσαν τὸν τρόπον. ἐκ- 
θησόμεθα δὲ καὶ διὰ τὸ τῆς χρήσεως εὐεπήβολον ἐφ᾽ 
~ ,ὔ 
ἑκάστου τῶν δωδεκατημορίων κατὰ ψιλὴν παρά- 
θεσιν ἕκαστα τῶν συνοικειουμένων ἐθνῶν ἀκολού- 
θως τοῖς προκατειλεγμένοις περὶ αὐτῶν τὸν τρόπον 
Κριός3. Βρεττανία, Γαλατία, Γερμανία, Βασ- 
/ \ A / , / ,ὔ 
ταρνία : περὶ τὸ μέσον Κοίλη Συρία IlaAaorivn, 
᾿Ιδουμαία, lovdaia. 
Ταῦρος - Παρθία, Μηδία, Περσίς - περὶ τὸ μέσον 
Κυκλάδες νῆσοι, Κύπρος, παράλια τῆς μικρᾶς 

1 μαγευτικοί VPLMADEProc., μαγικοί NCam., 
2 Κρόνου VPLNDProc.Cam.', Διός AECam.? 



intelligent and facile in all things, especially in the 
search for wisdom and religion; they are magicians 
and performers of secret mysteries and in general 
skilled in mathematics.! Those who live in Thebais, 
the Oasis, and Troglodytica are familiar to Libra and 
Venus ; hence they are more ardent and lively of 
nature and live in plenty. The people of Arabia, 
Azania, and Middle Ethiopia are familiar to Aquarius 
and Saturn.” for which reason they are flesh-eaters, 
fish-eaters, and nomads, living a rough, bestial life. 
Let this be our brief exposition of the familiarities 
of the planets and the signs of the zodiac with the 
various nations, and of the general characteristics 
of the latter. We shall also set forth, for ready use, 
a list of the several nations which are in familiarity, 
merely noted against each of the signs, in accordance 
with what has just been said about them, thus :— 

Aries: Britain, Gaul, Germania, Bastarnia; in 
the centre, Coelé Syria, Palestine, Idumaea, Judaea. 

Taurus: Parthia, Media, Persia; in the centre, 
the Cyclades, Cyprus, the coastal region of Asia 

1“ Mathematics ’’ (literally, “the studies’’) here means 
astrology; cf. the title of Sextus Empiricus’ book Πρὸς 
μαθηματικούς, “ Against the Astrologers.”’ 

?Some MSS. and Camerarius’ second edition have 
“ Jupiter’’ in place of *‘ Saturn.”’ 

3 Haec omiserunt omnino usque ad ἐκκειμένων δὲ τούτων 
PLNCam.! ; VMADEProc. res in columnis disponunt sig- 
norum nominibus in capite additis, verbis etiam περὶ τὸ μέσον 
(quae om. Cam.?) in propriis locis insertis. 



Aidvpor + “Ὑρκανία, Ἀρμενία, Marvavy: περὶ τὸ 
/ ~ 
μέσον Kupnvaixy,' Μαρμαρική, ἡ κάτω χώρα τῆς 
Καρκίνος. Νουμηδία, Καρχηδονία, ᾿Αφρική : 
περὶ τὸ μέσον Βιθυνία, Φρυγία, Κολχική. 
Λέων - ᾿Ιταλία, Γαλλία, Σικελία, ᾿4πουλία περὶ 
τὸ μέσον Φοινίκη, Xaddaia, ᾿Ορχηνία. 
Παρθένος - Μεσοποταμία, Βαβυλωνία, ‘Accupia - 
\ \ / € / > / / 
περὶ τὸ μέσον ᾿Ελλάς, Ayaia, Κρήτη. 
Ζυγός - Βακτριανή, Κασπηρία, Σηρική περὶ 
/ ᾿ 
τὸ μέσον Θηβαΐς, "Oacis, Τρωγλοδυτική. 
μ of (Bie ὯΙ 
/ A 
Skoptios: Meraywviris, Mavpiravia, Ta- 
yA 2 ρ ἢ 
, \ ‘ / / , 
τουλία - περὶ τὸ μέσον Συρία, Koupayynvyn, Kar- 
Τοξότης - Τυρρηνία, Κελτική, “Ϊσπανία epi 
τὸ μέσον “ApaBia ἡ εὐδαίμων. 
14 ΑἸἰγόκερως - ᾿Ινδική, ᾿Αριανή, Γεδρωσία : περὶ 
τὸ μέσον Θράκη, Μακεδονία, ᾽Ϊλλυρίς. 
“Ὑδροχόος - Σαυροματική, ᾿Οξειανή, Σουγδιανή " 
\ A / oA / Al ἐφ / Até / 
περὶ τὸ μέσον Apafia, 'Alavia, μέση Αἰθιοπία. 
᾿Ιχθῦς - Φαζανία, Νασαμωνῖτις, Γαραμαντική - 
περὶ τὸ μέσον Λυδία, Κιλικία, Παμφυλία." 
᾿Εκκειμένων δὲ τούτων εὔλογον κἀκεῖνα τούτῳ 
τῷ μέρει προσθεῖναι, διότι καὶ τῶν ἀπλανῶν 
ἀστέρων ἕκαστος συνοικειοῦται ταῖς χώραις ὅσαις 
καὶ τὰ τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ μέρη, μεθ᾽ ὧν ἔχουσιν ot 
ἀπλανεῖς τὰς προσνεύσεις ἐπὶ τοῦ διὰ τῶν πόλων 

! Κυρηναϊκή libri, om. Cam. 
5 γίνονται χῶραι οβ΄ post haec add. VMProc. 



Gemini: Hyrcania, Armenia, Matiana; in the 
centre, Cyrenaica, Marmarica, Lower Egypt. 

Cancer: Numidia, Carthage, Africa; in the 
centre, Bithynia, Phrygia, Colchica. 

Leo: Italy, Cisalpine Gaul, Sicily, Apulia; in the 
centre, Phoenicia, Chaldaea, Orchenia. 

Virgo: Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Assyria ; in the 
centre, Hellas, Achaia, Crete. 

Libra: Bactriana, Casperia, Serica ; in the centre, 
Thebais, Oasis, Troglodytica. 

Scorpio: Metagonitis, Mauritania, Gaetulia; in 
the centre, Syria, Commagené, Cappadocia. 

Sagittarius: Tyrrhenia, Celtica, Spain; in the 
centre, Arabia Felix. 

Capricorn : India, Ariana, Gedrosia ; in the centre, 
Thrace, Macedonia, Illyria. 

Aquarius: Sauromatica, Oxiana, Sogdiana; in 
the centre, Arabia, Azania, Middle Ethiopia. 

Pisces: Phazania, Nasamonitis, Garamantica ; 
in the centre, Lydia, Cilicia, Pamphylia.! 

Now that the subject at hand has been set forth, 
it is reasonable to attach to this section this further 
consideration—that each of the fixed stars has 
familiarity with the countries with which the parts 
of the zodiac, which have the same inclinations as 
the fixed stars? upon the circle drawn through its 

1“* Total, 72 countries,’’ is found in some MSS. and 
Proclus. There are actually 73 in the list as given here, 
but there is a certain amount of confusion in the MSS. 

2 These are the so-called παρανατέλλοντα, stars which rise 
and set at the same time as the degrees or sections of the 
ecliptic, but to the north or south of them. See Boll- 
Bezold-Gundel, pp. 55, 141 ff. 



1 / ΄ λ / , 
γραφομένου κύκλου, φαίνεται ποιούμενα 

τὴν συμπάθειαν, καὶ ὅτι ἐπὶ τῶν μητροπόλεων 
ἐκεῖνοι μάλιστα συμπαθοῦσιν οἱ τόποι τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ 
καθ᾽ ὧν " ἐν ταῖς καταρχαῖς τῶν κτίσεων αὐτῶν ὡς 
ἐπὶ γενέσεως 3 6 τε ἥλιος καὶ ἡ σελήνη παρ- 
οδεύοντες ἐτύγχανον καὶ τῶν κέντρων μάλιστα τὸ 
ὡροσκοποῦν: ἐφ᾽ ὧν δ᾽ οἱ χρόνοι τῶν κτίσεων οὐχ 
εὑρίσκονται, καθ᾽ ὧν ἐν ταῖς" τῶν κατὰ καιρὸν 
ἀρχόντων ἢ βασιλευόντων γενέσεσιν ἐκπίπτει τὸ 


.> ἜἜφοδος εἰς τὰς κατὰ μέρος 

4h Pi “ / 6 5» 7 an 
OUTWY οὕτως προεπεσκεμμένων ὃ ἀκόλουθον av 
ww ‘ ‘ ~ ͵ » ,ὔ 
εἴη λοιπὸν τὰς τῶν προτελέσεων ἐφόδους κεφα- 
- \ ~ ~ 
λαιώδως ἐπελθεῖν, καὶ πρῶτον τῶν καθ᾽ ὅλας περι- 
/ ~ Ἅ 5X r ,ὔ 7 » 
τὸ στάσεις χωρῶν ἢ πόλεων λαμβανομένων. ἔσται 
5 ~ ~ > 
δ᾽ 6 τρόπος τῆς ἐπισκέψεως τοιοῦτος - ἡ μὲν οὖν 
/ ~ / 
πρώτη καὶ ἰσχυροτάτη τῶν τοιούτων συμπτωμάτων 
αἰτία γίνεται παρὰ τὰς ἐκλειπτικὰς ἡλίου καὶ 
΄ / \ > A - 
σελήνης συζυγίας καὶ τὰς ἐν αὐταῖς παρόδους τῶν 
3 / ~ \ , - ,ὔ ’ὔ 
ἀστέρων. τῆς δὲ προτελέσεως αὐτῆς τὸ μέν τί 
> ’ 3 - , 
ἐστι τοπικόν, Kal’ ὃ δεῖ προγινώσκειν ποίαις 
1 αὐτῶν NACam. 2 ὧν PMAE, ὃν VLNDCam. 
3 γενέσεως VD, -εων (-awwv) PNMAECam., ἐπιγενέσεων L. 
4 καθ᾽ ὧν MAE, καθ᾽ ἣν VD, om. PLNCam. 
5 ἐν ταῖς VPLMADE, εἰς τὴν... γένεσιν NCam. 
8 προεπεσκεμμένων VD, προεσκημένων P, προεσκευασμένων L, 
προκειμένων A, προεκκειμένων (-eyx-) MNECam., προειρημένων 

7 λαμβανομένων VME, -ov D, -as NACam., λαμβάνομεν PL. 



poles, appear to exert sympathy; furthermore, that, 
in the case of metropolitan cities, those regions of 
the zodiac are most sympathetic through which the 
sun and moon, and of the centres especially the 
horoscope, were passing at the first founding of 
the city, as in a nativity. But in cases in which 
the exact times of the foundations are not discovered, 
the regions are sympathetic in which falls the mid- 
heaven of the nativities of those who held office or 
were kings at the time.' 

4. Method of Making Particular Predictions. 

After this introductory examination it would be 
the next task to deal briefly with the procedure of 
the predictions, and first with those concerned with 
general conditions of countries or cities. The method 
of the inquiry will be as follows: The first and most 
potent cause of such events lies in the conjunctions 
of the sun and moon at eclipse and the movements 
of the stars at the time. Of the prediction itself, 
one portion is regional ; 2. therein we must foresee 

‘The procedure, therefore, is to treat a city like a person 
and cast its nativity, using instead of the time of birth the 
time of founding. If the latter is not accurately known, 
the astrologer should take the nativity of the founder, or 
other individual prominent in the enterprise, and observe 
where its mid-heaven talls. 

2 Ptolemy divides inquiries about cities and countries 
into four heads; what place is affected, the time and 
duration of the event, the generic classification of the 
event (i.e. what classes, genera, it will affect), and the 
quality, or nature, of the event itself. His terminology is 
Aristotelian. The next four chapters deal with the four 

phases of the inquiry. 


/ δ / « ‘ / > , Ἅ Α 
χώραις 7) πόλεσιν αἱ κατὰ μέρος ἐκλείψεις ἢ καὶ 
~ « 
τῶν πλανωμένων αἱ κατὰ καιροὺς ἔμμονοι | στάσεις * 
- Resa? , \ \ .» “ 
αὗται δέ εἰσι Κρόνου τε καὶ Atos καὶ Ἄρεως, ὅταν 
στηρίζωσι - 3 ποιοῦνται γὰρ τότε τὰς ὃ ἐπισημασίας * 
τὸ δέ τι χρονικόν, καθ᾽ ὃ τὸν καιρὸν τῶν ἐπιση- 
~ ΄- / \ / 
μασιῶν Kal τῆς παρατάσεως τὴν ποσότητα δεήσει 
προγινώσκειν " τὸ δέ τι γενικόν, καθ᾽ 6 προσήκει 
λαμβάνειν περὶ ποῖα τῶν γενῶν ἀποβήσεται τὸ σύμ- 
A > A ~ 
πτωμα > τελευταῖον δὲ τὸ εἰδικόν, καθ᾽ ὃ τὴν αὐτοῦ 
~ fe 
τοῦ ἀποτελεσθησομένου ποιότητα θεωρήσομεν. 

<e.> Περὶ τῆς τῶν διατιθεμένων 
χωρῶν ἐπισκέψεως 

Tlepi μὲν οὖν τοῦ πρώτου καὶ τοπικοῦ τὴν διά- 
ληψιν ποιησόμεθα τοιαύτην: κατὰ γὰρ τὰς γινο- 
μένας ἐκλειπτικὰς συζυγίας ἡλίου καὶ σελήνης, καὶ 
μάλιστα τὰς εὐαισθητοτέρας, ἐπισκεψόμεθα τόν τε 
ἐκλειπτικὸν τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ τόπον καὶ τὰς τῶν κατ᾽ 
αὐτὸν 4 τριγώνων ὃ συνοικειουμένας ὅ χώρας " καὶ 
ὁμοίως τίνες τῶν πόλεων ἤτοι ἐκ τῆς κατὰ τὴν 
πὸ κτίσιν ὡροσκοπίας καὶ φωσφορίας ἢ ἐκ τῆς τῶν 

1 ἔμμονοι vM AD, ἔμμηνοι PNECam. .. ἔμμηνα L; of. αἱ τῶν 
πλανωμένων ἐπιμένουσαι κατὰ καιροὺς στάσεις Proc. 
2 στηρίζωσι VADProc., -ovra L, -οντες PNMECam. 
8 ποιοῦνται... τὰς κτλ. VD Proce. ; ποιῶσι(ν) (aut ποιήσωσι) 
τὰς κτλ. alii libri Cam. 
4 κατ᾽ αὐτὸν VMADE, κατ᾽ αὐτῶν L, κατὰ τῶν P, κατὰ τὰ 
5 τριγώνων VPLMDH, -w A, -a NCam. 
ὃ συνοικειουμένας VADE, -wy MNCam., -ewpevas P, 
-ειωμένων L. 



for what countries or cities there is significance 
in the various eclipses or in the occasional regular 
stations of the planets, that is, of Saturn, Jupiter, 
and Mars, whenever they halt, for then they are 
significant. Another division of the prediction is 
chronological ; therein the need will be to foretell the 
time of the portents and their duration. A part, too, 
is generic; through this we ought to understand 
with what classes the event will be concerned. And 
finally there is the specific aspect, by which we shall 
discern the quality of the event itself. 

5. Of the Examination of the Countries Affected. 

We are to judge of the first portion of the inquiry, 
which is regional, in the following manner: In the 
eclipses of sun and moon ! as they occur, particularly 
those more easily observed,” we shall examine the 
region of the zodiac in which they take place, and 
the countries in familiarity with its triangles, and in 
similar fashion ascertain which of the cities, either 
from their horoscope * at the time of their founding 
and the position of the luminaries at the time, or 

1 Johannes Laurentius Lydus (De ostentis, 9) deals with 
a system of prediction whereby eclipses of the sun refer 
to Asia and those of the moon to Europe. Ptolemy 
makes no such sweeping distinction. 

2 Ptolemy takes no account of eclipses not visible at the 
place concerned. 

3 That is, the sign in the ascendant, or horoscopic posi- 
tion, at that time. 



τότε ἡγεμονευόντων μεσουρανήσεως συμπάθειαν 
ἔχουσι πρὸς τὸ τῆς ἐκλείψεως δωδεκατημόριον. 
279 a 3 bal ~ Ἃ ᾽ὔ « , A 
ἐφ᾽ ὅσων δ᾽ av χωρῶν ἢ πόλεων εὑρίσκωμεν τὴν 
προκειμένην συνοικείωσιν, περὶ πάσας ' μὲν ὡς ἐπὶ 
πᾶν ὑπονοητέον ἔσεσθαί τι σύμπτωμα, μάλιστα δὲ 
‘ δ ‘ 5 \ A ~ > / 

περὶ τὰς πρὸς αὐτὸ TO τῆς ἐκλείψεως δωδεκατη- 
μόριον λόγον ἐχούσας καὶ ἐν ὅσαις αὐτῶν ὑπὲρ γῆν 
> com Ν > , 2 
οὖσα ἡ ἔκλειψις ἐφαίνετο. 

<s.> Περὶ τοῦ χρόνου τῶν ἀποτελου- 

Τὸ δὲ δεύτερον καὶ χρονικὸν κεφάλαιον, καθ᾽ ὃ 
τοὺς καιροὺς τῶν ἐπισημασιῶν καὶ τῆς παρατάσεως 
τὴν ποσότητα προσήκει διαγινώσκειν, ἐπισκεψόμεθα 
τρόπῳ τοιῷδε. τῶν γὰρ κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν χρόνον 
γινομένων ἐκλείψεων μὴ κατὰ πᾶσαν οἴκησιν ἐν 
ταῖς αὐταῖς καιρικαῖς ὥραις ἀποτελουμένων, τῶν τε 
ἡλιακῶν τῶν αὐτῶν 3 μηδὲ τὰ μεγέθη τῶν ἐπισκοτή- 
σεων ἢ τὸν χρόνον τῶν παρατάσεων κατὰ τὸ ἴσον 
πανταχῆ λαμβανουσῶν, πρῶτον μὲν κατὰ τὴν ἐν 
ἑκάστῃ τῶν λόγον ἐχουσῶν οἰκήσεων ἐκλειπτικὴν 
ὥραν καὶ τὸ τοῦ πόλου ἔξαρμα κέντρα ὡς ἐπὶ 

1 πάσας] cf. Proc. πᾶσαι : ταύτας NCam. 

2 ἐφαίνετο VADEProc., φαίνεται Ῥ (φεν-)Ὶ. ΜΝ Όδτα. 

ὃϑτῶν αὐτῶν VPLDProc.; δηλαδὴ καὶ τῶν σεληνιακῶν 
NACam. ; καὶ τῶν σεληνιακῶν τῶν αὐτῶν ME. 

4 κέντρα VADProc., τά τε κέντρα PLNCam., καὶ τὰ κέντρα 



from the mid-heaven of the nativity ' of their then 
rulers, are sympathetic 2 to the zodiacal sign of the 
eclipse. And in whatsoever countries or cities we 
discover a familiarity of this kind, we must suppose 
that some event will occur which applies, generally 
speaking, to all of them, particularly to those which 
bear a relation to the actual zodiacal sign of the 
eclipse and to those of them in which the eclipse, 
since it took place above the earth, was visible. 

6. Of the Time of the Predicted Events. 

The second and chronological heading, whereby 
we should learn the times of the events signified and 
the length of their duration, we shall consider as 
follows. Inasmuch as the eclipses which take place 
at the same time are not completed in the same 
number of ordinary hours® in every locality, and 
since the same solar eclipses do not everywhere have 
the same degree of obscuration or the same time of 
duration, we shall first set down for the hour of the 
eclipse, in each of the related localities, and for the 
altitude of the pole,* centres, as in a nativity ; 

1The mid-heaven was regarded by many, including 
Ptolemy, as the most important of the centres, or angles, 
even surpassing the horoscope itself in its significance in 
certain ways. Cf. Bouché-Leclercq, p. 271 (with n. 2). 

4 That is, bear an aspect to. 

3 Civil hours, twelfth parts of the day-time or the night- 
time. They vary in length according to the latitude and 
the time of the year. Cf. the note on horary periods, iii. 
10 (p. 292, n. 2). 

‘That is, the latitude; from this the centres or angles 
can be determined, 



ὃ θ / ” ee eas ’, 1 > 
γενέσεως διαθήσομεν * ἔπειτα Kal ἐπὶ πόσας" ἰσημε- 
Ν σ > « ’ > ~ 
ρινὰς ὥρας ἐν ἑκάστῃ 2 παρατείνει TO ἐπισκίασμα τῆς 
> / 7 
77 ἐκλείψεως - τούτων yap ἐξετασθέντων ὅσας ἂν ἰσημε- 
‘ a σ > - YQ ~ \ > / > οὐ 
ρινὰς ὥρας εὕρωμεν͵ ἐφ᾽ ἡλιακῆς μὲν ἐκλείψεως ἐπὶ 
/ > 
τοσούτους ἐνιαυτοὺς παραμένειν ὑπονοήσομεν TO 
3 > ~ 
ἀποτελούμενον, ἐπὶ δὲ σεληνιακῆς ἐπὶ τοσούτους 
μῆνας, τῶν μέντοι καταρχῶν καὶ τῶν ὁλοσχερεστέ- 
> ~ ~ 
ρων ἐπιτάσεων 3 θεωρουμένων ἃ ἐκ τῆς τοῦ ἐκλειπ- 
τικοῦ τόπου πρὸς τὰ κέντρα σχέσεως. πρὸς μὲν 
a > ~ 3 
γὰρ τῷ ἀπηλιωτικῷ ὁρίζοντι 6 τόπος ἐκπεσὼν τήν τε 
\ ~ / 
καταρχὴν τοῦ συμπτώματος KATA τὴν πρώτην τετρά- 
9 ~ a ? \ 
μηνον ἀπὸ τοῦ χρόνου τῆς ἐκλείψεως σημαίνει καὶ τὰς 
A > ~ 
ὁλοσχερεῖς ὃ ἐπιτάσεις περὶ TO πρῶτον τριτημόριον 
“- θ᾽ δλ 6 \ 4 7 / ἌΡ Si δὲ ~ 
τοῦ καθ᾽ ὅλην" τὴν παράτασιν χρόνου " πρὸς ὃ δὲ τῷ 
μεσουρανήματι, κατά τε τὴν δευτέραν τετράμηνον 
καὶ τὸ μέσον τριτημόριον- πρὸς δὲ τῷ λιβυκῷ 
ὁρίζοντι, κατὰ τὴν τρίτην τετράμηνον καὶ τὸ ἔσχατον 
τριτημόριον. τῶν δὲ κατὰ μέρος ἀνέσεων καὶ 
ἐπιτάσεων ἀπό τε τῶν ἀνὰ μέσον συζυγιῶν, ὅταν 
~ >? ~ 
κατὰ τῶν TO αἴτιον ἐμποιούντων τόπων ἢ τῶν 
συσχηματιζομένων τόπων αὐτοῖς συμπίπτωσι, καὶ 

1 ὡς ἐπὶ πόσας PLMNECam., om. ὡς VADProc. 

2 Post ἑκάστῃ add. τῶν λόγον ἐχουσῶν οἰκήσεων PLNCam. ; 
om. VMADE. 

3 τρόπους post ἐπιτάσεων add. Cam., om. libri. 

4 Gewpovpevwy VMDE, θεωροῦμεν (Aeop-) PLNACam. 

ὃ tas ὅλας ὁλοσχερεῖς PLNACam. ; ὅλας om. VMDEPros., 

ὃ kal’ ὅλην VMDE, καθ᾽ ὅλου PLNACam. 

Τ᾿ τὴν παράτασιν VPLMADHE, τῆς παρατάσεως NCam. 

8 πρὸς libri et Cam.1, ἐν Cam.? 



secondly, how many equinoctial hours! the obscura 
tion of the eclipse lasts in each. For when these 
data are examined, if it is a solar eclipse, we shall 
understand that the predicted event lasts as many 
years * as the equinoctial hours which we discover, 
and if a lunar eclipse, as many months. The nature 
of the beginnings * and of the more important in- 
tensifications * of the events, however, are deduced 
from the position of the place of the eclipse relative 
to the centres. For if the place of the eclipse falls on 
the eastern horizon, this signifies that the beginning 
of the predicted event is in the first period of four 
months from the time of the eclipse and that its 
important intensifications lie in the first third of the 
entire period of its duration ; if on the mid-heaven, 
in the second four months and the middle third ; if 
upon the western horizon, in the third four months 
and the final third. The beginnings of the particular 
abatements and intensifications of the event we 
deduce from the conjunctions which take place in the 
meantime,” if they occur in the significant regions or 

* An equinoctial hour is the time measured by the passage 
of 15° of the equator (τς of 360°) past the horizon or other 
fixed point. 

* A distinction is made because solar and lunar eclipses 
are of very different lengths; a total lunar eclipse may last 
nearly two hours, compared with eight minutes in the case 
of the sun. 

8. καταρχαΐί, that is, when the predicted event is due. 

4 ἐπιτάσεις, ‘“‘intensifications,’ as opposed to “ re- 
laxations’’; a metaphor drawn from the tightening and 
loosening of the strings of a musical instrument. 

δ᾽ During the period of the predicted effect (Bouché- 
Leclereq, p. 351). 



ἀπὸ τῶν ἄλλων παρόδων, ὅταν οἱ ποιητικοὶ τοῦ 
προτελέσματος ἀστέρες ἀνατολὰς ἢ δύσεις ἢ στη- 
ριγμοὺς ἢ ἀκρονύκτους φάσεις ποιῶνται, συσχη- 
ματιζόμενοι τοῖς τὸ αἴτιον ἔχουσι δωδεκατημορίοις " 

78 ἐπειδήπερ ἀνατέλλοντες μὲν ἢ στηρίζοντες ἐπιτάσεις 
ποιοῦνται τῶν συμπτωμάτων, δύνοντες δὲ καὶ ὑπὸ 
τὰς αὐγὰς ὄντες ἢ ἀκρονύκτους ποιούμενοι προηγή- 
σεις ἄνεσιν τῶν ἀποτελουμένων ποιοῦσιν. 

<C> Περὶ τοῦ γένους τῶν διατιθεμένων 

Τρίτου δ᾽ ὄντος κεφαλαίου τοῦ γενικοῦ, καθ᾽ ὃ δεῖ 
διαλαβεῖν περὶ ποῖα τῶν γενῶν ἀποβήσεται τὸ 
σύμπτωμα, λαμβάνεται καὶ τοῦτο διὰ τῆς τῶν 
ζῳδίων ἰδιοτροπίας καὶ μορφώσεως καθ᾽ ὧν ἂν 
τύχωσιν ὄντες οἵ τε τῶν ἐκλείψεων τόποι καὶ οἱ τὴν 
οἰκοδεσποτίαν λαβόντες τῶν ἀστέρων, τῶν τε πλανω- 
μένων καὶ τῶν ἀπλανῶν, τοῦ τε τῆς ἐκλείψεως 
δωδεκατημορίου καὶ τοῦ κατὰ τὸ κέντρον τὸ πρὸ 
τῆς ἐκλείψεως. λαμβάνεται δὲ ἡ τούτων οἰκοδε- 
σποτία ἐπὶ μὲν τῶν πλανωμένων ἀστέρων οὕτως. 
ὁ γὰρ τοὺς πλείστους λόγους ἔχων πρὸς ἀμφοτέρους 
τοὺς ἐκκειμένους τόπους, τόν τε τῆς ἐκλείψεως καὶ 
τὸν τοῦ ἑπομένου αὐτῷ κέντρου, κατά τε τὰς ἔγγιστα 
καὶ φαινομένας συναφὰς ἢ ἀπορροίας καὶ τοὺς 
λόγους ἔχοντας τῶν συσχηματισμῶν, καὶ ἔτι κατὰ 
τὴν κυρίαν τῶν τε οἴκων καὶ τριγώνων καὶ ὑψω- 
μάτων ἢ καὶ ὁρίων, ἐκεῖνος λήψεται “ὄνος τὴν 

1 παρόδων VP (παρρ-) LDProc.; παρανατελλόντων MNAE 



the regions in some aspect to them, and also from 
the other movements of the planets, if those that 
effect the predicted event are either rising or setting 
or stationary or at evening rising, and are at the 
same time in some aspect to the zodiacal signs that 
hold the cause ; for planets when they are rising or 
stationary produce intensifications in the events, but 
when setting, and under the rays of the sun,’ or ad- 
vancing at evening, they bring about an abatement. 

7. Of the Class of those Affected. 

The third heading is that of generic classification, 
whereby one must determine what classes the event 
will affect. This is ascertained from the special 
nature and form of the zodiacal signs in which happen 
to be the places of the eclipses and in which are the 
heavenly bodies, planets and fixed stars alike, that 
govern both the sign of the eclipse and that of the 
angle preceding the eclipse. In the case of the 
planets we discover the rulership of these regions 
thus: The one which has the greatest number of 
relationships to both the regions aforesaid, that of 
the eclipse and that of the angle which follows it, 
both by virtue of the nearest visible applications or 
recessions, and by those of the aspects which bear 
a-relation, and furthermore by rulership of the 
houses, triangles, exaltations, and terms, that planet 

1Too near the sun to be visible; combustus ; cf. Bouché- 

Leclereq, p. 111, n. 3. “‘Advancing”’ is the same as 
“adding to its motion”’; ef. above, p. 115, n. 4. 

‘ ‘ ~ ~ 
270K. τὸ πρὸ P (πρὼλ L; τοῦ κέντρου τοῦ πρὸ MAE; κατὰ 

τοῦ κέντρου πρὸ τῆς κτλ. Proc. ; τὸ πρὸ om. VDNCam. 

ῳ 169 


οἰκοδεσποτίαν * εἰ δὲ μὴ ὁ αὐτὸς εὑρίσκοιτο τῆς 
τε ἐκλείψεως καὶ τοῦ κέντρου κύριος, δύο" τοὺς 
19 πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν τόπων τὰς πλείους ἔχοντας, 
ὡς πρόκειται, συνοικειώσεις συμπαραληπτέον, προ- 
κρινομένου τοῦ τῆς ἐκλείψεως κυρίου - εἰ δὲ πλείους 
εὑρίσκοιντο καθ᾽ ἑκάτερον ἐφάμιλλοι͵ τὸν ἐπικεντρό- 
τερον ἢ χρηματιστικώτερον ἢ τῆς αἱρέσεως μᾶλλον 
ὄντα προκρινοῦμεν εἰς τὴν οἰκοδεσποτίαν. ἐπὶ δὲ 
τῶν ἀπλανῶν συμπαραληψόμεθα τόν τε αὐτῷ τῷ 
ἐκλειπτικῷ χρόνῳ 2 συγκεχρηματικότα πρῶτον τῶν 
λαμπρῶν ὃ ἐπὶ τῆς παρῳχημένης κεντρώσεως κατὰ 
τοὺς διωρισμένους ἡμῖν ἐν τῇ πρώτῃ συντάξει τῶν 
ἐννέα τρόπων φαινομένους σχηματισμούς, καὶ τὸν 
ἐν τῇ φαινομένῃ κατὰ τὴν ἐκλειπτικὴν ὥραν δια- 
θέσει, ἤτοι συνανατείλαντα ἢ συμμεσουρανήσαντα τῷ 
κατὰ τὰ ἑπόμενα κέντρῳ 4 τοῦ τόπου τῆς ἐκλείψεως. 
Θεωρηθέντων δὲ οὕτως τῶν εἰς τὴν αἰτίαν τοῦ 
συμπτώματος παραλαμβανομένων ἀστέρων, συνεπι- 
σκεψώμεθα καὶ τὰς τῶν ζῳδίων μορφώσεις ἐν οἷς 
ἥ τε ἔκλειψις καὶ οἱ τὴν κυρίαν λαβόντες ἀστέρες 
ἔτυχον ὄντες, ὡς ἀπὸ τῆς τούτων ἰδιοτροπίας καὶ 
τοῦ ποιοῦ τῶν διατιθεμένων γενῶν ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν 
λαμβανομένου. τὰ μὲν γὰρ ἀνθρωπόμορφα τῶν 
ζῳδίων τῶν τε περὶ τὸν διὰ μέσων τῶν ζῳδίων 
1 δύο δὲ PLNCam., ἀλλὰ δύο MAE, δὲ om. VDProc. 
2 χρόνῳ VDProc., τόπῳ alii Cam. 

8 τῶν λαμπρῶν VMADEProc., τὸν λαμπρὸν PL, τῷ λαμπρῷ 
NCam. 4 κέντρῳ VMADEProc., -a PLNCam. 

1The anonymous commentator on Ptolemy gives as 
examples of reasons for preferring one to another that it is 



alone will hold the dominance. However, if the same 
planet is not found to be both lord of the eclipse and 
of the angle, we must take together the two which 
have the greatest number of familiarities, as aforesaid, 
to either one of the regions, giving preference to the 
lord of the eclipse. And if several rivals be found on 
either count, we shall prefer for the domination the 
one which is closest to an angle, or is more significant, 
or is more closely allied by sect.1_ In the case of the 
fixed stars, we shall take the first one of the brilliant 
stars which signifies upon the preceding angle at 
the actual time of the eclipse, according to the nine 
kinds of visible aspects defined in our first com- 
pilation,? and the star which of the group visible at 
the time of the eclipse has either risen or reached 
meridian with the angle following the place of the 

When we have thus reckoned the stars that share 
in causing the event, let us also consider the forms 
of the signs of the zodiac in which the eclipse and 
the dominating stars as well happened to be, since 
from their character the quality of the classes 
affected is generally discerned. Constellations of 
human form, both in the zodiac and among the 


in the superior hemisphere, or is “‘ adding to its motion,”’ 
or rising, or if these characteristics appear in all the rivals, 
that it is of the proper sect. 

* The reference is to the Almagest, viii. 4. They are 
πρωινὸς ἀπηλιώτης (matutine subsolar), πρωινὸν μεσουράνημα 
(matutine culmination), πρωινὸς Ads (matutine setting), 
μεσημβρινὸς ἀπηλιώτης (meridianal subsolar), μεσημβρινὸν 
μεσουράνημα (meridianal culmination), μεσημβρινὸς λίψ 
(meridianal setting), owos ἀπηλιώτης (vespertine sub- 
solar), ὀψινὸν μεσουράνημα (vespertine culmination), and 
ὀψινὸς Ap (vespertine setting). 



~ > aA > 
κύκλον Kal τῶν κατὰ τοὺς ἀπλανεῖς ἀστέρας, περὶ 
τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων γένος ποιεῖ τὸ ἀποτελούμενον. 
80 τῶν δὲ ἄλλων χερσαίων τὰ μὲν τετράποδα περὶ τὰ 
ὅμοια τῶν ἀλόγων ζῴων, τὰ δὲ ἑρπυστικὰ περὶ 
τοὺς ὄφεις καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα. καὶ πάλιν τὰ μὲν 
> ~ ΄ 
θηριώδη περὶ τὰ ἀνήμερα τῶν ζῴων καὶ βλαπτικὰ 
~ ~ 7 
τοῦ τῶν ἀνθρώπων γένους, τὰ δὲ ἥμερα περὶ τὰ 
χρηστικὰ καὶ χειροήθη} καὶ συνεργητικὰ πρὸς 
3 A 
τὰς εὐετηρίας ἀναλόγως τοῖς καθ᾽ ἕκαστα μορφώ- 
μασιν, οἷον ἵππων ἢ βοῶν ἢ προβάτων καὶ τῶν 
τοιούτων. ἔτι δὲ τῶν χερσαίων τὰ μὲν πρὸς 
a “ ~ ~ / 
ταῖς ἄρκτοις μᾶλλον περὶ τὰς τῆς γῆς αἰφνιδί- 
ovs κινήσεις, τὰ δὲ πρὸς μεσημβρίαν περὶ τὰς 
~ ? 
ἀπροσδοκήτους ἐκ τοῦ ἀέρος ῥύσεις. πάλιν δὲ ἐν 
a - ΄ tA 
μὲν τοῖς TOV πτερωτῶν μορφώμασιν ὄντες οἱ κύριοι 
~ ‘ 
τόποι οἷον Ilapbévw, Τοξότῃ, “Opvibt,? ἀετῷ 3 καὶ 
“ ν ‘ \ Ἵ \ \ / - ‘\ > 
τοῖς τοιούτοις, περὶ TA πτηνὰ καὶ μάλιστα τὰ εἰς 
“- > \ - 
τροφὴν ἀνθρώπων τὸ σύμπτωμα ποιοῦσιν, ἐν δὲ τοῖς 
a ~ \ 4 
νηκτοῖς * περὶ τὰ ἔνυδρα καὶ τοὺς ἰχθῦς. Kal τούτων 
> \ - , a , ὅπ 
ἐν μὲν τοῖς θαλαττίοις, οἷον Καρκίνῳ, Αἰγόκερῳ, 
4 Xr A 5 \ \ θ λ Ψ᾽ \ om” i ~ δ ~ 
eAdin,®> περὶ τὰ θαλάττια, Kal ἔτι τὰς τῶν στολῶν 
1 καὶ καταχρηστικὰ post χειροήθη add. PLNCam.; om. 
2"Opride VMADE, -os PNCam., ’Opvéwv L. 
3 Δετῷ VMADE, ς΄. Proc. ; τοῖς ᾽Ορνέοις PLNCam. 
4ynxrois NAECam.!; cf. νηχόμενα Proc.; νυκτοῖς alii 

® Δελφῖνι VMADE, -νῳ PL, -va NCam. 

1Cf. i. 12 for classifications of the signs. Rhetorius, 
ap. CCAG, i. 164 ff., names as signs of human form 
Gemini, Virgo, Libra, Aquarius, and (in part) Sagittarius. 



fixed stars, cause the event to concern the human 
race.| Of the other terrestrial signs,? the four- 
footed * are concerned with the four-footed dumb 
animals, and the signs formed like creeping things * 
with serpents and the like. Again, the animal ὃ signs 
have significance for the wild animals and those which 
injure the human race ; the tame signs concern the use- 
ful and domesticated animals, and those which help 
to gain prosperity, in consistency with their several 
forms ; for example, horses, oxen, sheep, and the like. 
Again, of the terrestrial signs, the northern tend to 
signify sudden earthquakes and the southern un- 
expected rains fromthesky. Yet again, those domi- 
nant regions that are in the form of winged creatures,® 
such as Virgo, Sagittarius, Cygnus, Aquila, and the 
like, exercise an effect upon winged creatures, par- 
ticularly those which are used for human food, and 
if they are in the form of swimming things, upon 
water animals and fish. And of these, in the con- 
stellations pertaining to the sea,’ such as Cancer, 
Capricorn, and the Dolphin, they influence the 

Among the extra-zodiacal constellations might be cited 
Orion, Perseus, Andromeda, ete. 

2 Rhetorius, loc. cit., names Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Leo, 
Virgo, Libra, Scorpio. 

3 Aries, Taurus, Leo, Sagittarius (Rhetorius, loc. citt.). 

4 To be sought among extra-zodiacal constellations, such 
as Draco, rather than the zodiac. 

5 θηριώδη; Taurus, Leo, and Scorpio, according to 
Rhetorius, loc. cit. 

6 Rhetorius, loc. cit., names Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces. 

7 Rhetorius, loc. cit., designates as watery (évvdpa) 
Pisces, Cancer, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Sagittarius, of 
the zodiac. 





dvaywyds ἐν δὲ τοῖς ποταμίοις οἷον “Ὑδροχόῳ Kat 
᾿Ιχθύσι, περὶ τὰ ποτάμια καὶ τὰ πηγαῖα κατὰ δὲ 
τὴν Apyw περὶ ἀμφότερα τὰ γένη. ὡσαύτως δ᾽ 1 
ἐν τοῖς τροπικοῖς ἢ ἰσημερινοῖς ὄντες κοινῶς μὲν 
περὶ τὰ τοῦ ἀέρος καταστήματα καὶ τὰς οἰκείας 
ἑκάστοις αὐτῶν ὥρας ἀποτελοῦσι τὰς ἐπισημασίας, 
ἰδίως δὲ καὶ περὶ τὸ ἔαρ καὶ περὶ" τὰ ἐκ τῆς γῆς 
φυόμενα. κατὰ μὲν γὰρ τὴν ἐαρινὴν ἰσημερίαν 
ὄντες περὶ τοὺς βλαστοὺς τῶν δενδρικῶν καρπῶν, 
οἷον ἀμπέλου, συκῆς, καὶ τῶν συνακμαζόντων " 
κατὰ δὲ τὴν θερινὴν τροπὴν περὶ τὰς τῶν καρπο- 
φορηθέντων συγκομιδὰς καὶ ἀποθέσεις - ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ 
δὲ ἰδικῶς καὶ περὶ τὴν τοῦ Νείλου ἀνάβασιν - κατὰ 
δὲ τὴν μετοπωρινὴν ἰσημερίαν περὶ τὸν σπόρον καὶ 
τὰ χορτικὰ, καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα" κατὰ δὲ τὴν χειμερινὴν 
τροπὴν περὶ τὰς λαχανείας καὶ τὰ κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν 
καιρὸν ἐπιπολάζοντα ὀρνέων ἢ ἰχθύων γένη ἔτι 
δὲ καὶ τὰ μὲν ἰσημερινὰ τοῖς ἱεροῖς καὶ ταῖς περὶ 
τοὺς θεοὺς θρησκείαις ἐπισημαίνει - τὰ δὲ τροπικὰ 
ταῖς τῶν ἀέρων καὶ ταῖς τῶν πολιτικῶν εἰθισμένων 3 
μεταβολαῖς - τὰ δὲ στερεὰ τοῖς θεμελίοις καὶ τοῖς 
οἰκοδομήμασι: τὰ δὲ δίσωμα καὶ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις 
καὶ τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν. ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τὰ μὲν πρὸς 
ταῖς ἀνατολαῖς μᾶλλον ἔχοντα τὴν θέσιν ἐν τῷ 
χρόνῳ τῆς ἐκλείψεως περὶ τοὺς καρποὺς καὶ τὴν 
νέαν ἡλικίαν καὶ τοὺς θεμελίους τὸ ἐσόμενον 
σημαίνει: τὰ δὲ πρὸς τῷ ὑπὲρ γῆν μεσουρανή- 
ματι περὶ τὰ ἱερὰ καὶ τοὺς βασιλέας καὶ τὴν μέσην 
ἡλικίαν" τὰ δὲ πρὸς ταῖς δυσμαῖς περὶ τὰς τῶν 
1 ὡσαύτως. οἱ δ(έ) MNCam. 



creatures of the sea and the sailing of fleets. In the 
constellations pertaining to rivers, such as Aquarius 
and Pisces, they concern the creatures of rivers and 
springs, and in Argo they affect both classes alike. 
Likewise stars in the solstitial | or equinoctial signs 
have significance in general for the conditions of the 
air and the seasons related to each of these signs, 
and in particular they concern the spring and things 
which grow from the earth. For when they are at 
the spring equinox they affect the new shoots of the 
arboreal crops, such as grapes and figs, and what- 
ever matures with them ; at the summer solstice, the 
gathering and storing of the crops, and in Egypt. 
peculiarly, the rising of the Nile; at the autumn 
solstice they concern the sowing, the hay crops, and 
such ; and at the winter equinox the vegetables and 
the kinds of birds and fish most common at this 
season. Further, the equinoctial signs have sig- 
nificance for sacred rites and the worship of the gods ; 
the solstitial signs, for changes in the air and in 
political customs ; the solid signs,” for foundations 
and the construction of houses ; the bicorporeal, for 
men and kings. Similarly, those which are closer to 
the orient at the time of the eclipse signify what is 
to be concerning the crops, youth, and foundations ; 
those near the mid-heaven above the earth, con- 
cerning sacred rites, kings, and middle age; and 

1 Of. i. 11. 2 Ibid. 

3 τὸ ἔαρ καὶ περὶ PLNCam.Proc., om. VMADE; καὶ (post 
ἔαρ) om. PLN. 
3 ἐθισμένων VD, ἐθισμῶν MAE, ἐθίμων NCam., ἐθήμων P, 
εὐθύμων L. 


; ; 
νομίμων μετατροπὰς καὶ τὴν παλαιὰν ἡλικίαν καὶ 
τοὺς κατοιχομένους. 

Kai περὶ τὸ πόστον δὲ μέρος τοῦ ὑποκειμένου 

82 γένους ἡ διάθεσις ἐπελεύσεται, τό τε τῆς ἐπισκοτή- 

~ > / / « / \ ¢ ~ 
σεως τῶν ἐκλείψεων μέγεθος ὑποβάλλει Kai at τῶν 
τὸ αἴτιον ἐμποιούντων ἀστέρων πρὸς τὸν ἐκλειπτικὸν 
τόπον σχέσεις. ἑσπέριοι μὲν yap σχηματιζόμενοι 
\ \ ὅλ \ > Ἂ / 1 ta δὲ \ \ 
πρὸς τὰς ἡλιακὰς ἐκλείψεις, ἑῷοι δὲ πρὸς τὰς 
/ pack \ ” ς > \ ~ 
σεληνιακάς, ἐπὶ τὸ ἔλαττον ws ἐπὶ πᾶν διατιθέασι- 
διαμετροῦντες δὲ ἐπὶ τὸ ἥμισυ ἑῷοι δὲ σχηματι- 
ζόμενοι πρὸς τὰς ἡλιακὰς ἢ ἑσπέριοι πρὸς τὰς 
σεληνιακὰς ἐπὶ τὸ πλεῖον 

— \ ~ ~ ~ > 
«n> Ilepi. πιῆ ς, adrob tot amoredXEa- 
ματος ποιότητος 

Τέταρτον δ᾽ ἐστὶ κεφάλαιον τὸ περὶ αὐτῆς τῆς 
τοῦ ἀποτελέσματος ποιότητος, τουτέστι, πότερον 
ἀγαθῶν 7 τῶν ἐναντίων ἐστὶ ποιητικὸν καὶ ποδαπὸν 
ἐφ᾽ ἑκάτερον κατὰ τὸ τοῦ εἴδους ἰδιότροπον. τοῦτο 
δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν οἰκοδεσποτησάντων ἀστέρων τοὺς 
κυρίους τόπους ποιητικῆς φύσεως καταλαμβάνεται 
καὶ τῆς συγκράσεως τῆς τε πρὸς ἀλλήλους καὶ τοὺς 
τόπους Kal? ὧν ἂν ὦσι τετυχηκότες. ὁ μὲν γὰρ 
ἥλιος καὶ ἡ σελήνη διατάκται καὶ 5 ὥσπερ ἡγεμόνες 

1 ἐκλείψεις VMADEProc., om. PLNCam. 

3 διατάκται καὶ VD, διατέτακται καὶ MAE, διατακτικοὶ (om: 
καὶ) P (-τοικ-) LNCam. 

τ Planets become feminized by the occidental position 
(cf. i. 6) and hence oppose the sun; in oriental position 



those near the occident, concerning change of cus- 
toms, old age, and those who have passed away. 

To the question, how large a portion of the class 
involved will the event affect, the answer is supplied 
by the extent of the obscuration of the eclipses, and 
by the positions relative to the place of the eclipse 
held by the stars which furnish the cause. For 
when they are occidental to solar eclipses,! or oriental 
to lunar, they usually affect a minority ; in oppo- 
sition, a half; and the majority, if they are oriental 
to solar eclipses or occidental to lunar. 

8. Of the Quality of the Predicted Event. 

The fourth heading concerns the quality of the 
predicted event, that is, whether it is productive of 
good or the opposite, and of what sort is its 
effect in either direction, in accordance with the 
peculiar character of the species. This is appre- 
hended from the nature of the activity of the 
planets which rule the dominant places and from 
their combination both with one another and with 
the places in which they happen to be. For the 

sun and the moon are the marshals and, as it were, 

they are masculinized and oppose the moon. Hence the 
effect is minimized. When, however, they work with the 
sun (in oriental position and masculine) or with the moon, 
the eclipse has a greater effect. Cf. Bouché-Leclercq, 
Ρ. 353, n. 3. 

* As Bouché-Leclereq (p. 355) points out, the natural 
tendency in antiquity would be to assume that any eclipse 
portends evil. Ptolemy’s predilection for classification 
causes him to examine the question in the light of the nature 
and characters of the planets (cf. i. 5). 



εἰσὶ τῶν ἄλλων, αὐτοὶ αἴτιοι γενόμενοι τοῦ TE KATA 
τὴν ἐνέργειαν ὅλου καὶ τῆς τῶν ἀστέρων οἰκοδε- 
σποτίας καὶ ἔτι τῆς τῶν οἰκοδεσποτησάντων ἰσχύος 
ἢ ἀδρανείας. ἡ δὲ τῶν τὴν κυρίαν λαβόντων συγ- 
κρατικὴ θεωρία τὴν τῶν ἀποτελεσμάτων δείκνυσι 

83 "Apédpucba δὲ τῆς καθ᾽ ἕκαστον τῶν πλανωμένων 
ποιητικῆς | ἰδιοτροπίας, ἐκεῖνο κοινῶς προεκθέμενοι 
ἔτι τῆς κεφαλαιώδους ὑπομνήσεως ἕνεκεν ὡς ὅταν 
καθ᾽ ὅλου τινὰ λέγωμεν τῶν πέντε ἀστέρων τὴν 
κρᾶσιν καὶ τὸ ποιητικὸν τῆς ὁμοίας φύσεως ὑπο- 
ληπτέον, ἐάν τε αὐτὸς ἐν τῇ ἰδίᾳ ἢ κατα- 
στάσει, ἐάν τε καὶ τῶν ἀπλανῶν τις ἢ τῶν τοῦ 
ζωδιακοῦ τόπων κατὰ τὴν οἰκείαν αὐτοῦ κρᾶσιν 
θεωρῆται: καθάπερ ἂν εἰ τῶν φύσεων καὶ τῶν 
ποιοτήτων αὐτῶν καὶ μὴ τῶν ἀστέρων ἐτύγχανον 
at προσηγορίαι. καὶ ὅτι ἐν ταῖς συγκράσεσι πάλιν 
οὐ μόνον τὴν πρὸς ἀλλήλους τῶν πλανωμένων μῖξιν 
δεῖ σκοπεῖν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν πρὸς τοὺς τῆς αὐτῆς 
φύσεως κεκοινωνηκότας ἤτοι ἀπλανεῖς ἀστέρας ἢ 
τόπους τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ κατὰ τὰς ἀποδεδειγμένας 
αὐτῶν πρὸς τοὺς πλάνητας συνοικειώσεις. 

Ὃ μὲν οὖν τοῦ Κρόνου ἀστὴρ μόνος τὴν οἰκοδε- 
σποτίαν λαβὼν καθ᾽ ὅλου μὲν φθορᾶς τῆς κατὰ 
1 ποιητικῆς VWMADEProc., φυσικῆς PLNCam. 

! According to the anonymous commentator (p. 71, ed. 
Wolf), the reason why the luminaries exert such power is 
that they are the ones which submit to eclipse and thereby 
determine the places of eclipses and the rulers of these 

2 Cardanus, p. 201: ““. .. when he says, for example, 



leaders of the others; for they are themselves re- 
sponsible for the entirety of the power, and are the 
causes of the rulership of the planets, and, more- 
over, the causes of the strength or weakness of the 
ruling planets.'_ The comprehensive observation of 
the ruling stars shows the quality of the predicted 

We shall begin with the characteristic active 
powers of the planets, one by one, first, however, 
making this general observation, as a summary re- 
minder, that in general whenever we speak of any 
temperament of the five planets one must under- 
stand that whatever produces the like nature is also 
meant,” whether it be the planet itself in its own 
proper condition, or one of the fixed stars, or one of 
the signs of the zodiac, considered with reference to 
the temperament proper to it, just as though the 
characterizations were applied to the natures or the 
qualities themselves and not to the planets; and 
let us remember that in the combinations, again, we 
must consider not only the mixture of the planets 
one with another, but also their combination with the 
others that share in the same nature, whether they 
be fixed stars or signs of the zodiac, by virtue of 
their affinities with the planets, already set forth.* 

Saturn,’ when he gains sole dominance, is in 
general the cause of destruction by cold, and in 

that Saturn does this or that, he understands this to refer 
not only to Saturn but to any star, even a fixed star, that 
may be of Saturn’s nature; as those in Cetus and some 
in Orion”’ (cf. i. 9). Similarly signs of the zodiac, or 
terms, could thus substitute for the planets. 

3 J.e. ini. 9. 

‘Cf. i. δ. Saturn is one of the maleficent planets (ibid.). 



, y ‘ Μ 30. , \ ‘ A > , 
ψύξιν ἐστὶν αἴτιος - ἰδίως δὲ περὶ μὲν ἀνθρώπους 
γινομένου τοῦ συμπτώματος νόσους μακρὰς καὶ 
φθίσεις καὶ συντήξεις καὶ ὑγρῶν ὀχλήσεις καὶ 
ῥευματισμοὺς καὶ τεταρταϊκὰς ἐπισημασίας, φυγα- 
δείας τε καὶ ἀπορίας καὶ συνοχὰς καὶ πένθη καὶ 

, 1 \ / / ~ ~ « / 
φόβους" καὶ θανάτους μάλιστα τῶν τῇ ἡλικίᾳ 

/ 3 a ~ \ > / 4 
προβεβηκότων ἐμποιεῖ. τῶν de ἀλόγων ζῴων 
περὶ τὰ εὔχρηστα ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν, σπάνιν τε καὶ 

~ , > 

84 τῶν ὄντων φθορὰς σωματικὰς Kal νοσοποιούς, ὑφ 
~ / , 

ὧν καὶ οἱ χρησάμενοι τῶν ἀνθρώπων συνδιατιθέμενοι 

διαφθείρονται. περὶ δὲ τὴν τοῦ ἀέρος κατάστασιν 

/ A bd \ «ε λ ὃ \ Ἃ / 
ψύχη φοβερὰ παγώδη καὶ ὁμιχλώδη καὶ λοιμικά, 
ὡς , ‘ ΄ \ / ” A 
dvoaepias τε καὶ συννεφίας καὶ ζόφους - ἔτι δὲ 

΄ ~ ~ ~ > 7? 
νιφετῶν πλῆθος οὐκ ἀγαθῶν ἀλλὰ φθοροποιῶν, ἀφ 
ὧν καὶ τὰ κακοῦντα τὴν ἀνθρωπίνην φύσιν τῶν 
ἑρπετῶν συγκρίνεται. περὶ δὲ ποταμοὺς ἢ θα- 

~ ~ / 
λάττας κοινῶς μὲν χειμῶνας καὶ στόλων ναυάγια 

\ / \ ~ > (2 » \ ’ 
καὶ δυσπλοίας καὶ τῶν ἰχθύων ἔνδειαν καὶ φθοράν, 
οὕ \ ? \ / > 7 \ ti 
ἰδίως δὲ ἐν μὲν θαλάτταις ἀμπώτεις καὶ παλιρροίας, 
ἐπὶ δὲ ποταμῶν ὑπερμετρίαν καὶ κάκωσιν τῶν ποτα- 
μίων ὑδάτων. πρὸς δὲ τοὺς τῆς γῆς καρποὺς ἔνδειαν 
καὶ σπάνιν καὶ ἀπώλειαν μάλιστα τῶν εἰς τὰς 

/ Ἅ 
ἀναγκαίας χρείας γινομένων ἤτοι ὑπὸ κάμπης ἢ 
> i ”“ ~ « / Al Poy, > ~ 
ἀκρίδος ἢ κατακλυσμῶν ὑδάτων ἢ ὄμβρων ἐπιφορᾶς 
Ὑ ~ /, ~ 
ἢ χαλάζης ἢ τῶν τοιούτων, ὡς Kal μέχρι λιμοῦ 5 

“ “ 2 , 

φθάνειν καὶ τῆς τοιαύτης τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀπωλείας. 

1 φόβους VMAD=N (mg.) Proc. Cam.? (asterisco notatum) ; 

φόνους NCam.! (asterisco notatum), ¢dwr’ P, φόνοι L. 
2 λιμοῦ VMDEProc., λοιμοῦ PLNACam. 



particular, when the event concerns men, causes 
long illnesses, consumptions, withering, disturbances 
caused by fluids, rheumatisms, and quartan fevers, 
exile, poverty, imprisonment, mourning, fears, and 
deaths, especially among those advanced in age.! 
He is usually significant with regard to those dumb 
animals that are of use to man, and brings about 
scarcity of them, and the bodily destruction by 
disease of such as exist, so that the men who use 
them are similarly affected and perish. With regard 
to weather, he causes fearful cold, freezing, misty, 
and pestilential; corruption of the air, clouds, and 
gloom ; furthermore, multitudes of snowstorms, not 
beneficial but destructive, from which are produced 
the reptiles? harmful to man. As for the rivers and 
seas, in general he causes storms, the wreck of fleets, 
disastrous voyages, and the scarcity and death of fish, 
and in particular the high and ebb tides of the seas 
and in rivers excessive floods and pollution of their 
waters. As for the crops of the earth, he brings 
about want, scarcity, and loss, especially of those 
grown for necessary uses, either through worms or 
locusts or floods or cloud-burst or hail or the like, 
so that famine and the destruction of men thereby 

1 Saturn (Kronos) is pictured as an old man. 

* For rains of fish, frogs, and other things cf. E. 5. 
McCartney, Trans. Am. Phil. Assn., 51, 112 ff., and 
Classical Weekly, 24, 27; also A. S. Pease, ed. of Cicero, 
De divinatione, Ὁ. 274. Mice, frogs, insects, and the like 
were thought to be spontaneously generated from earth, 
mud, or rain; cf. Thorndike, History of Magic and Ex- 
perimental Science, i. 325, 491. 



« A ~ 
Ο δὲ τοῦ Διὸς μόνος τὴν κυρίαν λαχὼν καθ᾽ ὅλου 
\ / 
μὲν αὐξήσεώς ἐστι ποιητικός, ἰδίως δὲ περὶ μὲν 
> ,ὔ “- 
ἀνθρώπους γενομένου τοῦ ἀποτελέσματος δόξας 
9 aA \ 
ἀποτελεῖ καὶ everynpias! καὶ εὐθηνίας καὶ κατα- 
4 > ~ > 
στάσεις elpnvikas® καὶ τῶν ἐπιτηδείων αὐξήσεις, 
εὐεξίας τε σωματικὰς καὶ ψυχικάς - ἔτι δὲ εὐερ- 
,ὔ ~ ~ 
γεσίας Te Kal δωρεὰς ἀπὸ τῶν βασιλευόντων, αὐτῶν 
Te ἐκείνων αὐξήσεις Kal μεγαλειότητας καὶ μεγαλο- 
,ὔ > / > 
yuxias. Kal? ὅλου τε εὐδαιμονίας ἐστὶν αἴτιος. 
\ \ ~ ~ ~ 
περὶ de Ta ἄλογα ζῷα τῶν μὲν εἰς χρῆσιν avOpw- 
, ὃ La \ / ~ ~ A > 
πίνην δαψίλειαν Kat πολυπληθίαν ποιεῖ, τῶν δὲ εἰς 
τὸ ἐναντίον φθοράν τε καὶ ἀπώλειαν. εὔκρατον δὲ 
A ~ 
τὴν τῶν ἀέρων κατάστασιν καὶ ὑγιεινὴν Kal 
πνευματώδη καὶ ὑγρὰν καὶ θρεπτικὴν τῶν ἐπιγείων 
ἀπεργάζεται, στόλων τε εὐπλοίας καὶ ποταμῶν 
~ ~ , 
συμμέτρους ἀναβάσεις καὶ τῶν καρπῶν δαψίλειαν 
Kal ὅσα τούτοις παραπλήσια. 
“- ,ὔ 
Ὃ δὲ τοῦ Ἄρεως μόνος τὴν οἰκοδεσποτίαν λαβὼν 
> i \ ~ A / ~ > 
καθ᾽ ὅλου μὲν τῆς Kata Enpaciay φθορᾶς ἐστιν 
αἴτιος, ἰδίως δὲ περὶ μὲν ἀνθρώπους γινομένου 
~ - \ /, 
τοῦ συμπτώματος πολέμους ἐμποιεῖ Kal στάσεις 
> / \ > / \ > ὃ ὃ A 
ἐμφυλίους καὶ αἰχμαλωσίας Kat ἀνδραποδισμοὺς 
᾽ὔ τ / 4 
καὶ ἐπαναστάσεις 3 καὶ χόλους ἡγεμόνων τούς 
‘ ~ / / >? Su μ᾿ δὲ 
τε διὰ τῶν τοιούτων θανάτους αἰφνιδίους, ἔτι δὲ 
wo A > ,ὔ \ 
νόσους πυρεκτικὰς Kal τριταϊκὰς ἐπισημασίας καὶ 
αἱμάτων ἀναγωγὰς καὶ ὀξείας βιαιοθανασίας * 
- Ud \ , ‘ 
μάλιστα τῶν ἀκμαίων - ὁμοίως δὲ βίας τε καὶ 

1 ε ΄ σ 2 

ἑταιρείας Cam. 
Ae ἐρεῖ is add. καὶ εὖ (as Cam.?, om. libri Proe 
ost εἰρηνικας add. Kat εὐετηρίας Vam.”, OM. : 



When Jupiter ! rules alone he produces increase in 
general, and, in particular, when the prediction is 
concerned with men, he makes fame and prosperity, 
abundance, peaceful existence, the increase of the 
necessities of life, bodily and spiritual health, and, 
furthermore, benefits and gifts from rulers, and the 
increase, greatness, and magnanimity of these latter ; 
and in general he is the cause of happiness. With 
reference to dumb animals he causes a multitude and 
abundance of those that are useful to men and the 
diminution and destruction of the opposite kind. He 
makes the condition of the air temperate and health- 
ful, windy, moist, and favourable to the growth of 
what the earth bears ; he brings about the fortunate 
sailing of fleets, the moderate rise of rivers, abund- 
ance of crops, and everything similar. 

Mars, when he assumes the rulership alone, is in 
general the cause of destruction through dryness and 
in particular, when the event concerns men, brings 
about wars, civil faction, capture, enslavement, 
uprisings, the wrath of leaders, and sudden deaths 
arising from such causes; moreover, fevers, tertian 
agues, raising of blood, swift and violent deaths, 
especially in the prime of life; similarly, violence, 

ΤΑ beneficent planet. 

3 ὄχλων ἐπαναστάσεις PLNCam., λαῶν ἐπαναστάσεις Proc.; 
ὄχλων om. VMADE. 

4 ὀρείας βιαιοθανασίας VD, ὀξεῖς καὶ βίαιοι θάνατοι Proc., 
ὀξείας βιοθανασίας MAE, ὀξείας καὶ βιοθανασίας Ῥ (βιω-} L, 
ὀξείας νόσους καὶ βιοθανασίας NCam. 



ὕβρεις Kal παρανομίας ἐμπρήσεις τε Kal ἀνδρο- 
φονίας καὶ ἁρπαγὰς καὶ ληστείας - περὶ δὲ τὴν τοῦ 
ἀέρος κατάστασιν καύσωνας καὶ πνεύματα θερμὰ 

80 λοιμικὰ καὶ συντηκτικὰ κεραυνῶν τε ἀφέσεις καὶ 
πρηστήρων καὶ ἀνομβρίας - περὶ δὲ θάλατταν " 
στόλων μὲν αἰφνίδια ναυάγια διὰ πνευμάτων 
ἀτάκτων 7) κεραυνῶν ἢ τῶν τοιούτων, ποταμῶν δὲ 
λειψυδρίας καὶ ἀναξηράνσεις πηγῶν καὶ φθορὰν τῶν 
ποτίμων 5 ὑδάτων - περὶ δὲ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς 
ἐπιτήδεια πρὸς χρῆσιν ἀνθρωπίνην τῶν τε ἀλόγων 
ζῴων καὶ τῶν ἐκ τῆς γῆς φυομένων σπάνιν καὶ 
φθορὰν καρπῶν τὴν γινομένην ἤτοι ἐκ τῶν τοῦ 
καύματος καταφλέξεων ἢ βρούχου ἢ τῆς τῶν 
πνευμάτων ἐκτινάξεως ἢ ἐκ τῆς ἐν ταῖς ἀποθέσεσι 

Ὃ δὲ τῆς Adpodirns μόνος κύριος γενόμενος τοῦ 
συμβαίνοντος καθ᾽ ὅλου μὲν τὰ παραπλήσια τῷ Tor’ 
Διὸς μετά τινος ἐπαφροδισίας ἀποτελεῖ, ἰδίως δέ 
περὶ μὲν ἀνθρώπους δόξας καὶ τιμὰς καὶ εὐφροσύνας 
καὶ εὐετηρίας εὐγαμίας τε καὶ πολυτεκνίας καὶ 
εὐαρεστήσεις πρὸς πᾶσαν συναρμογὴν καὶ τῶν 
κτήσεων συναυξήσεις καὶ διαίτας καθαρίους καὶ 
εὐαγωγοὺς καὶ πρὸς τὰ σεβάσμια τιμητικάς * ἔτι δὲ 
σωματικὰς εὐεξίας καὶ πρὸς τοὺς ἡγεμονεύοντας 
συνοικειώσεις καὶ τῶν ἀρχόντων ἐπαφροδισίας *® 
περὶ δὲ τὰ τοῦ ἀέρος πνεύματα ὃ εὐκρασίας 7 καὶ 
διύγρων καὶ θρεπτικωτάτων καταστάσεις εὐαερίας 

1 περὶ δὲ θάλασσαν AG; cf. Proc.; π. θαλ. δὲ ME; π. δὲ 
θαλάσσας VD ; πάλιν δὲ ἐν θαλάσσαις PLNCam. 
2 ποτίμων VDGProce. ; ποταμίων alii Cam. 



assaults, lawlessness, arson and murder, robbery and 
piracy. With regard to the condition of the air he 
causes hot weather, warm, pestilential, and withering 
winds, the loosing of lightning and hurricanes, and 
drought. Again, at sea he causes sudden shipwreck 
of fleets through changeable winds or lightning or the 
like; the failure of the water of rivers, the drying 
up of springs, and the tainting of potable waters. 
With reference to the necessities produced upon the 
earth for human use, he causes a scarcity and loss 
of dumb animals and of things which grow from the 
earth, and the loss of crops by drying as the result of 
hot weather, or by locusts, or by the beating of the 
winds, or by burning in places of storage. 

Venus, when she becomes sole ruler of the event, 
in general brings about results similar to those of 
Jupiter, but with the addition of a certain agreeable 
quality ; in particular, where men are concerned, she 
causes fame, honour, happiness, abundance, happy 
marriage, many children, satisfaction in every mutual 
relationship, the increase of property, a neat and well 
conducted manner of life, paying honour to those 
things which are to be revered ; further, she is the 
cause of bodily health, alliances with the leaders, 
and elegance of rulers; as to the winds of the air, 
of temperateness and settled conditions of moist and 

3 ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς VG, ἐπη γῆς D, ἐκ τῆς γῆς Proc.; om. 

47 Bpovxou .. . exrwagews om. NCam. 

δ᾽ ἐπαφροδισίας codd. Cam.}, εὐνοίας Cam.” 

ὁ πνεύματα VAD, -ων alii Cam. 

7 εὐκρασίας VMADEG, εὐκράτων PLNCam. 


τε Kal αἰθρίας Kal ὑδάτων γονίμων δαψιλεῖς ἐπομ- 
βρίας, στόλων τε εὐπλοίας καὶ ἐπιτυχίας καὶ ἐπικερ- 
dias! καὶ ποταμῶν πλήρεις ἀναβάσεις - err? δὲ 
87 τῶν εὐχρήστων ζῴων 3 καὶ τῶν τῆς γῆς καρπῶν 
μάλιστα δαψίλειαν καὶ εὐφορίαν καὶ ὄνησιν ἐμποιεῖ. 
Ὃ δὲ τοῦ ‘Eppod τὴν οἰκοδεσποτίαν λαβὼν καθ᾽ 
ὅλου μέν, ὡς ἂν 7) συγκιρνάμενος ἑκάστῳ τῶν ἄλλων, 
συνοικειοῦται ταῖς ἐκείνων φύσεσιν - ἰδίως δέ ἐστι 
πάντων μᾶλλον συγκινητικὸς καὶ ἐν μὲν ἀνθρωπίνοις 
ἀποτελέσμασιν ὀξὺς καὶ πρακτικώτατος καὶ πρὸς 
τὸ ὑποκείμενον εὐμήχανος, ληστηρίων δὲ καὶ κλο- 
πῶν Kal πειρατικῶν ἐφόδων καὶ ἐπιθέσεων," ἔτι δὲ 
δυσπλοίας ὃ ποιητικὸς ἐν τοῖς πρὸς τοὺς κακοποιοὺς 
σχηματισμοῖς, νόσων τε αἴτιος ξηρῶν καὶ ἀμφη- 
μερινῶν ἐπισημασιῶν καὶ βηχικῶν καὶ ἀναφορικῶν ὃ 
καὶ φθίσεων - ἀποτελεστικός τε καὶ τῶν περὶ τὸν 
ἱερατικὸν λόγον καὶ τὰς τῶν θεῶν θρησκείας καὶ 
τὰς βασιλικὰς προσόδους ἐπισυμβαινόντων καὶ τῆς 
τῶν ἐθίμων ἢ νομίμων κατὰ καιροὺς ἐναλλοιώσεως 
οἰκείως τῇ πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἑκάστοτε τῶν ἀστέρων 
συγκράσει. πρὸς δὲ τὸ περιέχον μᾶλλον ξηρὸς ὧν 
καὶ εὐκίνητος διὰ τὴν πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον ἐγγύτητα καὶ 
τὸ τάχος τῆς ἀνακυκλήσεως πνευμάτων ἀτάκτων 
καὶ ὀξέων καὶ εὐμεταβόλων μάλιστα κινητικὸς 
ὑπάρχει, βροντῶν τε εἰκότως καὶ πρηστήρων καὶ 
χασμάτων καὶ σεισμῶν καὶ ἀστραπῶν ἀποτελεσ- 
τικός * τῆς τε διὰ τούτων ἐνίοτε περὶ τὰ τῶν ζῴων 
1 ἐπικερδ(ε)ίας VMADEG, ἐπικερδεῖς NLCam., ἐπεικερδεῖς P. 
2 ἔτι VMADEG, ἐν PLNCam. 


very nourishing winds, of -good air, clear weather, 
and generous showers of fertilizing waters; she 
brings about the fortunate sailing of fleets, successes, 
profits, and the full rising of rivers ; of useful animals 
and the fruits of the earth she is the preéminent 
cause of abundance, good yields, and profit. 
Mercury, if he gains the rulership, is, generally 
speaking, in nature like whatever of the other planets 
may be associated with him. In particular, he is 
above all stimulating, and in predictions concerning 
men is keen and very practical, ingenious in any 
situation; but he causes robbery, theft, piracy, and 
assault, and furthermore, brings about unsuccessful 
voyaging when he is in aspect with the maleficent 
planets, and occasions diseases of dryness, quotidian 
agues, coughs, raising, and consumption. He is the 
cause of events taking place which concern the priestly 
code, the worship of the gods, the royal revenues, 
and of change in customs and laws, from time to 
time, in consistency with his association with the 
other planets on each occasion. With reference to 
the air, since he is very dry and swift on account 
of his nearness to the sun, and the speed of his 
revolution, he is particularly apt to arouse irregular, 
fierce, and changeable winds, and, as might be ex- 
pected, thunder, hurricanes, chasms in the earth, 
earthquakes, and lightning; sometimes by these 

8 τῶν εὐχρήστων ζῴων κτλ (gen.) VMADEG, τοῖς εὐχρήστοις 
ζῴοις κτλ. (dat.) PLNCam. 

4 καὶ ἐπιθέσεων VMADE; καὶ om. GPLCam.; εἐπιθξ N, 
ἐπιθεικός Cam.}, ἐπιθετικός PLCam.? 

5 δυσπλοίας VMADEGProc., δυσπν(ο)ίας PLNCam. 

ὁ ἀναφορικῶν libri (ἀφορικῶν D) Cam.'Proc.; ἀναπνοικῶν 



καὶ τῶν φυτῶν εὔχρηστα φθορᾶς ποιητικός, ὑδάτων 
88 τε καὶ ποταμῶν ἐν μὲν ταῖς δύσεσι στερητικός, ἐν 
δὲ ταῖς ἀνατολαῖς πληρωτικός. 

᾿Ιδίως μὲν οὖν τῆς οἰκείας φύσεως ἐπιτυχὼν 
ἕκαστος τὰ τοιαῦτα ἀποτελεῖ, συγκιρνάμενος δὲ 
ἄλλος ἄλλῳ κατὰ τοὺς συσχηματισμοὺς καὶ τὰς τῶν 
ζῳδίων ἐναλλοιώσεις καὶ τὰς πρὸς ἥλιον φάσεις, 
ἀναλόγως τε καὶ τὴν ἐν τοῖς ἐνεργήμασι σύγκρασιν 
λαμβάνων, καὶ μεμιγμένην ἐκ τῶν κεκοινωνηκυιῶν 
φύσεων τὴν περὶ τὸ ἀποτελούμενον ἰδιοτροπίαν 
ποικίλην οὖσαν ἀπεργάζεται : ἀπείρου " δὲ ὄντος 
καὶ ἀδυνάτου τοῦ καθ᾽ ἑκάστην σύγκρασιν τὸ ἴδιον 
ὑπομνηματίζειν ἀποτέλεσμα καὶ πάντας ἁπλῶς τοὺς 
καθ᾽ ὁποιονουνδήποτε τρόπον συσχηματισμοὺς δι- 
εξελθεῖν οὕτω γε πολυμερῶς νοουμένους, εἰκότως 
ἂν καταλειφθείη τὸ τοιοῦτον εἶδος ἐπὶ τῇ τοῦ 
μαθηματικοῦ πρὸς τὰς κατὰ μέρος διακρίσεις 
ἐπιβολῇ καὶ ἐπινοίᾳ. 

ΠΙαρατηρεῖν δὲ δεῖ 3 καὶ πῶς ἔχουσι οἰκειώσεως 
οἱ τοῦ προτελέσματος τὴν κυρίαν λαβόντες ἀστέρες 
πρὸς αὐτὰς τὰς χώρας ἢ τὰς πόλεις αἷς τὸ σύμπτωμα 
διασημαίνεται - ἀγαθοποιοὶ μὲν γὰρ ὄντες ἀστέρες 
καὶ συνοικειούμενοι τοῖς διατιθεμένοις καὶ μὴ 
καθυπερτερούμενοι ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς ἐναντίας αἱρέσεως 
ἔτι μᾶλλον ἀπεργάζονται τὸ κατὰ τὴν οἰκείαν φύσιν 

1 ἐναλλοιώσεις] ἐναλλαγὰς NCam. 

3 ἀπείρου] ἀπόρου NCam. 
3 δεῖ] δέον NCam. 

1 That is, exchange of houses. 
Si ΟἿ τ. 8: 



means he causes the destruction of useful animals 
and plants. At setting he diminishes waters and 
rivers, at rising fills them. 

Such are the effects produced by the several 
planets, each by itself and in command of its own 
nature. Associated, however, now with one and now 
with another, in the different aspects, by the ex- 
change of signs! and by their phases with refer- 
ence to the sun,” and experiencing a corresponding 
tempering of their powers, each produces a char- 
acter, in its effect, which is the result of the mixture 
of the natures that have participated, and is 
complicated. It is of course a hopeless and im- 
possible task to mention the proper outcome of 
every combination and to enumerate absolutely all 
the aspects of whatever kind, since we can conceive 
of such a variety of them. Consequently questions 
of this kind would reasonably be left to the enter- 
prise and ingenuity of the mathematician,® in order 
to make the particular distinctions. 

It is needful to observe what affinity exists between 
the planets which govern the prediction and the 
countries or the cities for which the event is signified. 
For if the ruling planets are beneficent, and have 
familiarity with the subjects affected, and are not 
overcome ‘ by planets of the opposite sect, they more 
powerfully produce the benefits natural to them ; 

3 μαθηματικός is here used to mean “astrologer,” as 
forexample at the very end of the T'etrabiblos (p. 458, 1. 21). 
4 καθυπερτέρησις, supereminentia, exists when one planet 
is superior to another, or is to the right of another in the 
astrological sense (i.e. preceding it in the direction of the 
diurnal movement of the heavens). Cf. Bouché-Leclercq, 
p- 250. 



ὠφέλιμον, ὥσπερ μὴ συνοικειούμενοι ἢ καθυπερ- 

89 τερούμενοι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀντικειμένων ἧττον ὠφελοῦσι. 
τῆς δὲ βλαπτικῆς κράσεως ὄντες καὶ τὴν κυρίαν 
λαβόντες τοῦ προτελέσματος, ἐὰν μὲν συνοικειού- 
μενοι τοῖς διατιθεμένοις τύχωσιν ἢ καθυπερτερη- 
θῶσιν ὑπὸ τῶν τῆς ἐναντίας αἱρέσεως, ἧττον 
βλάπτουσιν - ἐὰν δὲ μήτε τὴν οἰκοδεσποτίαν ἔχωσι 
τῶν χωρῶν μήτε καθυπερτερῶνται ὑπὸ τῶν οἰκείως 
πρὸς αὐτὰς ἐχόντων, σφοδρότερον τὸ ἐκ τῆς κράσεως 
φθοροποιὸν ἐπισκήπτουσιν. ὡς ἐπὶ πᾶν μέντοι 
συνεμπίπτουσι τοῖς καθολικοῖς πάθεσιν ἐκεῖνοι τῶν 
ἀνθρώπων ὅσοι ποτ᾽ ἂν; κατὰ τὰς ἰδίας γενέσεις 
τοὺς ἀναγκαιοτάτους τόπους, λέγω δὴ τοὺς φωσφο- 
ροῦντας ἢ τοὺς τῶν κέντρων, τοὺς αὐτοὺς τύχωσιν 
ἔχοντες τοῖς τὸ αἴτιον ἐμποιήσασι τῶν καθολικῶν 
συμπτωμάτων, τουτέστι τοῖς ἐκλειπτικοῖς ἢ καὶ 
τοῖς τούτων διαμέτροις. τούτων δὲ ἐπισφαλέσταται 
μάλιστα καὶ δυσφύλακτοι τυγχάνουσιν αἱ μοιρικαὶ 
καθέξεις ἢ διαμετρήσεις τῶν ἐκλειπτικῶν τόπων 
πρὸς ὁπότερον τῶν φωτῶν. 

<> Περὶ χρωμάτων τῶν ἐκλείψεων 
καὶ κομητῶν καὶ τῶν τοιούτων 

Τηρητέον δὲ πρὸς τὰς καθ᾽ ὅλου περιστάσεις καὶ 
τὰ περὶ τὰς ἐκλείψεις χρώματα ἤτοι τῶν φωτῶν 
1 ποτ᾽ ἄν om. PLNCam. 

1A geniture (horoscope, nativity) of any individual or 

event has as its point of departure the horoscope in the 
proper sense, 2.6. the degree of the ecliptic which is rising 



even as, when they bear no familiarity, or are over- 
come by their opposites, they are less helpful. But 
when they are of the injurious temperament and 
govern the prediction, if they have familiarity with 
the subjects affected or are overcome by the opposite 
sect, they do less harm; but if they are neither 
lords of the countries nor are overcome by the 
planets that have familiarity with those countries, 
they exert all the more intensely the destructiveness 
of their temperament. Usually, however, those men 
are affected by the more universal ills who in their 
own genitures happen to have the most essential 
places,! by which I mean those of the luminaries or 
of the angles? the same as those that furnish the 
cause of the general misfortunes, that is, the places 
of the eclipses or the places directly opposite. Of 
these the positions most dangerous and hardest to 
avoid are those in which either of their luminaries 
is in possession of the very degree of the place of 
the eclipse, or the degree opposite. 

9. Of the Colours of Eclipses, Comets, and the Like. 

For the prediction of general conditions we must 
also observe the colours at the time of the eclipses, 

above the horizon (in the ascendant) at the moment. 
This point determines a series of divisions of the ecliptic 
of 30° each, a duodecimal system superimposed upon 
that of the zodiacal signs and differing therefrom. 
These divisions are the “ places’’ (also called “ὁ houses,” 
somewhat ambiguously) of the geniture. 

2 The angles, or centres, of a geniture are the horoscope 
or orient, the superior mid-heaven (upper culmination), the 
occident, and the inferior mid-heaven (lower culmination). 
See Bouché-Leclereq, pp. 257-259. 



αὐτῶν ἢ τῶν περὶ αὐτὰ γινομένων δυστημάτων, 
τ «7 noe ” - , , bf 
90 οἷον ῥάβδων ἢ ἅλων ἢ τῶν τοιούτων. μέλανα μὲν 
\ δ ,’ / ~ ‘ 
yap ἢ ὑπόχλωρα φανέντα σημαντικὰ γίνεται τῶν ἐπὶ 
τῆς τοῦ Κρόνου φύσεως εἰρημένων - λευκὰ δὲ τῶν 
> Jala ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 
ἐπὶ τῆς τοῦ Atos: ὑπόκιρρα δὲ τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς. τοῦ 
, A ~ ao [ 
Ἄρεως - ξανθὰ δὲ τῶν ἐπὶ τοῦ τῆς "Adpodirns * 
΄ \ a Bea a ~ ¢ ~ ” A > 
ποικίλα δὲ τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς τοῦ “Ἑρμοῦ. κἂν μὲν ἐν 
ὅλοις τοῖς σώμασι τῶν φωτῶν ἢ ἐν ὅλοις τοῖς περὶ 
αὐτὰ τόποις τὸ γινόμενον ἰδίωμα τῆς χροιᾶς φαί- 
νηται, περὶ τὰ πλεῖστα μέρη τῶν χωρῶν ἔσται τὸ 
> / A ‘ > \ / «ε ’΄ 
ἀποτελεσθησόμενον ἐὰν δὲ ἀπὸ μέρους οἱουδή- 

1 \ , θ᾽ en \ 
TO μερος, Ka OV αν Και 

ποτε, περὶ ἐκεῖνο μόνον 
ἡ πρόσνευσις τοῦ ἰδιώματος γίνηται. 
Τηρητέον δὲ ἔτι καὶ τὰς συνισταμένας ἤτοι κατὰ 
τοὺς ἐκλειπτικοὺς καιροὺς ἢ καὶ ὁτεδήποτε κομητῶν 
> ’ 
ἐπιφανείας πρὸς τὰς καθ᾽ ὅλου περιστάσεις, οἷον 
΄- / / Ἃ / ” 4 ‘ 
τῶν καλουμένων δοκίδων ἢ σαλπίγγων ἢ πίθων καὶ 
τῶν τοιούτων͵ ὡς ἀποτελεσματικὰς μὲν φύσει τῶν 
> \ a mM \ ~ ae ~ ? / \ 
ἐπὶ τοῦ "Apews καὶ τῶν τοῦ “Eppod ἰδιωμάτων Kai 
πολέμων δὲ καὶ καυσώδων 5 ἢ κινητικῶν καταστη- 
~ > 
μάτων Kal τῶν τούτοις ἐπισυμβαινόντων, δηλούσας 
δὲ διὰ μὲν τῶν τοῦ ζωδιακοῦ μερῶν, καθ᾽ ὧν ἂν 
οἱ συστάσεις αὐτῶν φαίνωνται͵ καὶ τῶν κατὰ τὰ 

4 μόνον VMADGProc., μὲν ὃν PL, om. NECam. 
2 καυσώδων VMADE;; ef. Proc.; καυσώνων alii Cam. 

1 κε Luminous sheaves,” according to Bouché-Lecleregq, 
p- 355. The expression must refer to rays of light. 



either those of the luminaries themselves, or those 
of the formations that occur near them, such as 
rods,! halos, and the like. For if they appear black 
or.livid they signify the effects which were men- 
tioned in connection with Saturn’s nature ;? if white, 
those of Jupiter ; if reddish, those of Mars; if yellow, 
those of Venus; and if variegated, those of Mercury. 
If the characteristic colour appears to cover the 
whole body of the luminary or the whole region sur- 
rounding it, the predicted event will affect most of 
the parts of the countries; but if it is in any one 
part, it will affect only that part against which the 
phenomenon is inclined. 

We must observe, further, for the prediction of 
general conditions, the comets * which appear either 
at the time of the eclipse or at any time whatever ; 
for instance, the so-called “ beams,” “ trumpets,” 
““ jars,” and the like,* for these naturally produce the 
effects peculiar to Mars and to Mercury—wars, hot 
weather, disturbed conditions, and the accompani- 
ments of these; and they show, through the parts of 
the zodiac in which their heads appear and through 
the directions in which the shapes of their tails point, 

* Cf. i. 4, for the powers of Saturn and the other planets. 

3 Cf. Boll-Bezold-Gundel, pp. 51, 129; who quote 
Julius Caesar, ii. 2, ‘‘ When beggars die, then are no comets 
seen; the heavens themselves blaze forth the death of 

‘Other astrologers and non-astrological writers classified 
the comets much more elaborately by their shapes and 
their associations with the planets, of which they were 
supposed to be the fiery missiles; Ptolemy is much more 
conservative in what he says. See Bouché-Leclereq, pp. 
358-359, and for a more detailed ancient account Hephaes- 
tion of Thebes, pp. 97, 31—99, 22 (ed. Engelbrecht). 



σχήματα THs κόμης προσνεύσεων τοὺς τόπους οἷς ἐπι- 
σκήπτουσι τὰ συμπτώματα - διὰ δὲ τῶν αὐτῆς τῆς 
συστάσεως ὥσπερ μορφώσεων τὸ εἶδος τοῦ ἀποτελέσ- 
ματος καὶ τὸ γένος περὶ ὃ τὸ πάθος ἀποβήσεται - 
91 διὰ δὲ τοῦ χρόνου τῆς ἐπιμονῆς τὴν παράτασιν τῶν 
συμπτωμάτων - διὰ δὲ τῆς πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον σχέσεως 
Kal! τὴν καταρχήν, ἐπειδήπερ ἑῷοι μὲν ἐπὶ πολὺ 
φαινόμεναι τάχιον ἐπισημαίνουσιν, ἑσπέριοι δὲ 


«> Περὶ τῆς τοῦ ἔτους νουμηνίας" 

Δεδειγμένης δὲ τῆς ἐφόδου τῆς περὶ τὰς καθ᾽ 
ὅλου περιστάσεις χωρῶν τε καὶ πόλεων, λοιπὸν ἂν 
εἴη καὶ περὶ τῶν λεπτομερεστέρων ὑπομνηματί- 
σασθαι: λέγω δὲ τῶν ἐνιαυσίως περὶ τὰς ὥρας 
ἀποτελουμένων, πρὸς ἣν ἐπίσκεψιν καὶ περὶ τῆς 
καλουμένης τοῦ ἔτους νουμηνίας ἁρμόζον ἂν εἴη 
προδιαλαβεῖν. ὅτι μὲν οὖν ἀρχὴν ταύτην εἶναι 
προσήκει τῆς τοῦ ἡλίου καθ᾽ ἑκάστην περιστροφὴν 
ἀποκαταστάσεως, δῆλόν ἐστιν αὐτόθεν καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς 
δυνάμεως καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀνομασίας. τίνα δ᾽ ἄν τις 
ἀρχὴν ὑποστήσαιτο ἐν κύκλῳ μὲν αὐτὸ μόνον ἁπλῶς 
οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἐπινοήσειεν͵ ἐν δὲ τῷ διὰ μέσον τῶν ζῳδίων 
μόνας ἂν εἰκότως ἀρχὰς λάβοι τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἰση- 
μερινοῦ καὶ τῶν τροπικῶν ἀφοριζόμενα σημεῖα, 
τουτέστι τά τε δύο ἰσημερινὰ καὶ τὰ δύο τροπικά. 
ἐνταῦθα μέντοι τις ἀπορήσειεν ἂν ἤδη, τίνι τῶν 

1 καὶ VPLDG; om. alii Cam. 
3 Titulum post zpod:aAaBeiv inser. GMProce. 



the regions upon which the misfortunes impend. 
Through the formations, as it were, of their heads 
they indicate the kind of the event and the class 
upon which the misfortune will take effect; through 
the time which they last, the duration of the events ; 
and through their position relative to the sun like- 
wise their beginning; for in general their appearance 
in the orient betokens rapidly approaching events and 
in the occident those that approach more slowly. 

10. Concerning the New Moon of the Year. 

Now that we have described the procedure of 
prediction about the general states of countries 
and cities, it would remain to mention matters of 
greater detail; I refer to events that happen yearly 
in connection with the seasons. In the investiga- 
tion of this subject it would be appropriate first to 
define the so-called new moon of the year.! That 
this should properly be the beginning of the sun’s 
circular course in each of his revolutions is plain 
from the thing itself, both from its power and 
from its name. To be sure, one could not conceive 
what starting-point to assume in a circle, as a general 
proposition; but in the circle through the middle 
of the zodiac one would properly take as the only 
beginnings the points determined by the equator 
and the tropics, that is, the two equinoxes and the 
two solstices. Even then, however, one would still 

1The new moon closest to the first of the year, as ex- 
plained later. 



τεττάρων WS προηγουμένῳ χρήσαιτο. κατὰ μὲν 
> \ c ~ \ A , > \ ’ ~ 
οὖν τὴν ἁπλῆν καὶ κυκλικὴν φύσιν οὐδὲν αὐτῶν 
» 3 ~ ~ 4 / 

ἐστιν WS ἐπὶ μιᾶς ἀρχῆς προηγούμενον * κέχρηνται 

1 «ς 6 / 

\ « \ , / - 

92 δὲ of περὶ τούτων γράψαντες, ἕν τι 
διαφόρως, ἐκάστῳ τῶν τεττάρων ὡς ἀρχὴν κατά 
τινας οἰκείους λόγους καὶ φυσικὰς συμπαθείας 3 

- ~ 4, 
ἐνεχθέντες. Kal yap ἔχει τι τῶν μερῶν τούτων 
“ > / > > ec nN > A \ ΄ ” 
ἕκαστον ἐξαίρετον ἀφ᾽ od av ἀρχὴ καὶ νέον ἔτος 
εἰκότως νομίζοιτο - τὸ μὲν ἐαρινὸν ἰσημερινὸν διά τε 

\ e FXtE A ΕἾ 
τὸ πρώτως τότε μείζονα τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς νυκτὸς 
ἄρχεσθαι γίνεσθαι καὶ διὰ τὸ τῆς ὑγρᾶς ὥρας εἶναι, 
ταύτην δὲ τὴν φύσιν, ὡς καὶ πρότερον ἔφαμεν, 
ἀρχομέναις ταῖς γενέσεσι πλείστην ἐνυπάρχειν * τὸ 
δὲ θερινὸν τροπικὸν διὰ τὸ κατ᾽ αὐτὸ τὴν μεγίστην 
(7 La > ~ A \ > , ‘ κ 
ἡμέραν ἀποτελεῖσθαι, παρὰ δὲ Αἰγυπτίοις καὶ τὴν 
“- , > / \ A Μ ᾽ λὴ bi 

τοῦ Νείλου ἀνάβασιν καὶ κυνὸς ἄστρου ἐπιτολὴν ἐπι- 
σημαίνειν - τὸ δὲ μετοπωρινὸν ἰσημερινὸν ὃ διὰ τὸ 
γεγονέναι πάντων ἤδη τῶν καρπῶν συγκομιδήν, 
τότε δὲ ἀπ᾽ ἄλλης ἀρχῆς τὸν τῶν ἐσομένων σπόρον 

/ ‘ δὲ A A ὃ A A 
καταβάλλεσθαι: τὸ δὲ χειμερινὸν τροπίκὸν διὰ TO 

“- “- « ij 
mpa@rtov* ἄρχεσθαι τότε τὸ μέγεθος τῆς ἡμέρας ἀπὸ 
μειώσεως αὔξησιν λαμβάνειν. οἰκειότερον δέ μοι 
A > 

δοκεῖ Kal φυσικώτερον πρὸς τὰς ἐνιαυσίους ἐπισκέ- 
ψεις ταῖς τέτταρσιν ἀρχαῖς χρῆσθαι, παρατηροῦντας 

1 ἕν τι VPLMADE, evi τινι NCam., ἕν τῇ α. 

2 συμπαθείας VPLMADEG, ἐμπαθείας NCam. 

3 ἰσημερινὸν om. NCam. 
4 πρῶτον VPLG, πρώτως alii Cam. 



be at a loss which of the four to prefer. Indeed, 
in a circle, absolutely considered, no one of them 
takes the lead, as would be the case if there were 
one starting-point, but those who have written on 
these matters have made use of each of the four,! 
in various ways assuming some one as the starting- 
point, as they were led by their own arguments and 
by the natural characteristics of the four points. 
This is not strange, for each of these parts has some 
special claim to being reasonably considered the 
starting-point and the new year. The spring 
equinox might be preferred because first at that 
time the day begins to be longer than the night 
and because it belongs to the moist season, and this 
element, as we said before,” is chiefly present at the 
beginning of nativities ; the summer solstice because 
the longest day occurs at that time and because to 
the Egyptians it signifies the flooding of the Nile and 
the rising of the dog star; the fall equinox because 
all the crops have by then been harvested, and a 
fresh start is then made with the sowing of the seed 
of future crops; and the winter solstice because then, 
after diminishing, the day first begins to lengthen. 
It seems more proper and natural to me, however, 
to employ the four starting-points for investigations 
which deal with the year, observing the syzygies 

1 Bouché-Leclercq, p. 129, with ἢ. 1, points out that the 
Egyptian year began with the rising of Sirius, which is 
close to Cancer; that Cancer was the horoscope in the 
so-called Egyptian ‘‘ theme of the world ’’ (the horoscope 
of the universe, in which the planets, etc., were in the 
positions which they occupied at the very beginning) ; 
but that after Posidonius Aries was definitely recognized 
as the starting-point of the zodiac. ἜΤ 15: 



τὰς ἔγγιστα αὐτῶν προγινομένας ἡλίου καὶ σελήνης 

συζυγίας συνοδικὰς ἢ πανσεληνιακάς, καὶ μάλιστα 

πάλιν τούτων τὰς ἐκλειπτικάς, ἵνα ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς 
> “1 \ K, A > ~ A » « ~ Μ ὃ 

, ἐν TH περὶ Κριὸν ἀρχῆς τὸ ἔαρ ὁποῖον ἔσται δια- 
> \ ~ / 

93 σκεπτώμεθα, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς περὶ τὸν Καρκίνον τὸ θέρος, 
3 A \ ~ \ \ Ἁ A (4 > ‘ A 
ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς περὶ τὰς Χηλὰς τὸ μετόπωρον, ἀπὸ δὲ 

~ \ > ~ 

Ths περὶ τὸν Αἰγόκερων τὸν χειμῶνα. τὰς μὲν yap 
καθ᾽ ὅλου τῶν ὡρῶν ποιότητας καὶ καταστάσεις ὁ 
5A A 2 Wen \ φ ~ Μ 
ἥλιος ποιεῖ, καθ᾽ ἃς καὶ οἱ παντελῶς ἄπειροι μαθη- 
μάτων πρόγνωσιν ἔχουσι τοῦ μέλλοντος. 

Μ δὲ \ A ~ δί id / Ν A 

Ἔτι δὲ καὶ τὰς τῶν ζῳδίων ἰδιοτροπίας εἴς τε τὰς 
παρασημασίας ἀνέμων τε καὶ τῶν ὁλοσχερεστέρων 

͵ὔ ΄, \ > > ~ ~ “ἢ eo 
φύσεων παραληπτέον. τὰς δ᾽ ἐν τῷ μᾶλλον ἢ ἧττον 

\ A > 4, >, A /, « 
κατὰ καιροὺς ἐναλλοιώσεις καθ᾽ ὅλου μὲν πάλιν αἱ 
περὶ τὰ προειρημένα σημεῖα γινόμεναι συζυγίαι καὶ 
οἱ τῶν πλανήτων πρὸς αὐτὰς σχηματισμοὶ δεικνύ- 
oval, κατὰ μέρος δὲ καὶ ai καθ᾽ ἕκαστον δωδεκατη- 
μόριον σύνοδοι καὶ πανσέληνοι καὶ τῶν ἀστέρων 
ἐπιπορεύσεις, ἣν δὴ μηνιαίαν 3 ἐπίσκεψιν ἄν τις προσ- 
“ 4 Lee /, > ~ ‘ ~ > 

Προεκτεθῆναι 3 δ᾽ ὀφειλόντων eis τοῦτο Kal τῶν ἐν 
μέρει κατὰ ζῴδιον πρὸς τὰ ἐνιαύσια καταστήματα 
τῶν φυσικῶν ἰδιωμάτων καὶ ἔτι τῶν καθ᾽ ἕκαστον 

1 ἐν τῇ VDG, ἐν τῷ ME, om. PLNCam.; ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς περὶ 
τὸν Κρ. ἀρχῆς A; περὶ τὴν τοῦ Κριοῦ ἀρχὴν Cam. 

5Ξἣν δὴ μην. VME ἣν ὃ μην. G, ἣν διμηνέαν PL, ἣν 
διμηνιαίαν ΝΟ am.” , ἣν μηνιαίαν Cam.° ®, ἣν δὴ νουμηνιαίαν A, 

3 προσαγορεύοι VPLND, -n G, -o7 A, -σοι MECam. 
4 προεκτεθῆναι Ῥ(-πεθη- )LMGE, -θεῖναι VNADCam. 



of the sun and moon at new and full moon which 
most nearly precede them, and among these in 
particular the conjunctions at which eclipses take 
place, so that from the starting-point in Aries we 
may conjecture what the spring will be like, from 
that in Cancer the summer, from that in Libra the 
autumn, and from that in Capricorn the winter. 
For the sun creates the general qualities and con- 
ditions of the seasons, by means of which even those 
who are totally ignorant of astrology can foretell the 

Furthermore, we must take into consideration the 
special qualities of the signs of the zodiac to obtain 
prognostications of the winds and of the more general 
natures ;* and the variations of degree from time to 
time are in general again shown by the conjunctions 
which take place at the aforesaid points and by the 
aspects of the planets to them, and in particular also 
by the conjunctions and full moons in the several 
signs and by the course of the planets. This might 
be called monthly investigation. 

As it is proper that for this purpose there be 
enumerated the peculiar natural powers of the several 
signs to influence annual conditions, as well as those 

ΕΠ τα 2. 

*The Latin versions interpret this sentence in sub- 
stantially the way here shown. The Paraphrase of Proclus, 
however, understands it to mean that the sun governs the 
qualities of the signs, the winds, and “ certain other general 
matters’’; and the anonymous commentator also (p. 79, 
ed. Wolf) says, προὕπακουστέον ὁ ἥλιος moet. By “‘ the more 
general natures’’ doubtless are meant temperature and 
other things, besides the winds, that go to make up the 



ἀστέρων, THY μὲν τῶν πλανήτων Kal τῶν τῆς ὁμοίας 
κράσεως ἀπλανῶν πρὸς τοὺς ἀέρας τε καὶ τοὺς 
3 / ͵ Site. A ~ σ 
ἀνέμους συνοικείωσιν καὶ ἔτι τὴν τῶν ὅλων δωδε- 
κατημορίων πρός τε τοὺς ἀνέμους καὶ τὰς Wpas, 
σ 1 > ’ 2 a ” ec / 
exaota! δεδηλώκαμεν ἐν τοῖς ἔμπροσθεν. ὑπόλοι- 
θά πον δ᾽ ἂν εἴη καὶ περὶ τῆς ἐπὶ μέρους τῶν ζωδίων 
7 adit jot Liged eda oS : 
φύσεως εἰπεῖν. 

«(α.) Περὶ τῆς μερικῆς πρὸς τὰ κατα- 
στήματα φύσεως τῶν ζῳδίων 

- ~ > 
To μὲν οὖν τοῦ Κριοῦ δωδεκατημόριον Kal’ ὅλου 
μέν ἐστι διὰ τὴν ἰσημερινὴν ἐπισημασίαν βροντῶδες 
ἢ χαλαζῶδες - κατὰ μέρος δὲ ἐν τῷ μᾶλλον καὶ 
ἧττον ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν κατὰ τῶν ἀπλανῶν ἀστέρων 
ἰδιότητος τὰ μὲν προηγούμενα αὐτοῦ ὀμβρώδη καὶ 
: ; 
ἀνεμώδη, τὰ δὲ μέσα εὔκρατα, τὰ δ᾽ ἑπόμενα 
, " - A \ ’, ’ =~ 
καυσώδη Kal λοιμικά, τὰ δὲ βόρεια καυματώδη καὶ 
φθαρτικά, τὰ δὲ νότια κρυσταλλώδη καὶ ὑπόψυχρα. 
\ \ ~ ’ὔ ’, »» σ ΄, 
To δὲ τοῦ Ταύρου δωδεκατημόριον καθ᾽ ὅλου μέν 
ἐστιν ἐπισημαντικὸν ἀμφοτέρων τῶν κράσεων καὶ 
ὑπόθερμον, κατὰ μέρος δὲ τὰ μὲν προηγούμενα 
> ~ \ aA ‘ \ \ τὃ 2 4 

αὐτοῦ, καὶ μάλιστα ta κατὰ τὴν [ΠἸλειάδα," σεισ- 

΄ \ A \ ε ΄ ‘ A / 
μώδη Kal πνευματώδη Kai ὁμιχλώδη, τὰ δὲ μέσα 
ὑγραντικὰ καὶ ψυχρά, τὰ δὲ ἑπόμενα κατὰ τὴν 

ι ἕκαστα VMADE, om. alii Cam. - 

2c» Πλειάδα VMADEGProe., τὰς Πλειάδὰς P (IPot-) 
LNCam. ae a 



of the several planets, we have already, in what pre- 
cedes, explained the familiarity of the planets, and of 
the fixed stars of like temperament,” with the air and 
the winds, as well as that of the signs, as wholes,® 
with the winds and seasons. It would remain to 
speak of the nature of the signs, part by part. 

11. Of the Nature of the Signs, Part by Part, and 
their Effect upon the Weather. 

Now the sign of Aries as a whole, because it marks 
the equinox, is characterized by thunder or hail, but, 
taken part by part, through the variation in degree 
that is due to the special quality of the fixed stars, 
its leading* portion is rainy and windy, its middle 
temperate, and the following part hot and pestil- 
ential. Its northern parts are hot and destructive, 
its southern frosty and chilly. 

The sign of Taurus as a whole is indicative of both 
temperatures and is somewhat hot; but taken part 
by part, its leading portion, particularly near the 
Pleiades, is marked by earthquakes, winds, and 
mists ; its middle moist and cold, and its following 

1j. 4 and 18. ee. 

3 Cf. the chapter on the triangles, i. 18. 

‘Ptolemy characterizes three parts of each sign, leading, 
middle, and following, besides the portions north and 
south of the ecliptic. The “leading’’ portion is so-called 
because it is the part which first rises above the horizon 
in the apparent diurnal movement of the heavens; the 
“‘following’’ portion is the last of the sig